Black Saints in a White ChurchBlack Saints in a White Church
Contemporary African-American Mormons
by Jessie L. Embry

title page:
Black Saints in a White Church:
Contemporary African-American Mormons
Jessie L. Embry
Signature Books Inc. 1994

dedication: To Alan cherry and Roger Launius

copyright page:
© by Signature Books, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Signature Books is a registered trademark of Signature Books, Inc.
Black Saints in a White Church was Printed on acid free paper meeting the permanence of paper
requirements of the American National Standard for Information Scineces.
This book was composed, printed and bound in the United States.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Embry, Jessie L.
Black Saints in a White Church: Contemporary African American Mormons / by Jessie L. Embry.
p. cm.
Includes bibliophrahical references.
1. Afro-American Mormons. 2. Race relations–Religious aspects–Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 3. Race Relations–Religious aspects–Mormon church. 4. Church of jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints–Membership. 5. Mormon Church–Membership
I. Title.
BX8643.A35E42 1994
289.3’089’96073 – dc20 94-13559 CIP
ISBN 1-56085-044-2

Contents:
Acknowledgments [see below]
Introduction [see below]

01 - Black Churches in America
02 - The LDS Church and African- Americans
03 - Impact of the LDS “Negro Policy”
04 - The Oral History Project and Survey
05 - Religious Commitment
06 - Cultural Interaction
07 - Public Acceptance
08 - Social Acceptance
09 - Organizational Issues
10 - Within The Black Community
11 - The LDS African-Americans
Appenix [see below]
Selected Reading

Acknowledgments

[p.vii]In 1985 when Alan Cherry suggested that I do an oral history project on LDS Afro-Americans, I had no idea that eight years later I would be publishing a book on the subject. At the time I was so wrapped up in finishing Mormon Polygamous Families that I was not sure what I would do once that project was finished. Because my mind was elsewhere, Alan’s involvement in the new venture was essential. He developed the outline, contacted the people, and conducted the interviews. As I finished my first book and became more interested in the experiences of black Mormons, he spent hours talking to me. Whatever understanding I have of African Americans and especially LDS Afro-Americans developed from the spark that Alan lit.

Alan and his wife, Janice Marie Barkum Cherry, one of the people interviewed, have continued to encourage me. They never laughed at my cultural naivete; they patiently answered questions when I did not understand black American culture. Alan and Janice are treasured friends.

I am also grateful for all of the people who agreed to be interviewed as part of the LDS Afro-American Oral History Project. While not every one of them is quoted in this book, each helped me in developing my ideas. Since I have read through the interviews several times, I feel as though I know them well. When I visit the Oakland, California, 9th Branch, Rodney Carey laughs and says to whomever is around, “This is the person who knows my life story better than I do.”

I have enjoyed meeting other women and men involved in the interviews. I gained new insights from the eight who spoke at the LDS Afro-American Symposium at Brigham Young University on the tenth [p.viii]anniversary of blacks receiving the priesthood. I have fond memories of meeting Burgess Owens, Nathleen Albright, Johnnie McKoy, Jerri Harwell, Robert Stevenson, Cleeretta Smiley, Cathy Stokes, and Emanuel Reid. I’ll always remember giving a fireside in San Pedro, California, and prize my early morning telephone calls from Beverly Perry. Whenever I hear the hymn “Amazing Grace,” I will remember Gabrielle Smith’s wedding and then recall her accepting me into black circles as an honorary member. I could give numerous examples of where this project has broadened my horizons and enabled me to meet people and understand another culture.

The project not only gave me a chance to meet blacks, I also have had rewarding experiences with people who helped process the interviews. These included Natalie Ethington, Barbara Lyman, Irene Fuja, Kyra Larsen Swain, Rhonda Coursey, Kristine Judd Ireland, Elizabeth Robbins Austin, Julie Greenland, Paul Hillyard, Teresa Yancey Wilson, and Rebecca Ream Vorimo. And while I have not kept in contact with all of them, I value their contribution to the study.

