Neither White nor Black
Lester E. Bush, Jr. and Armand L. Mauss, eds.

Appendix:
Authoritative Statements on the Status of Blacks

Neither White Nor BlackAugust 17, 1949
The attitude of the Church with reference to Negroes remains as it has always stood. It is not a matter of the declaration of a policy but of direct commandment from the Lord, on which is founded the doctrine of the Church from the days of its organization, to the effect that Negroes may become members of the Church but that they are not entitled to the priesthood at the present time. The prophets of the Lord have made several statements as to the operation of the principle. President Brigham Young said: “Why are so many of the inhabitants of the earth cursed with a skin of blackness? It comes in consequence of their fathers rejecting the power of the holy priesthood, and the law of God. They will go down to death. And when all the rest of the children have received their blessings in the holy priesthood, then that curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will then come up and possess the priesthood, and receive all the blessings which we now are entitled to.”

President Wilford Woodruff made the following statement: “The day will come when all that race will be redeemed and possess all the blessings which we now have.”

The position of the Church regarding the Negro may be understood when another doctrine of the Church is kept in mind, namely, that the conduct of spirits in the premortal existence has some determining effect upon the conditions and circumstances under which these spirits take on mortality and that while the details of this principle have not been made known, the mortality is a privilege that is given to those who maintain their first estate; and that the worth of the privilege is so great that spirits are willing to come to earth and take on bodies no matter what the handicap may be as to the kind of bodies they are to secure; and that among the handicaps, failure of the right to enjoy in mortality the blessings of the priesthood is a handicap which spirits are willing to assume in order that they might come to earth. Under this principle there is no injustice whatsoever involved in this deprivation as to the holding of the priesthood by the Negroes.

The First Presidency

[p.222]December 15, 1969
To General Authorities, Regional Representatives of the Twelve, Stake Presidents, Mission Presidents, and Bishops.

Dear Brethren:
In view of confusion that has arisen, it was decided at a meeting of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve to restate the position of the Church with regard to the Negro both in society and in the Church.

First, may we say that we know something of the sufferings of those who are discriminated against in a denial of their civil rights and Constitutional privileges. Our early history as a church is a tragic story of persecution and oppression. Our people repeatedly were denied the protection of the law. They were driven and plundered, robbed and murdered by mobs, who in many instances were aided and abetted by those sworn to uphold the law. We as a people have experienced the bitter fruits of civil discrimination and mob violence.

We believe that the Constitution of the United States was divinely inspired, that it was produced by “wise men” whom God raised up for this “very purpose,” and that the principles embodied in the Constitution are so fundamental and important that, if possible, they should be extended “for the rights and protection” of all mankind.

In revelations received by the first prophet of the Church in this dispensation, Joseph Smith (1805-1844), the Lord made it clear that it is “not right that any man should be in bondage one to another.” These words were spoken prior to the Civil War. From these and other revelations have sprung the Church’s deep and historic concern with man’s free agency and our commitment to the sacred principles of the Constitution.

It follows, therefore, that we believe the Negro, as well as those of other races, should have his full Constitutional privileges as a member of society, and we hope that members of the Church everywhere will do their part as citizens to see that these rights are held inviolate. Each citizen must have equal opportunities and protection under the law with reference to civil rights.

However, matters of faith, conscience, and theology are not within the purview of the civil law. The first amendment to the Constitution specifically provides that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.”

The position of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints affecting those of the Negro race who choose to join the Church falls wholly within the category of religion. It has no bearing upon matters of civil rights. In no case or degree does it deny to the Negro his full privileges as a citizen of the nation.

This position has no relevancy whatever to those who do not wish to [p.223] join the Church. Those individuals, we suppose, do not believe in the divine origin and nature of the church, nor that we have the priesthood of God. Therefore, if they feel we have no priesthood, they should have no concern with any aspect of our theology on priesthood so long as that theology does not deny any man his Constitutional privileges.

A word of explanation concerning the position of the Church.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints owes its origin, its existence, and its hope for the future to the principle of continuous revelation. “We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the Kingdom of God.”

From the beginning of this dispensation, Joseph Smith and all succeeding presidents of the Church have taught that Negroes, while spirit children of a common Father, and the progeny of our earthly parents Adam and Eve, were not yet to receive the priesthood, for reasons which we believe are known to God, but which He has not made fully known to man.

Our living prophet, President David O. McKay, has said, “The seeming discrimination by the Church toward the Negro is not something which originated with man; but goes back into the beginning with God….

“Revelation assures us that this plan antedates man’s mortal existence, extending back to man’s pre-existent state.”

President McKay has also said, “Sometime in God’s eternal plan, the Negro will be given the right to hold the priesthood.”

Until God reveals His will in this matter, to him whom we sustain as a prophet, we are bound by that same will. Priesthood, when it is conferred on any man comes as a blessing from God, not of men.

We feel nothing but love, compassion, and the deepest appreciation for the rich talents, endowments, and the earnest strivings of our Negro brothers and sisters. We are eager to share with men of all races the blessings of the Gospel. We have no racially-segregated congregations.

Were we the leaders of an enterprise created by ourselves and operated only according to our own earthly wisdom, it would be a simple thing to act according to popular will. But we believe that this work is directed by God and that the conferring of the priesthood must await His revelation. To do otherwise would be to deny the very premise on which the Church is established.

We recognize that those who do not accept the principle of modern revelation may oppose our point of view. We repeat that such would not wish for membership in the Church, and therefore the question of priesthood should hold no interest for them. Without prejudice they should grant us the privilege afforded under the Constitution to exercise our [p.224]chosen form of religion just as we must grant all others a similar privilege. They must recognize that the question of bestowing or withholding priesthood in the Church is a matter of religion and not a matter of Constitutional right.

We extend the hand of friendship to men everywhere and the hand of fellowship to all who wish to join the Church and partake of the many rewarding opportunities to be found therein.

We join with those throughout the world who pray that all of the blessings of the gospel of Jesus Christ may in due time of the Lord become available to men of faith everywhere. Until that time comes we must trust in God, in His wisdom and in His tender mercy.

Meanwhile we must strive harder to emulate His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, whose new commandment it was that we should love one another. In developing that love and concern for one another, while awaiting revelations yet to come, let us hope that with respect to these religious differences, we may gain reinforcement for understanding and appreciation for such differences. They challenge our common similarities, as children of one Father, to enlarge the out-reachings of our divine souls.

Faithfully your brethren,

The First Presidency
By Hugh B. Brown
N. Eldon Tanner

June 8, 1978
To All General and Local Priesthood Officers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Throughout the World

Dear Brethren:
As we have witnessed the expansion of the work of the Lord over the earth, we have been grateful that people of many nations have responded to the message of the restored gospel, and have joined the Church in ever-increasing numbers. This, in turn, has inspired us with a desire to extend to every worthy member of the Church all of the privileges and blessings which the gospel affords.

Aware of the promises made by the prophets and presidents of the Church who have preceded us that at some time, in God’s eternal plan, all of our brethren who are worthy may receive the priesthood, and witnessing the faithfulness of those from whom the priesthood has been withheld, we have pleaded long and earnestly in behalf of these, our faithful brethren, [p.225] spending many hours in the Upper Room of the Temple supplicating the Lord for divine guidance.

He has heard our prayers, and by revelation has confirmed that the long-promised day has come when every faithful, worthy man in the Church may receive the holy priesthood, with power to exercise its divine authority, and enjoy with his loved ones every blessing that flows therefrom, including the blessings of the temple. Accordingly, all worthy male members of the Church may be ordained to the priesthood without regard for race or color. Priesthood leaders are instructed to follow the policy of carefully interviewing all candidates for ordination to either the Aaronic or the Melchizedek Priesthood to insure that they meet the established standards for worthiness.

We declare with soberness that the Lord has now made known His will for the blessing of all His children throughout the earth who will hearken to the voice of His authorized servants, and prepare themselves to receive every blessing of the gospel.

Sincerely yours,
The First Presidency
Spencer W. Kimball
N. Eldon Tanner
Marion G. Romney

Chronological Bibliography on the Negro Doctrine

[p.226]The past two decades have seen such a remarkable number of studies on Mormon attitudes toward blacks that it is easy to forget that the subject did not originate in the mid-sixties. The following bibliography offers a reasonably comprehensive, though not exhaustive, chronology of the most significant secondary source literature on this subject. It does not attempt to include the equally voluminous newspaper and news magazine coverage which also began in earnest during the mid-sixties. Those interested in this news media side of the history should consult Dennis L. Lythgoe, “The Changing Image of Mormonism,” Dialogue 3 (Winter 1968): 45-58; Stephen W. Stathis and Dennis L. Lythgoe, “Mormonism in the Nineteen-Seventies: The Popular Perception,” Dialogue 10 (Spring 1977): 95-113; “Among the Mormons” press bibliographies by Linda Thatcher in Dialogue 11 (Winter 1978): 104-11 and 12 (Winter 1979): 114-26; and Stephen W. Stathis, “Mormonism and the Periodical Press: A Change is Underway,” Dialogue 14 (Summer 1981): 48-73.

1900-1949

“Are Negroes Children of Adam?” Millennial Star 65 (3 Dec. 1903): 776-78.

“The Negro and the Priesthood.” Liahona, The Elders’ Journal 5 (1908): 1164-67.

Smith, Joseph Fielding, Jr., “The Negro and the Priesthood,” Improvement Era 27 (April 1924): 564-65.

Beller, Jack, “Negro Slaves in Utah,” Utah Historical Quarterly 2 (Oct. 1929): 123-26.

Smith, Joseph Fielding, Jr., The Way to Perfection. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1931, esp. ch. 7 (“Appointment of Lineage”), 15 (“The Seed of Cain”), and 16 (“The Seed of Cain After the Flood”).

Brodie, Fawn M. No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945.

Christensen, James Boyd. “A Social Survey of the Negro Population of Salt Lake City, Utah” (M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1948).

First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “First Presidency Statement [on blacks], August 17, 1949,” Historical Department Library and Archives Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day [p.227] Saints, hereafter LDS Church Archives. See text in Appendix.

1950-59

Nelson, Lowry. “Mormons and the Negro.” The Nation 174 (24 May 1952): 488.

Bennett, Wallace R. “The Negro in Utah.” Utah Law Review 3 (Spring 1953): 340-48.

Petersen, Mark E. “Race Problems—As They Affect the Church.” Address at Brigham Young University, 27 Aug. 1954. LDS Church Archives.

Bennett, Wallace R. “The Legal Status of the Negro in Utah,” in Symposium on the Negro in Utah, Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, Weber College, 20 Nov. 1954.

Cole, Harmon O. “The Status of the Negro in Utah.” Ibid.

Smith, Elmer R. “The Social Status of the Negro in Utah.” Ibid.

Kirkpatrick, L. H. “The Negro and the L.D.S. Church.” Pen Magazine, Winter 1954, pp. 12-13, 29.

Smith, Elmer R., The Status of the Negro in Utah. Salt Lake City NAACP Salt Lake Branch, 1956.

Richardson, Arthur M. That Ye May Not Be Deceived Salt Lake City, 1957?.

Christenson, J. B. “Negro Slavery in the Utah Territory.” Phylon Quarterly 13 (Oct. 1957): 298-305.

McConkie, Bruce R., Mormon Doctrine. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1958, esp. entries on “Negroes,” “Cain,” Ham,” “Pre-existence,” “Priesthood,” and “Races of Men.”

Caldwell, Gaylon L. “Moral and Religious Aspects of the Status of the Negro in Utah.” Western Humanities Review 13 (1959): 102-6.

1960-64

Stewart, John J. Mormonism and the Negro. Orem, Utah: Community Press, 1960.

Berrett, William E., “The Church and the Negroid People.” Ibid., pp. 1-24.

Dyer, Alvin R., “For What Purpose?” Address to a missionary conference, Oslo, Norway, 18 March 1961. Widely distributed in typescript. LDS Church Archives.

Moyle, Henry D., “What of the Negro?” Address to the French East Mission, Geneva, Switzerland, 30 Oct. 1961. LDS Church Archives.

[p.228]Shipps, Jan B. “Second-Class Saints.” Colorado Quarterly 11 (1962-63): 183-90.