A colleague at BYU once told me that another project I was working on fell in the cracks between sociology and history. I am discovering that much of what I do slips into those crevices. Yet I don’t have the sociological training to pull the material out. I am indebted to Cardell Jacobson, a professor of sociology at BYU, for helping me with the survey, running cross tabs, and answering my questions. I especially appreciate his help in co-authoring two chapters in this book.

Although I am committed to more than simply placing oral history transcripts on the shelf in the BYU library, writing this book was difficult. I had reached a hurdle that I could not get over in 1991 and was ready to give up. Fortunately, Roger D. Launius came to speak at a Redd Center conference that year and encouraged me to keep working on the manuscript. Without his faith, this book would have died.

Once the rough draft was completed, my sister Janet, my ever-faithful friend and critic, edited the manuscript. Then I hired Lavina Fielding Anderson to go through the text. Once her work was completed, Cardell Jacobson, Kris Nelson, and Rebecca Ream Vorimo read the entire manuscript and offered valuable suggestions. Newell Bringhurst loaned me his collection of articles from the LDS Church News. He also read the complete manuscript and gave me suggestions. John [p.ix]Sillito also helped improve the manuscript. In addition, Roger Launius and Armand Mauss read chapters and pointed out weaknesses. Rachel Nathan read the entire edited final copy, and Kris Nelson read the page proofs. They both found some embarrassing errors. Kris Nelson also helped with the index.

During winter semester 1994 at BYU I taught a class on LDS ethnic groups in the United States, and my students read the manuscript. I appreciate their support and encouragement, as well.

Since 1979 when I was hired as the Oral History Program Director at the Charles Redd Center for Western Studies at BYU I have had the opportunity to work with outstanding directors. Thomas G. Alexander and William A. Wilson have been extremely supportive. They have let me select my own projects and then supported me completely. This book is a product of that backing.

Yet when all is said and done, I am the one who wrote the book. I hope that I have done justice to all of these people—especially the men and women whose stories I retell. Several times people have told me that they have used my article in Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought which explored the advantages and disadvantages of separate black branches or integrated wards to better understand the concerns of LDS African Americans. I hope this study will be as useful in promoting racial and ethnic understanding.

Introduction

[p.xi]I grew up in a small Mormon community in northern Utah where everyone belonged to the same church. I only realized that I lived in a “Mormon culture” when my family moved to Iran when I was in elementary school and later to Missouri when I was in junior high school. Even then my parents sought out the LDS church, and while I went to school with children from other backgrounds, my life still revolved around Mormonism.

It took years before I knew I spoke a different religious language than my non-Mormon acquaintances. For me a “stake house” was where Mormons meet in stake conference, not where “steaks” are eaten. I didn’t realize that my definitions of bishop, baptism, and blessings differed from those of Catholic and Protestant Americans.

My contact with African Americans in Logan, Utah, was even more limited. The only blacks in the community were basketball and football players recruited to play for Utah State University. They were my heroes, and I could have qualified for “sports fan of the year.” But I didn’t realize that while I idealized them I also stereotyped them: “All blacks are good athletes.” I didn’t know that other Mormons in the community feared these students and believed that “all black men are oversexed and after white women.”

I was so naive that in Missouri I did not understand why all the black students “got” to sit on the back row. The rest of us had to sit in alphabetical order. The school praised itself on being “liberal” and “integrated.” After all they elected a black basketball player as student body president one semester. Yet as I look back, I realize that whites held all the other leadership positions. There [p.xii]were no blacks in the pep club (where I was readily accepted even though I was a newcomer). The school was integrated, but for the most part blacks were invisible.

I did not really get to know an African American until I met Alan Cherry in 1985. Later I met other blacks and started to see them as individuals rather than stereotypes. I began to feel a part of “them.” I considered it a compliment when Gabrielle Smith implied that I was an honorary African American (although I am sure my Southern grandmother turned over in her grave).