Oliver, David H., A Negro on Mormonism. Salt Lake City: D. H. Oliver, 1963). Experiences of a non-Mormon black in Salt Lake City.

Tanner, Jerald and Sandra Tanner. The Negro in Mormon Theology. Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm Co., 1963.

Nye, Jeff, “Memo from a Mormon,” Look 27 (22 Oct. 1963): 74-78.

Duncan, Adam M. “Civil Rights in Utah: A Concept of Race and an Attitude.” Utah Academy of Sciences, Art, and Letters, Utah State University, 9 Nov. 1963. Frame, Robert M. The Negro Question. N.p., May 1964.

Dutson, Roldo Van Leuven. “A Study of the Attitude of the Latter-day Saint Church, in the Territory of Utah, Toward Slavery as it Pertained to the Indian as well as the Negro from 1847 to 1865.” Ph.D. diss., Brigham Young University, 1964.

Heywood, Yates, The Negro Question Resolved. Salt Lake City: Paragon Press, 1964.

1965-69

Foster, Donald L. “Unique Gospel in Utah.” Christian Century 82 (14 July 1965): 890-92.

Davidson, Glen W. “Mormon Missionaries and the Race Question.” Christian Century 82 (29 Sept. 1965): 1183-1186.

Carter, Kate B., The Negro Pioneer. Salt Lake City: Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, 1965.

Tanner, Jerald and Tanner, Sandra. Joseph Smith’s Curse Upon the Negro. Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm Co., 1965.

Lamb, John. “My Responsibility.” Improvement Era 69 (Jan. 1966): 36-37. Experience of a black Mormon.

Brewer, David L., “Utah Elites and Utah Racial Norms.” Ph.D. diss., University of Utah, 1966.

Brodie, Fawn M. No Man Knows My History. 2nd ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966, esp. supplement.

Eddins, Boyd L. “The Mormons and the Civil War,” M.A. thesis, Utah State University, 1966.

Lythgoe, Dennis L. “Negro Slavery in Utah.” M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1966.

Woodbury, Naomi Felicia. “A Legacy of Intolerance: Nineteenth Century Pro-slavery Propaganda and the Mormon Church Today.” M.A. thesis, UCLA, 1966.

[p.229]Mauss, Armand L., “Mormonism and Secular Attitudes toward Negroes.” Pacific Sociological Review 9 (Fall 1966): 91-99.

Turner, Wallace. The Mormon Establishment. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1966, esp. ch. 8 (“The Anti-Negro Doctrine”) and 9 (“Will the Negro Doctrine Change?”).

McConkie, Bruce R. Mormon Doctrine. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1966. See 1958 ed.

“Negroes and Mormons, Romney and God.” Reveille 2 (April 1967): 6-10.

Lund, John L. The Church and the Negro: A Discussion of Mormons, Negroes and the Priesthood. Salt Lake City: Paramount Publishers, 1967.

Tanner, Jerald and Sandra Tanner. The Negro in Mormon Theology. Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm Co., 1967.

Jennings, Warren A. “Factors in the Destruction of the Mormon Press in Missouri, 1833.” Utah Historical Quarterly 35 (Winter 1967): 56-76.

Lythgoe, Dennis L. “Negro Slavery and Mormon Doctrine.” Western Humanities Review 21 (1967): 327-38.

Mauss, Armand L., “Mormonism and the Negro: Faith, Folklore and Civil Rights.” Dialogue 4 (1967): 19-39.

Whalen, William J. The Latter-day Saints in the Modern Day World. rev. ed. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1967, esp. Ch. 16 (“Mormonism and the Negro”), pp. 245-57.

McMurrin, Sterling M. “The Negroes Among the Mormons.” Address to the Annual Banquet, Salt Lake Chapter NAACP, 21 June 1968.

Maag, Margaret J. “Discrimination Against the Negro in Utah and Institutional Efforts to Eliminate It.” M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1968.

Ramjoue, George. “The Negro in Utah: A Geographical Study in Population.” M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1968.

Bowles, Carey C. A Mormon Negro Views the Church. Maplewood, N.J.: Carey Bowles, 1968. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Benson, Ezra Taft. Civil Rights: Tool of Communist Deception. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1968.

Douglas, Ella Lewis, and Armand L. Mauss. “Religious and Secular Factors in the Race Attitudes of Logan, Utah, Residents.” Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 45:2 (1968).

First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “First Presidency Statement [on blacks], December 15, 1969,” LDS Church Archives. Quoted in Appendix.

[p.230]Bush, Lester E., Jr. “A Commentary on Stephen G. Taggart’s Mormonism’s Negro Policy: Social and Historical Origins.” Dialogue 4 (Winter 1969): 86-103.

1970-74

Reed, William F. “The Other Side of the ‘Y’.” Sports Illustrated, 26 Jan. 1970, pp. 38-39.

Mauss, Armand L. “Mormonism and Minorities.” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1970.

Clark, Wynetta Martin. I am a Negro Mormon. Ogden, Utah: n. pub., 1970). Experiences of a black Mormon.

Taggart, Stephen G. Mormonism’s Negro Policy: Social and Historical Origins. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1970.

Tanner, Jerald and Sandra Tanner. Mormons and Negroes. Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm Co., 1970.

Brewer, David L. “Religious Resistance to Changing Beliefs about Race.” Pacific Sociological Review 13 (Summer 1970): 163-70.

Brodie, Fawn M., “Can We Manipulate the Past?” First Annual American West Lecture, University of Utah, 3 Oct. 1970.

Cherry, Alan Gerald. It’s You and Me, Lord! Provo, Utah: Trilogy Arts Publication, 1970. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Trank, Douglas M. “The Negro and the Mormons: A Church in Conflict.” Western Speech 35 (Fall 1970): 220-30.

Walton, Brian. “A University’s Dilemma: B.Y.U. and Blacks.” Dialogue 6 (Spring 1971): 31-36.

Monson, Farrell Ray. “History of the South African Mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1853-1970.” M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1971.

Lythgoe, Dennis L. “Negro Slavery in Utah.” Utah Historical Quarterly 39 (Winter 1971): 40-54.

Cherry, Alan, “A Negro’s Life Changed.” In Hartman Rector and Connie Rector, eds, No More Strangers. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1971, pp. 90-99. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Brodie, Fawn M. No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith. 2nd ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971, esp. supplement.

Mauss, Armand L. “Moderation in All Things: Political and Social Outlooks of Modern Urban Mormons.” Dialogue 7 (Spring 1972): 57-69. Esp. pp. 61-67, “The Race Question.”

Martin, Wynetta Willis. Black Mormon Tells Her Story. Salt Lake City: Hawkes Publications, 1972, revised 1972. Experiences of a black Mormon.

[p.231]Hawkes, John D. “Why Can’t the Negro Hold the Priesthood?” Ibid., pp. 81-94.

Bush, Lester E., Jr., “Compilation on the Negro in Mormonism.” 1972 Documentary sourcebook. Lee Library Special Collections, Brigham Young University; and LDS Church Archives.

White, O. Kendall, Jr. “Mormonism’s Anti-Black Policy and Prospects for Change.” Journal of Religious Thought 29 (Autumn-Winter, 1972): 39-60.

O’Dea, Thomas F. “Sources of Strain in Mormon History Reconsidered.” in Marvin S. Hill and James B. Allen, eds. Mormonism and American Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

Bush, Lester E., Jr. “Mormonism’s Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview.” Dialogue 8 (Spring 1973): 11-68.

England, Eugene. “The Mormon Cross.” Dialogue 8 (Spring 1973): 78-86.

Nibley, Hugh. “The Best Possible Test.” Dialogue 8 (Spring 1973): 73-77.

Thomasson, Gordon C. “Lester Bush’s Historical Overview: Other Perspectives.” Dialogue 8 (Spring 1973): 69-72.

Trank, Douglas Monty. “A Rhetorical Analysis of the Rhetoric Emerging from the Mormon-Black Controversy.” Ph.D. diss., University of Utah, 1973.

Douglas, Norman. “The Sons of Lehi and the Seed of Cain: Racial Myths in the Mormon Scriptures and their Relevance to the Pacific Islands.” Journal of Religious History 8 (June 1974): 90-104.

Hartley, William G. “Samuel D. Chambers.” New Era 4 (June 1974): 46-50.

Nelson, Lowry. “Mormons and Blacks.” Christian Century 91 (Oct. 1974): 949-50.

1975-79

Bringhurst, Newell G. “‘A Servant of Servants … Cursed as Pertaining to the Priesthood’: Mormon Attitudes toward Slavery and the Black Man 1830-1880.” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Davis, 1975.

Wolfinger, Henry J. “A Test of Faith: Jane Elizabeth James and the Origins of the Utah Black Community.” Clark S. Knowlton, ed., Social Accommodation in Utah. American West Occasional Papers. Salt Lake City, 1975: 126-72.

Coleman, Ronald G. “Blacks in Utah History: An Unknown Legacy.” In Helen Z. Papanikolas, ed. The Peoples of Utah. Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1976.

[p.232] Wells, Elmer E. “Unjustifiable Denial of Priesthood to Black Mormons.” Negro History Bulletin 40 (July 1977): 725-27.

Bringhurst, Newell G. “Forgotten Mormon Perspectives: Slavery, Race, and the Black Man as Issues Among Non-Utah Latter-day Saints, 1844-1873.” Michigan History 61 (Winter 1977): 353-70.

Hill, Donna. Joseph Smith: The First Mormon. Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1977, esp. ch. 12 (“Blacks in the Early Church”), pp. 379-94.

Clark, Michael J. “Improbable Ambassadors: Black Soldiers at Fort Douglas, 1896-99.” Utah Historical Quarterly 46 (Summer 1978): 282-301.

Coleman, Ronald G. “Utah’s Black Pioneers: 1847-1869.” UMOJA: A Scholarly Journal of Black Studies, new series, 11 (Summer 1978): 95-110.

Bringhurst, Newell G. “An Ambiguous Decision: The Implementation of Mormon Priesthood Denial for the Black Man—A Re-examination.” Utah Historical Quarterly 46 (Winter 1978): 45-64.

First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “First Presidency Statement [on blacks], February 22, 1978.” LDS Church Archives.

First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “First Presidency Statement [on priesthood], June 8, 1978.” LDS Church Archives, also quoted in full in the Appendix.

Briscoe, David, and George Buck. “Black Friday.” Utah Holiday 7 (July 1978): 38-40.

Brigham, Janet. “‘to every worthy member,’” Sunstone 3 (July/Aug. 1978): 11-15.

Walters, Wesley P. Interview with Mormon Apostle LeGrand Richards Concerning 1978 Negro “Revelation.” 16 Aug. 1978. Phoenix, Ariz.: Ex-Mormons for Jesus, 1978.

McConkie, Bruce R., “All Are Alike Unto God,” address to Seminary & Institute of Religion personnel, Brigham Young University, 18 Aug. 1978.

Shipps, Jan B. “The Mormons: Looking Forward and Outward.” 95 (16-23 Aug. 1978): 761-766. Priesthood revelation of 1978.

Esplin, Ronald K. “Brigham Young and Priesthood Denial to the Blacks: An Alternate View.” BYU Studies 19 (Spring 1979): 394-402.

Young, Thane. “Mixed Messages on the Negro Doctrine: An Interview with Lester Bush.” Sunstone 4 (May-June 1979): 8-15.

Bringhurst, Newell G. “Elijah Abel and the Mark of Cain.” American Heritage 39 (June/July 1979): 111.

[p.233] Bush, Lester E., Jr. “Introduction [to issue on the priesthood revelation of 1978],” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 9-12.

Bringhurst, Newell G. “Elijah Abel and the Changing Status of Blacks Within Mormonism.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 22-36.

Eastmond, J. Nicholls, Jr. “The New Revelation: A Personal View.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 50-53.

[Hartley, William G.], “Saint Without Priesthood: The Collected Testimonies of Ex-slave Samuel D. Chambers.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 13-21.

McMurrin, Sterling M. “A Note on the 1963 Civil Rights Statement.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 60-63.

Russell, William D. “A Priestly Role for a Prophetic Church: The RLDS Church and Black Americans.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 37-49.

Smart, M. Neff. “The Challenge of Africa.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 54-57.

Smith, George D., Jr. “The Negro Doctrine—An Afterview.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 64-67.