I still knew nothing about African American culture when I attended a Pentecostal service in a black church in Oakland, California. I was the only white in the congregation; I had become the minority. I felt welcomed, but as I listened to the music and the sermon, I realized I had entered another world.

LDS African Americans face the same dilemma as they leave one culture and join a completely new one. Just as when I attended the Pentecostal church, it is not just that the people they meet are a different color. The Mormon church comprises a distinctive new culture. Black Mormons are essentially caught between two different worlds. How are Latter-day Saint African Americans able to make that transfer? How are they accepted into a new culture? What is the reaction of their black friends and relatives? And how do white Mormons respond?

These are not new questions for African Americans. Those who grew up prior to the 1960s dealt with segregated schools, restrooms, and drinking fountains and with designated seating on buses and in theaters. Civil disobedience led to political changes during the 1960s, but not automatically or necessarily to unequivocal acceptance. Integration and discrimination exist together as realities in their lives.

These may be old concerns for some, but they are new ones for Latter-day Saints. Although the Mormon church has expanded to all sectors within American society, its growth among African Americans would have been impossible two decades ago. Up until 1978 black men could not be ordained to the LDS priesthood, and black men and women could not be married in Mormon temples or receive the “temple endowment” ordinance. Mormon missionaries, normally encouraged to share their message with anyone who would listen, were discouraged from teaching blacks. Since the 1978 announcement [p.xiii]lifting the restrictions, missionaries have actively sought out blacks, and many—though not statistically significant—African Americans have joined.

According to surveys, most African Americans are still more comfortable in traditional black churches. But the fact that their ranks in Mormonism have grown to thousands raises questions about what they see in a church that previously excluded them from full participation. This is a question not only for Mormons but for the sociology of religion as well. What changes are taking place in the black community that allow some black members to leave their traditional churches and join another church with such strong ties that it has been called an ethnic group?1 How are blacks accepted, and how do they adapt to new religious teachings?

These questions are not easy to answer. First, it is impossible to find out exactly how many African Americans belong to the LDS church. Membership records do not mention race. But for those who are identifiable, how are they doing in what one historian has called the American “Reader’s Digest” church,2 and how willing are they to share their experiences?

The LDS church is growing outside the United States, most notably in Latin America. It has also grown in Africa, where missionary work was not started until after the 1978 revelation. In areas such as Africa where the majority is black, the number of black members is much easier to determine. This book could study the remarkable growth among blacks throughout the world, yet the experiences of blacks in Africa would be much different than those in the United States, the Caribbean, or Brazil.

This book could also discuss the whys and hows of priesthood restriction. Several important studies have already asked that [p.xiv]question.3 Instead this study is based on oral history interviews and a mail survey conducted with LDS African Americans. The underlying message of this book is that these black Mormons, though sharing a common ethnic group background, are separate individuals joining a religious movement. While they share some common experiences, each man and woman is unique.

This book could have been written as a faith-promoting study along the lines of Hartman and Connie Rector’s No More Strangers (1971-90), and argue, “Look at how well blacks have been accepted into the church.’ Or it could come to the opposite conclusion: “Look at how blacks have been discriminated against.” In this book there are elements of both because blacks have had mixed experiences. Many blacks feel that they are accepted by their white Latter-day Saint counterparts, but not necessarily understood or valued for their cultural differences. Some want more association with other LDS blacks; others want to blend in with the mainstream. I use historical and sociological theories to try to better understand these conflicting experiences. In the end there may be more questions than answers, but I try to provide insight into the experiences of African-American Mormons.

This study is based on two data sets: the LDS Afro-American Oral History Project interviews and the LDS Afro-American Survey responses. In 1985 Alan Cherry, a black Latter-day Saint, suggested that the Charles Redd Center for Western Studies at Brigham Young University conduct oral history interviews with LDS Afro-Americans. The Redd Center agreed and hired Cherry as a consultant. He interviewed a total of 224 black Latter-day Saints.