Kunz, Phillip R. “Blacks and Mormonism: A Social Distance Change.” Psychological Reports 45 (August 1979): 81-82.

Newell, Linda King, and Valeen Tippetts Avery. “Jane Manning James: Black Saint, 1847 Pioneer.” Ensign 9 (Aug. 1979): 26-29.

Palmer, Spencer J. “Mormons in West Africa; New Terrain for the Sesquicentennial Church.” Annual Religion Faculty Lecture, Brigham Young University, 27 Sept. 1979, typescript, Brigham Young University Publications.

Coleman, Ronald G. “The Buffalo Soldiers: Guardians of the Uintah Frontier, 1886-1901.” Utah Historical Quarterly 47 (Fall 1979): 421-39.

Haroldsen, E. O., and Harvey, K. “Diffusion of Shocking Good News.” Journalism Quarterly 56 (Winter 1979): 771-75. Priesthood revelation of 1978.

Freeman, Joseph. In the Lord’s Due Time. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1979. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Wangeman, William Carl. The Blackman: A Son of God. Bountiful, Utah: Horizon Publishers, c1979.

1980-1983

Brigham, Janet. “Nigeria and Ghana: A Miracle Precedes the Messengers.” Ensign 10 (Feb. 1980): 73-76.

Lye, William, “From Burundi to Zaire: Taking the Gospel to Africa.” Ensign 10 (March 1980): 10-15.

[p.234]Mabey, Randell, and Rachel Mabey. “A Mission to West Africa.” This People, Spring 1980, pp. 24-37.

Coleman, Ronald G. “A History of Blacks in Utah, 1825-1910.” Ph.D. diss., University of Utah, 1980.

White, O. Kendall, Jr., and Daryl White. “Abandoning an Unpopular Policy: An Analysis of the Decision Granting the Mormon Priesthood to Blacks.” Sociological Analysis 41 (Fall 1980): 231-45.

Wilson, William A., and Richard C. Poulsen. “The Curse of Cain and Other Stories: Blacks in Mormon Folklore.” Sunstone 5 (Nov.-Dec. 1980): 9-13.

White, O. Kendall, Jr. “Boundary Maintenance, Blacks, and the Mormon Priesthood.” Journal of Religious Thought 37 (Fall-Winter, 1980): 30-44.

Obinna, Anthony Uzodimma. “Voice from Nigeria.” Ensign 10 (Dec. 1980): 28-30. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Olsen, Peggy. “Ruffin Bridgeforth: Leader and Father to Mormon Blacks.” This People, Winter 1980.

Hansen, Klaus. Mormonism and the American Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980, esp. Ch. 6 (“The Transformation of Racial Thought and Practice”).

Sturlaugson, Mary. A Soul So Rebellious. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1980. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Tanner, Jerald and Sandra Tanner. The Changing World of Mormonism. Chicago: Moody Bible Institute, 1980. esp. Ch. 10, “Changing the Anti-Black Doctrine.”

Bringhurst, Newell G. “Mormonism in Black Africa: Changing Attitudes and Practices, 1830-1981.” Sunstone 6 (May-June 1981): 15-21.

Mauss, Armand L. “Comments: White on Black Among the Mormons: A Critique of White & White.” Sociological Analysis 42 (Fall 1981): 277-83.

White, O. Kendall, Jr. and Daryl White. “Reply to Mauss’ Critique of Our Analysis of Admitting Blacks into the Mormon Priesthood.” Sociological Analysis 42 (Fall 1981): 283-88.

Mauss, Armand L. “The Fading of the Pharaoh’s Curse: The Decline and Fall of the Priesthood Ban Against Blacks in the Mormon Church.” Dialogue 14 (Fall 1981): 10-45.

Bringhurst, Newell G. “The Mormons and Black Slavery A Closer Look.” Pacific Historical Review 50 (Nov. 1981): 329-38. “Charles B. Thompson and the Issues of Slavery and Race.” Journal of Mormon History 8 (1981): 37-47. “‘The Descendants of Ham’ in Zion: [p.235] Discrimination Against Blacks along the Shifting Mormon Frontier, 1830-1920.” Nevada Historical Quarterly 24 (Winter 1981): 298-318.

McConkie, Bruce R. “The New Revelation on Priesthood.” In Priesthood. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1981, pp. 126-37.

Bringhurst, Newell G. Saints, Slaves and Blacks: The Changing Place of Black People Within Mormonism. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Long, E.B. The Saints and the Union: Utah Territory during the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981.

Gerlach, Larry R. Blazing Crosses in Zion: The Ku Klux Klan in Utah. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1982.

Sturlaugson, Mary. He Restoreth My Soul. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1982. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Grover, Mark L. “The Lineage of Cain in the Land of Racial Democracy: The Mormon Priesthood and the Brazilian of African Descent,” paper presented at the Mormon History Association annual meeting, Omaha, Nebraska, 5-8 May 1983.

 Quinn, D. Michael. J. Reuben Clark: The Church Years. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1983, esp. ch. 10 (“All Nations, and Kindreds, and People, and Tongues”), pp. 221-236.

[p.236]Alphabetical Bibliography: Published and Unpublished Publications

“Are Negroes Children of Adam?” Millennial Star 65 (3 Dec. 1903): 776-778.

Beller, Jack. “Negro Slaves in Utah.” Utah Historical Quarterly 2 (Oct. 1929): 123-26.

Bennett, Wallace R. “The Negro in Utah.” Utah Law Review 3 (Spring 1953): 340-48.

Benson, Ezra Taft. Civil Rights, Tool of Communist Deception. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1968.

Berrett, William E. “The Church and the Negroid People.” In John J. Stewart. Mormonism and the Negro. (1960), pp. 1-24.

Bowles, Carey C. A Mormon Negro Views the Church. Maplewood, N.J.: Carey Bowles, 1968. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Brewer, David L. “Religious Resistance to Changing Beliefs about Race.” Pacific Sociological Review 13 (Summer 1970): 163-70.

Brigham, Janet. “‘to every worthy member.’” Sunstone 3 (July/Aug. 1978): 11-15. “Nigeria and Ghana: A Miracle Precedes the Messenger.” Ensign 10 (Feb. 1980): 73-76.