The interviews were valuable, but they revealed the need for a sample with more focused questions. Therefore, the Redd Center sent a mail survey to black Latter-day Saints throughout the United States. Approximately 200 people returned the survey. This book is a “group [p.xv]biography” of those who participated in the oral history project and the survey.

The perception of the Mormon church has been changing since the 1950s. It is generally no longer considered a “cult.” But it has not completely broken out of its western American model, and blacks are not completely integrated. Consequently the story of African American Mormons is not without problems. Yet despite the dilemmas, most black Latter-day Saints look beyond the past to the role they can play in the church. The LDS African American experience is one of integration and discrimination, yet it promises hope for assimilation as black and white Mormons replace stereotypes with individual faces.

Notes:

1. Sociologists Armand L. Mauss and Keith Parry discuss the concept of Mormonism as an ethnic group. See Mauss, ‘Mormons as Ethnics: Variable Historical and International Implications of an Appealing Concept,’ and Parry, “Mormons as Ethnics: A Canadian Perspective,” in B. Y. Card et al, The Mormon Presence in Canada (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1990).

2. Jan Shipps, in Martin E. Marty, “The Protestant Experience and Perspective,” American Religious Values and the Future of America (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978), 40-41.

3. See Newell G. Bringhurst, Saints, Slaves, and Blacks: The Changing Place of Blacks Within Mormonism (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981); and Lester E. Bush and Armand L. Mauss, eds., Neither White Nor Blacks: Mormon Scholars Confront the Race Issue in a Universal Church (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1984).

Appendix
INTERVIEWS BY ALAN CHERRY
Name Date Place
Nathleen Albright 23 Oct. 1985 Lake Los Angeles, CA
Reginald Allen 25 Sept. 1986 Brooklyn, NY
Alvin Alphabet 30 May 1987 Carrollton, GA
Ellen M. Alphabet 30 May 1987 Carrollton, GA
Mason Anderson 21 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Dexter Andrews 5 June 1987 Jackson, MS
Sylvia V. Arnold 18 Oct. 1986 Richmond, VA
Leo Arrington 7 Nov. 1986 Honolulu, HI
Joell Aull 12 Feb. 1987 Provo, UT
Alva Baltimore 13 Oct. 1986 Washington, D.C.
Elizabeth Baltimore 12 Oct. 1986 Washington, D.C.
Mary Lucile Bankhead 11 Apr. 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Betty Wright Baunchand 10 June 1987 Baker, LA
Clement Charles Biggs 3 June 1987 Birmingham, AL
Lula M. Biggs 3 June 1987 Birmingham, AL
Kenneth Bolton, Sr. 6 June 1987 Jackson, MS
Darlene Bowden 18 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Denorris Clarence Bradley 24 Jan. 1986 Winston-Salem, NC
Martha Branigan 17 Feb. 1987 Provo, UT
Betty Ann Bridgeforth 23 Mar. 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Ruffm Bridgeforth 16 Mar. 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Janet Brooks 15 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Angela Brown 25 Jan. 1986 Greensboro, NC
Gladys Brown 20 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Norman Lee Brown 25 Jan. 1986 Greensboro, NC
Robert Coleman Brown 10 Oct. 1986 Beltsville, MD
Samuella Brown 12 Mar. 1988 Columbus, OH
Wesley Jennings Brown 9 June 1987 Baton Rouge, LA
Calvaline Burnett 2 June 1987 Birmingham, AL
Edwin Allen Burwell 25 Jan. 1986 Greensboro, NC
Retha Burwell 25 Jan. 1986 Greensboro, NC
Emanuel Canaday 15 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Rodney Carey 14 Oct. 1985 Oakland, CA
Margaret Carter 12 Oct. 1985 Danville, CA
Vanessa A. Carter 15 May 1985 Ogden, UT
Willie Carter 11 Oct. 1985 Danville, CA
Gilmore H. Chappell 4 Oct. 1986 Philadelphia, PA
Charles Frazier Chisolm 23 Jan. 1986 Asheville, NC
Donna Chisolm 18 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Marie Edington Chisolm 23 Jan. 1986 Asheville, NC
Crystral Clark 26 Jan. 1986 Raleigh, NC
Matt Clark 24 Jan. 1986 Raleigh, NC
Samuel Coggs 5 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Vivian Collier 18 Oct. 1986 Richmond, VA
Marva Collins 3 Oct. 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Sonya Isilma Collins 13 Sept. 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Linda Cooper 14 Oct. 1985 Oakland, CA
William L. Cox 1 Feb. 1986 Greenville, NC
Bobby Darby 16 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Darrin Bret Davis 9 Jan. 1985 Provo, UT
Florita Davis 20 Oct. 1985 Los Angeles, CA
Sharon J. Davis 10 Feb. 1985 Provo, UT
Alfonzo Day 21 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Emma J. I. Dickerson 7 Oct. 1986 Philadelphia, PA
Anita Durphey 16 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Carol Edwards 10 Oct. 1986 McLean, VA
J. Joseph Faulkner 1 June 1987 Gadsden, AL
James Ashley Fennell II 1 Feb. 1986 Greenville, NC
Ruth Fields 28 Oct. 1985 Chandler, AZ
Gayla Floyd 6 Nov. 1986 Laie, HI
Sean Floyd 6 Nov. 1986 Laie, HI
Van E. Floyd 9 Nov. 1986 Laie, HI
Sherrie Honore Franklin 13 June 1987 New Orleans, LA
Darryl K. Gaines 18 Jan. 1986 Rock Hill, SC
Janis R. Garrison 10 May 1985 Provo, UT
George Garwood 1 May 1985 Ogden, UT
David Diamond Gathers 18, 22 May 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
David E. Gathers 28 Jan. 1986 Pinebluff, NC
Mazie Gathers 27 Jan. 1986 Pinebluff, NC
Romona Gibbons 30 Aug. 1985 Orem, UT
Peter Gillo 7 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Sarah Gripper 18 Mar. 1988 Springfield, IL