Bringhurst, Newell G. “Forgotten Mormon Perspectives: Slavery, Race, and the Black Man as Issues Among Non-Utah Latter-day Saints, 1844-1873.” Michigan History 61 (Winter 1977): 353-70. “An Ambiguous Decision: The Implementation of Mormon Priesthood Denial for the Black Man—A Re-examination.” Utah Historical Quarterly 46 (Winter 1978): 45-64. “Elijah Abel and the Changing Status of Blacks Within Mormonism,” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 22-36. “Elijah Abel and the Mark of Cain.” American Heritage 39 (June/ July 1979): 111. “Mormonism in Black Africa: Changing Attitudes and Practices, 1830-1981 .” Sunstone 6 (May-June 1981): 15-21. “The Mormons and Black Slavery—A Closer Look.” Pacific Historical Review 50 (Nov. 1981): 329-338. Saints, Slaves, and Blacks: The Changing Place of Black People Within Mormonism. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981. “Charles B. Thompson and the Issues of Slavery and Race.” Journal of Mormon History. 8 (1981): 37-47. “‘The Descendants of Ham’ in Zion: Discrimination Against Blacks Along the Shifting Mormon Frontier, 1830-1920.” Nevada [p.237] Historical Quarterly 24 (Winter 1981): 298-318.

Briscoe, David, and George Buck. “Black Friday.” Utah Holiday 7 (July 1978): 38-40.

Brodie, Fawn M., No Man Knows My History 2nd ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966, esp. supplement. “Can We Manipulate the Past?” First Annual American West Lecture, University of Utah, 3 Oct. 1970.

Bush, Lester E., Jr. “A Commentary on Stephen G. Taggart’s Mormonism’s Negro Policy: Social and Historical Origins,” Dialogue 4 (Winter 1969): 86-103. “Mormonism’s Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview.” Dialogue 8 (Spring 1973): 11-68. “Introduction [to issue on the priesthood revelation of 1978].” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 9-12.

Caldwell, Gaylon L. “Moral and Religious Aspects of the Status of the Negro in Utah.” Western Humanities Review 13 (1959): 102-106.

Carter, Kate B. The Negro Pioneer. Salt Lake City: Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, 1965.

Cherry, Alan Gerald. It’s You and Me, Lord! Provo, Utah: Trilogy Arts Publication, 1970. “A Negro’s Life Changed,” in Hartman Rector, and Connie Rector, eds., No More Strangers. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1971, pp. 90-99. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Christenson, J. B. “Negro Slavery in the Utah Territory.” Phylon Quarterly 13 (Oct. 1957): 298-305.

Clark, Michael J. “Improbable Ambassadors: Black Soldiers at Fort Douglas, 1896-99.” Utah Historical Quarterly 46 (Summer 1978): 282-301.

Clark, Wynetta Martin. I am a Negro Mormon. Ogden, Utah: n. pub., 1970. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Coleman, Ronald G. “Blacks in Utah History: An Unknown Legacy.” in Helen Z. Papanikolas, ed., The Peoples of Utah. Salt Lake City, Utah State Historical Society, 1976. “Utah’s Black Pioneers: 1847-1869.” UMOJA: A Scholarly Journal of Black Studies, new series 11 (Summer 1978): 95-110. “The Buffalo Soldiers: Guardians of the Uintah Frontier, 1886-1901.” Utah Historical Quarterly 47 (Fall 1979): 421-39.

Davidson, Glen W. “Mormon Missionaries and the Race Question.” Christian Century 82 (29 Sept. 1965): 1183-86.

Douglas, Ella Lewis, and Armand L. Mauss. “Religious and Secular Factors in the Race Attitudes of Logan, Utah, Residents.” Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 45:2 (1968).

[p.238] Douglas, Norman. “The Sons of Lehi and the Seed of Cain: Racial Myths in the Mormon Scriptures and Their Relevance to the Pacific Islands.” Journal of Religious History 8 (June 1974): 90-104.

Eastmond, J. Nicholls, Jr. “The New Revelation: A Personal View.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 50-53.

England, Eugene. “The Mormon Cross.” Dialogue 8 (Spring 1973): 78-86.

Esplin, Ronald K. “Brigham Young and Priesthood Denial to the Blacks: An Alternative View.” BYU Studies 19 (Spring 1979): 394-402.

Foster, Donald L. “Unique Gospel in Utah.” Christian Century 82 (14 July 1965): 890-92.

Frame, Robert M. The Negro Question. N.p., May 1964.

Freeman, Joseph. In the Lord’s Due Time. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1979. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Gerlach, Larry R. Blazing Crosses in Zion: The Ku Klux Klan in Utah. Logan: Utah State University Press, 1982).

Hansen, Klaus. Mormonism and the American Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), esp. Ch. 6 (“The Transformation of Racial Thought and Practice”).

Haroldsen, E. O., and Harvey, K. “Diffusion of Shocking Good News.” Journalism Quarterly 56 (Winter 1979): 771-75. Priesthood revelation of 1978.

Hartley, William G., “Samuel D. Chambers.” New Era 4 (June 1974): 46-50. “Saint Without Priesthood: The Collected Testimonies of Ex-slave Samuel D. Chambers,” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 13-21.

Hawkes, John D. “Why Can’t the Negro Hold the Priesthood?” In Wynetta Willis Martin, Black Mormon Tells Her Story. (Salt Lake City: Hawkes Publications, 1972), pp. 81-94.

Heywood, Yates, The Negro Question Resolved. Salt Lake City: Paragon Press, 1964.

Hill, Donna. Joseph Smith: The First Mormon. Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1977, esp. Ch. 12 (“Blacks in the Early Church”), pp. 379-94.

Jennings, Warren A. “Factors in the Destruction of the Mormon Press in Missouri, 1833.” Utah Historical Quarterly 35 (Winter 1967): 56-76.

Kirkpatrick, L. H. “The Negro and the L.D.S. Church.” Pen Magazine, Winter 1954, pp. 12-13, 29.

Kunz, Phillip R. “Blacks and Mormonism: A Social Distance Change.” Psychological Reports 45 (Aug. 1979): 81-82.

Lamb, John. “My Responsibility.” Improvement Era 69 (Jan. 1966): 36-37. Experience of a black Mormon.

[p.239]Long, E. B. The Saints and the Union: Utah Territory during the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981.