Jeri Allen Thornton Hale 14 Feb. 1985 Provo, UT
Keith Norman Hamilton 26 Aug. 1985 Provo, UT
Edward Harris 15 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Gehrig Harris 10 June 1987 White Castle, LA
Mary Harris 17 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Gayle Harrison 12 June 1987 New Orleans, LA
Donald L. Harwell 1 May 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Chester Lee Hawkins 1 Mar. 1985 Provo, UT
Betty Jean Hill 7 Sept. 1985 Provo, UT
Leonard Hill 4 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Diane Amelia Hughes 16 June 1987 Gulfport, MS
Elijah Jackson, Jr. 7 Nov. 1988 Laie, HI
Lester Jefferson 5 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Hazel Mary Jenkins 3 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Pauline Jenkins 16 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
William Jenkins 15 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Aurbie Rayford Johnson 28 May 1987 Lithonia, GA
Cecelia Johnson 6 Oct. 1986 Philadelphia, PA
James Johnson 20 Jan. 1986 Monroe, NC
JuanitaJohnson 7 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Richard Johnson 6 Oct. 1986 Philadelphia, PA
Thomas Harrison Johnson 7 Oct. 1987 Philadelphia, PA
Virgina Johnson 22 Oct. 1985 Los Angeles, CA
William T. Johnson, Jr. 17 June 1987 Norcross, GA
Dorothy Gray Jones 7 Oct. 1986 Philadelphia, PA
Marvin Arthur Jones 9 Aug. 1985 Cedar City, UT
Eva Joseph 12 Oct. 1985 Oakland, CA
Ethel Ann Kelly 29 Sept. 1986 New York City, NY
Candace Kennedy 28 June 1986 Los Angeles, CA
Helen Kennedy 11 Apr. 1986 Ogden, UT
Raymond W. Keys 14 Oct. 1986 Richmond, VA
Barbara Lancaster 10 Mar. 1988 Masillon, OH
Charles Calvin Lancaster 10 Mar. 1988 Masillon, OH
Delores Lang 19 Oct. 1985 Los Angeles, CA
Robert Lang 21 Oct. 1985 Los Angeles, CA
Beverly Latimer 27 Sept. 1986 East Elmhurst, NY
Randolph E. Latimer 28 Sept. 1986 East Elmhurst, NY
Carol Elaine Lawrence 25 Feb. 1985 Provo, UT
Vincent Lewis 15 Oct. 1985 Pittsburg, CA
Ollie Mae Lofton 27 June 1985 Provo, UT
Richard Lowe 7 Nov. 1986 Hauula, HI
Cleolevia Lyons 9 Mar. 1988 Jackson, MI
Kenneth K. Mack 29 Apr. 1985 Logan, UT
James Mallory 28 May 1987 Stone Mountain, GA
Cherrie Lee Maples 12 Oct. 1986 Washington, D.C.
Melvin McCoy 11 Mar. 1988 Barberton, OH
Sharon McCoy 11 Mar. 1988 Barberton, OH
Clara Evans McIlwain 11 Oct. 1986 McLean, VA
Johnnie McKoy 24 Jan. 1986 Greensboro, NC
Gloria McLaughlin 12 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Alfred McNair 14 June 1987 Gautur, MS
Melvin Mitchell 12 Mar. 1988 Columbus, OH
Carrie Elizabeth Morris 18 Oct. 1986 Richmond, VA
Arlene Mosley 30 May 1987 Decatur, GA
Dan Mosley 26 Oct. 1985 Phoenix, AZ
Joan Mosley 28 Oct. 1985 Phoenix, AZ
Mavis Odoms 15 Oct. 1985 Fremont, CA
Mavis Odoms 15 Oct. 1985 Fremont, CA
Bonita O’Neal 12 Mar. 1988 Columbus, OH
Burgess Owens 29 Sept. 1986 Melville, NY
Esther B. Owens 13 Oct. 1986 Richmond, VA
Josephine Owens 26 Sept. 1986 Melville, NY
Robert A. Owens 13 Oct. 1986 Richmond, VA
Natalie Palmer-Taylor 15 Mar. 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Janis E. Parker 2 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Wilie Perry Perkins 1 Feb. 1986 Greenville, NC
Beverly Perry 21 Oct. 1985 San Pedro, CA
John W. Phoenix 10 Oct. 1986 Arlington, VA
Audrey Marie Pinnock 16 May 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Barbara Ann Pixton 5 Nov. 1986 Honolulu, HI
Lois W. Poret 13 June 1987 New Orleans, GA
Frank Porter 4 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Tom Porter 9 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Martha A. Poston 29 May 1987 Dunwoody, GA