Lund, John L. The Church and the Negro: A Discussion of Mormons, Negroes and the Priesthood. Salt Lake City: Paramount Publishers, 1967.

Lye, William. “From Burundi to Zaire: Taking the Gospel to Africa.” Ensign, 10 (March 1980): 10-15.

Lythgoe, Dennis L. “Negro Slavery and Mormon Doctrine. Western Humanities Review 21 (1957): 327-38. “Negro Slavery in Utah.” Utah Historical Quarterly 39 (Winter 1971): 40-54.

Mabey, Randell, and Rachel Mabey. “A Mission to West Africa.” This People, Spring 1980, pp. 24-37.

Martin, Wynetta Willis. Black Mormon Tells Her Story. Salt Lake City: Hawkes Publications, 1972, rev. 1972. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Mauss, Armand L. “Mormonism and Secular Attitudes Toward Negroes.” Pacific Sociological Review 9 (Fall 1966): 91-99. “Mormonism and the Negro: Faith, Folklore and Civil Rights.” Dialogue 4 (Winter 1967): 19-39. “Moderation in All Things: Political and Social Outlooks of Modern Urban Mormons.” Dialogue 7 (Spring 1972): 57-69, esp. pp. 61-67 on “The Race Question.” “Comments: White on Black Among the Mormons: A Critique of White & White.” Sociological Analysis 42 (Fall 1981): 277-83. “The Fading of the Pharaoh’s Curse: The Decline and Fall of the Priesthood Ban Against Blacks in the Mormon Church.” Dialogue 14 (Fall 1981): 10-45.

McConkie, Bruce R. Mormon Doctrine. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1966, esp. sections on “Negroes,” “Cain,” “Ham,” “Pre-existence,””Priesthood,” and “Races of Men.” “The New Revelation on Priesthood.” In Priesthood. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1981, pp. 126-37.

McMurrin, Sterling M. “A Note on the 1963 Civil Rights Statement.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 60-63.

“Negroes and Mormons, Romney and God.” Reveille 2 (April 1967): 6-10.

Nelson, Lowry. “Mormons and the Negro.” Nation 174 (24 May 1952): 488. “Mormons and Blacks.” Christian Century 91 (Oct. 1974): 949-50.

Newell, Linda King, and Valeen Tippetts Avery, “Jane Manning James Black Saint, 1847 Pioneer.” Ensign 9 (Aug. 1979): 26-29.

Nibley, Hugh. “The Best Possible Test.” Dialogue 8 (Spring 1973): 73-77.

[p.240]Nye, Jeff. “Memo from a Mormon.” Look 27 (22 Oct. 1963): 74-78.

Obinna, Anthony Uzodimma. “Voice from Nigeria.” Ensign 10 (Dec. 1980): 18-30. Experiences of a black Mormon.

O’Dea, Thomas F. “Sources of Strain in Mormon History Reconsidered.” In Marvin S. Hill, and James B. Allen, eds., Mormonism and American Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

Oliver, David H. A Negro on Mormonism. Salt Lake City: D. H. Oliver, 1963. Experiences of a non-Mormon in Salt Lake City.

Olsen, Peggy, “Ruffin Bridgeforth: Leader and Father to Mormon Blacks.” This People, Winter 1980.

Quinn, D. Michael. J. Reuben Clark: The Church Years. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1983, esp. ch. 10. (“All Nations, and Kindreds, and People, and Tongues”), pp. 221-236.

Richardson, Arthur M. That Ye May Not Be Deceived. Salt Lake City: n. pub., 1957?.

Reed, William F. “The Other Side of the ‘Y’.” Sports Illustrated. 26 Jan. 1970, pp. 38-39.

Russell, William D. “A Priestly Role for a Prophetic Church: The RLDS Church and Black Americans,” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 37-49.

Shipps, Jan B. “Second-Class Saints.” Colorado Quarterly 11 (1962-63): 183-90. “The Mormons: Looking Forward and Outward.” 95 (16-23 Aug. 1978): 761-66. Priesthood revelation of 1978.

Smart, M. Neff. “The Challenge of Africa.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 54-57.

Smith, Elmer R. The Status of the Negro in Utah. Salt Lake City: NAACP Salt Lake Branch, 1956.

Smith, George D., Jr. “The Negro Doctrine—An Afterview.” Dialogue 12 (Summer 1979): 64-67.

Smith, Joseph Fielding, Jr. “The Negro and the Priesthood.” Improvement Era 27 (April 1924): 564-65. The Way to Perfection. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1931, esp. ch. 7 (“Appointment of Lineage”), 15 (“The Seed of Cain”), and 16 (“The Seed of Cain After the Flood”).

Stewart, John J. Mormonism and the Negro. Orem, Utah: Community Press, 1960.

Sturlaugson, Mary. A Soul So Rebellious. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1980. He Restoreth My Soul Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1982. Experiences of a black Mormon.

Taggart, Stephen G. Mormonism’s Negro Policy: Social and Historical Origins. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1970.

Tanner, Jerald, and Sandra Tanner. The Negro in Mormon Theology. [p.241] Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm Co., 1963. Joseph Smith’s Curse upon the Negro. Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm Co., 1965. The Negro in Mormon Theology. Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm Co., 1967. Mormons and Negroes. Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm Co., 1970. The Changing World of Mormonism. Chicago: Moody Bible Institute, 1980. Esp. Ch. 10, “Changing the Anti-Black Doctrine.”

“The Negro and the Priesthood.” Liahona, The Elders’ Journal 5 (1908): 1164-67.

Thomasson, Gordon C. “Lester Bush’s Historical Overview: Other Perspectives.” Dialogue 8 (Spring 1973): 69-72.

Trank, Douglas M. “The Negro and the Mormons: A Church in Conflict.” Western Speech 35 (Fall 1971): 220-30.

Turner, Wallace. The Mormon Establishment. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1966, esp. Ch. 8 “The Anti-Negro Doctrine,” and 9 “Will the Negro Doctrine Change?”.

Walters, Wesley P. Interview with Mormon Apostle LeGrand Richards Concerning 1978 Negro “Revelation.” 16 Aug. 1978. Phoenix: Ex-Mormons for Jesus, 1978.