Arthur Preston 1 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Drianda Preston 1 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Elizabeth Pulley 19 Oct. 1985 Los Angeles, CA
Melonie Quick 20 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Annette A. Reid 20 Feb. 1985 Provo, UT
Emanuel Lenard Reid 13 Feb. 1985 Provo, UT
Linda Reid 12 Feb. 1987 Provo, UT
Janet Rice 18 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Leonard Rice 18 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Debra Dionne Gooden Rodriguez 13 June 1987 New Orleans, LA
Junious Edwards Ross 16 Oct. 1985 San Jose, CA
Elijah Royster 10 Nov. 1986 Kula, Maui, HI
Doris Russell 27 June 1987 Los Angeles, CA
Brenda Sanderlin 16 Oct. 1985 San Jose, CA
Ed Scroggins 26 Oct. 1985 Phoenix, AZ
Rhonda Shelby 25 Feb. 1985 Provo, UT
Carl Angelo Simmons 16 May 1985 Logan, UT
James Henry Sinquefield 30 Mar. 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Cleeretta Henderson Smiley 10 Oct. 1986 Silver Spring, MD
Gabriele Smith 26, 27 Sept., 2 Oct. 1985 Provo, UT
Gwendolyn Lucille Jones Smith 13 June 1987 New Orleans, LA
Joseph C. Smith 12 Mar. 1985 Provo, UT
Marie Smith 4 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Marilyn Smith 12 Mar. 1985 Provo, UT
Mary E. Smith 6 June 1987 Jackson, MS
Hattie Soil 7 Mar. 1987 Chicago, IL
Victor Soil 7 Mar. 1987 Chicago, IL
Deborah Spearman 7 Oct. 1987 Philadelphia, PA
Boris Spencer 17 May 1985 Logan, UT
Rosetta Spencer 3 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Paul Staples 6 Nov. 1986 Honolulu, HI
Robert Lee Stevenson 31 May 1987 Carrollton, GA
Ardelia Stokes 2 Sept. 1985 Salt Lake City, UT
Catherine M. Stokes 6 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Rosa Lee Green Taylor 26 Oct. 1985 Phoenix, AZ
Rose S. Taylor 17 Oct. 1986 Chesterfield, VA
Thomas Ear Taylor 18 Oct. 1986 Chesterfield, VA
Marilyn Larine Thomas 5 June 1987 Jackson, MS
Natalia Thompson 5 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
William Thompson 28 May 1987 Decatur, GA
Larry Troutman 14 Oct. 1985 Oakland, CA
Vivian Troutman 14 Oct. 1985 Oakland, CA
Burl Turner, Jr. 11 June 1987 Baton Rouge, LA
Gloria Turner 11 June 1987 Baton Rouge, LA
Susan Walker 2 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Karen Tonette Ward 6 June 1987 Jackson, MS
Maxine Wardlaw 22 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Katherine Warren 12 June 1987 New Orleans, LA
Benjamin R. Washington 15 Jan. 1986 Charlotte, NC
Lee Washington 23 Oct. 1985 Pasadena, CA
Jerry Watley 2 June 1987 Birmingham, AL
Phillip Webb 16 Mar. 1988 St. Louis, MO
Margie Ray White 16 Jan. 1986 Monroe, NC
Annie Wilbur 11 Aug. 1985 Provo, UT
Mary Angel Wilbur 1 Oct. 1986 New Kensington, PA
Winston A. Wilkinson 10 Oct. 1986 Olney, MD
Emma Williams 23 Jan. 1986 Hickory, NC
Linda Williams 3 Mar. 1988 Chicago, IL
Cynthia Willis 17 Oct. 1985 Sunnyvale, CA
Eva Willis 17 Mar. 1987 St. Louis, MO
Jerry Willis 14 Mar. 1987 St. Louis, MO
Albert L. Wilson 2 Oct. 1986 Williamsport, PA
Doris Marie Wilson 2 Oct. 1986 Williamsport, PA
Nathaniel Womble 29 May 1987 Atlanta, GA
Ruby Womble 27 May 1987 Atlanta, GA
Dorothy Mae Wright 9 June 1987 Baton Rouge, LA
Dunk Wright 9 June 1987 Baton Rouge, LA
Jess Wright, Jr. 1 June 1987 Gadsden, AL
Michelle Evette Wright 9 June 1987 Baton Rouge, LA
Richardo Wright 21 Oct. 1986 Aldie, VA
Shirley Walker Wright 11 June 1987 Baton Rouge, LA
Van C. Wright, Sr. 10 June 1987 Baton Rouge, LA
Virginia K. Wright 14 Oct. 1986 Richmond, VA
Delphrine Garcia Young 22 Oct. 1985 Los Angeles, CA
INTERVIEWS BY JESSIE L. EMBRY

Alan Cherry

24, 25 Apr. 1985 Provo, UT
Charles W. Smith, Jr. 17 Mar. 1988 Provo, UT

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