Walton, Brian. “A University’s Dilemma: BYU and Blacks.” Dialogue 6 (Spring 1971): 31-36.

Wangeman, William Carl. The Blackman: A Son of God. Bountiful, Utah: Horizon Publishers, c1979.

Wells, Elmer E. “Unjustifiable Denial of Priesthood to Black Mormons.” Negro History Bulletin 40 (July 1977): 725-27.

Whalen, William J. The Latter-day Saints in the Modern Day World rev. ed. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1967. Esp. Ch. 16 (“Mormonism and the Negro”), pp. 245-57.

Wilson, William A., and Richard C. Poulsen. “The Curse of Cain and Other Stories: Blacks in Mormon Folklore.” Sunstone 5 (Nov.-Dec. 1980): 9-13.

White, O. Kendall, Jr. “Mormonism’s Anti-Black Policy and Prospects for Change.” Journal of Religious Thought 29 (Autumn-Winter, 1972): 39-60. “Boundary Maintenance, Blacks, and the Mormon Priesthood.” Journal of Religious Thought 37 (Fall-Winter 1980-81): 30-44.

White, O. Kendall, Jr., and Daryl White. “Abandoning an Unpopular Policy: An Analysis of the Decision Granting the Mormon Priesthood to Blacks.” Sociological Analysis 41 (Fall 1980): 231-45. “Reply to Mauss’ Critique of Our Analysis of Admitting Blacks into the Mormon Priesthood. Sociological Analysis 42 (Fall 1981): 283-88.

[p.242] Wolfinger, Henry J. “A Test of Faith: Jane Elizabeth James and the Origins of the Utah Black Community.” In Clark S. Knowlton, ed., Social Accommodation in Utah. American West Occasional Papers. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1975: 126-172.

Young, Thane “Mixed Messages on the Negro Doctrine: An Interview with Lester Bush.” Sunstone 4 (May-June 1979): 8-15.

Unpublished Works

Bennett, Wallace R. “The Legal Status of the Negro in Utah.” In Symposium on the Negro in Utah, Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, Weber College, 20 Nov. 1954.

Bush, Lester E., Jr. “Compilation on the Negro in Mormonism.” 1972. [Documentary sourcebook] Lee Library Special Collections, Brigham Young University, and LDS Historical Department Library Archives.

Brewer, David L. “Utah Elites and Utah Racial Norms.” Ph.D. diss, University of Utah, 1966.

Bringhurst, Newell G. “‘A Servant of Servants … Cursed as Pertaining to the Priesthood’: Mormon Attitudes toward Slavery and the Black Man 1830-1880.” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Davis, 1975.

Christensen, James Boyd. “A Social Survey of the Negro Population of Salt Lake City, Utah.” M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1948.

Cole, Harmon O. “The Status of the Negro in Utah.” In Symposium on the Negro in Utah, Utah Academy of Sciences, Art, and Letters, Weber College, 20 Nov. 1954.

Coleman, Ronald G. “A History of Blacks in Utah, 1825-1910.” Ph.D. diss, University of Utah, 1980.

Duncan, Adam M. “Civil Rights in Utah: A Concept of Race and an Attitude.” Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Utah State University, 9 Nov. 1963.

Dutson, Roldo Van Leuven. “A Study of the Attitude of the Latter-day Saint Church, in the Territory of Utah, Toward Slavery as it Pertained to the Indian as Well as the Negro from 1847 to 1865.” Ph.D. diss., Brigham Young University, 1964.

Dyer, Alvin R. “For What Purpose?” Address to missionary conference, Oslo, Norway, 18 March 1961, widely distributed in typescript. LDS Church Archives.

Eddins, Boyd L. “The Mormons and the Civil War.” M.A. thesis, Utah State University, 1966.

First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. “First Presidency Statement [on blacks], August 17, 1949.” LDS Church Archives. See Appendix.

[p.243]First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. “First Presidency Statement [on blacks], December 15, 1969.” LDS Church Archives. See Appendix.

First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “First Presidency Statement [on blacks], February 22, 1978.” LDS Church Archives.

First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. “First Presidency Statement [on priesthood], June 8, 1978.” LDS Church Archives. See Appendix.

Grover, Mark L. “The Lineage of Cain in the Land of Racial Democracy: The Mormon Priesthood and the Brazilian of African Descent.” Paper presented at the Mormon History Association annual meeting, Omaha, Nebraska, 5-8 May 1983.

Lythgoe, Dennis L. “Negro Slavery in Utah,” M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1966.

Maag, Margaret J. “Discrimination Against the Negro in Utah and Institutional Efforts to Eliminate It.” M.S. thesis, University of Utah, 1968.

Mauss, Armand L. “Mormonism and Minorities.” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1970.

McConkie, Bruce R. “All Are Alike Unto God.” Address to Seminary & Institute of Religion personnel. Brigham Young University, 18 Aug. 1978.

McMurrin, Sterling M. “The Negroes Among the Mormons.” Address to the Annual Banquet, Salt Lake Chapter NAACP, 21 June 1968.

Mortson, Farrell Ray. “History of the South African Mission of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1853-1970.” M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1971.

Moyle, Henry D. “What of the Negro?” Address to French East Mission, Geneva, Switzerland, 30 Oct. 1961. LDS Church Archives.

Palmer, Spencer J. “Mormons in West Africa: New Terrain for the Sesquicentennial Church.” Annual Religion Faculty Lecture, Brigham Young University, 27 Sept. 1979. Typescript, Brigham Young University Publications.

Petersen, Mark E. “Race Problems-As They Affect the Church.” Address at Brigham Young University, 27 Aug. 1954. LDS Church Archives.

Ramjoue, George. “The Negro in Utah: A Geographical Study in Population.” M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1968.

Smith, Elmer R. “The Social Status of the Negro in Utah.” In Symposium [p.244] on the Negro in Utah, Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, Weber College, 20 Nov. 1954.

Trank, Douglas Monty. “A Rhetorical Analysis of the Rhetoric Emerging from the Mormon-Black Controversy.” Ph.D. diss., University of Utah, 1973.

Woodbury, Naomi Felicia. “A Legacy of Intolerance: Nineteenth Century Pro-slavery Propaganda and the Mormon Church Today.” M.A. thesis, UCLA, 1966.

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