Friendly Fire:  The ACLU in UtahFriendly Fire:
The ACLU in Utah
by Linda Sillitoe

on the cover flaps:
The letters ACLU sound like the “very hiss of the anti-Christ” in Utah, writes Linda Sillitoe. Yet Spencer L. Kimball, the Mormon church president’s son who founded the local chapter, attracted to the organization men and women who were motivated by religious activism. Utah chapter president Stephen Smoot, descendant of another Mormon leader, felt that the ACLU promoted the same values of justice and mercy as his own church.  Michele Parish—a Methodist minister’s wife—even described her ACLU directorship as “an answer to prayer.” The current chapter leader defies other public perceptions. A grandmother, Carol Gnade nevertheless champions gay clubs in high schools, believing that society should tolerate diversity.

As a public force in Utah for half a century, the American Civil Liberties Union has battled, among other injustices, the prejudice of one politician who wanted Salt Lake City’s African Americans relocated to a ghetto neighborhood. Such discrimination survives in more subtle ways, such as in the public strip-search of a long-haired teenager whose “offense” was that he fit a police drug-user profile. It emerges in the detainment of a building subcontractor who was thought to be carrying “too much cash.”

Sillitoe’s fast-paced, accessible history treats the local chapter’s internal upheavals in tandem with its ongoing skirmishes with outside forces. In this tale of political clout and paranoia, law enforcement muscle and varying moralities, Sillitoe gives an inside view of the push and shove of competing agendas. “The safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people,” a U.S. Supreme Court justice once observed. In taking on some of society’s most vulnerable groups and marginalized individuals, Sillitoe concludes, the ACLU espouses in practical terms the creed of Utah’s Mormon majority: “Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these…”

back cover:
“With masterful insight, Linda Sillitoe crafts an impressive story of one of Utah’s most controversial institutions. Her investigative probing illuminates intriguing issues and personalities behind this often misunderstood institution. Readers will see why the ACLU takes the positions it does even if disagreeing with them.”

TED WILSON, former mayor, Salt Lake City; director, Hinckley Institute for Politics, University of Utah

“This is an important work, essential reading for those who want to understand Utah’s past and present. In fascinating ways, Sillitoe looks at issues that polarize the state, including school prayer, abortion, and homosexual rights, and uses them as a lens to focus on the complexity of the larger society. In particular she considers the nature of power—who has it and who doesn’t—and the illusions of the well-fed, comfortable majority. Utah’s dismal record of civil rights and fragile gains indicate that the battle will continue.”

JOHN MCCORMICK, co-editor, A World We Thought We Knew: Readings in Utah History; professor of history, Salt Lake Community College

“Sillitoe offers an ACLU’s-eye view of the internal structure and guiding principles of the Utah chapter, particularly in its battles over the past decade. Her book is sure to raise some hackles, just as the ACLU has done over the years.”

PEG MCINTEE, News Editor; Faith and Learning Desk, The Salt Lake Tribune

about the author:  LINDA SILLITOE was born in Salt Lake City, graduated from the University of Utah, and taught classes in journalism and writing at the University of Utah, Weber State University, and Salt Lake Community College. As a Deseret News staff reporter, news features editor for Utah Holiday magazine, and a New York Times correspondent, she garnered several awards from the Utah chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists, the Associated Press, and other news and community organizations.
Her seven previous works include Salamander: The Story of the Mormon Forgery Murders and Welcoming the World: A History of Salt Lake County. Currently she lives in Mesa, Arizona, where she continues her research and writing.

DUST JACKET DESIGN BY JULIE EASTON.
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
SIGNATURE BOOKS IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF SIGNTURE BOOKS, INC.

ISBN 1-56085-076-0

title page:
Friendly Fire:
The ACLU in Utah
Linda Sillitoe
Signature Books
Salt Lake City
1996

copyright page:
Jacket design by Julie Easton
∞ Signature Books titles are printed on acid free paper and composed, printed, and bound in the United States of America.
© 1996 Signature Books. All rights reserved.
Signature Books is a registered trademark of Signature Books, Inc.
2000  99  98  97  96    6  5  4  3  2  1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Friendly fire : the ACLU in Utah / by Linda Si1litoe.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-56085-076-0 (cloth)
1. American Civil Liberties Union. 2. Civil rights—Utah.
I. Title.
JC599.U5S543 1996
323’ .06’0792—dc20
96-18400 CIP

Contents
Directors and Presidents [see below]
Sources and Resources [see below]
01-The Long View
02-Conception in Utah
03-Coming of Age
04-Welcome to Utah
05-To Pray or Not to Pray
05.1-Photos with captions
06-Guns Blazing
07-The Scarlet Issue
08-Scene Change
09-The Prison Medical Ward the ACLU Built
10-And Justice for All
Notes [see below]

Utah-ACLU
Directors and Presidents
EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS
Stephen W. Cook, 1972-73
James H. Joy, 1974-75
Shirley Pedler, 1976-86
Robyn Blumner, 1987-88
Michele Parish, 1989-92
Carol Gnade, 1993-present

BOARD PRESIDENTS
Spencer L. Kimball, mid-1950s
Adam Duncan, 1958-60
Steven Smoot, early 1960s
Ben Roe, 1960s
Bill Lockhart, 1970-71
George Grossman, 1972-73
Michael Rudick, 1973-76
Bill Procasey, 1980-82
Wayne McCormack, 1981-82
Ross Anderson, 1982-84
Jeffrey Montague, 1984-86
Gerald Nichols, 1986-90
Boyer Jarvis, 1990-91
John Morris, 1991-92
Bill Orchow, 1992-93
Elizabeth Dunning, 1993-1996
Gregory Williams, 1996-present

Sources and Resources
[p.vii] When the files of the Utah affiliate of the American Civil Liberties Union were deposited in Special Collections at the Marriott Library, University of Utah, the numerous boxes of correspondence, newspaper clippings, legal documents, minutes, videotapes, and other data represented nearly forty years of struggle, conflict, and change.

Within this paper hillock lay evidence of contrasts in ideology and social action, for Utah—despite its roots in civil disobedience—showed little in common with the eastern civil libertarian mindset. A book drawn from these files would naturally explore the public interface of the ACLU in Utah, from the earliest days of a struggling ad hoc group in the 1950s and 1960s to its occasional moneyed victories in the 1980s and 1990s. Issues involving the separation and interaction of two prime powers, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) and Utah state government, emerged with the greatest continuity.

The public record amply papered the way, augmenting the sometimes incomplete fragments of correspondence and minutes. For the ease of readers, the styles of diverse manuscripts have been standardized (including omitting the repetitious use of courtesy titles) except in a few instances where meaning might be affected. Also, local director Michele Parish was known as Michele Parish-Pixler during part of her directorship. Here her shorter and current name is used throughout to avoid confusion. Also, the national ACLU is referred to as “National” within state affiliates; that term is capitalized as a substitute title in context.

[p.viii] Due to privacy issues, as well as their irrelevance to the book’s focus, individual complaints, donor lists, and memos dealing with routine office matters were disregarded. On the other hand, correspondence spanning a forty-year period proved interesting and helpful. For instance, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg had risen to the nation’s highest court when a letter she penned decades earlier to the Utah ACLU surfaced, quite forgotten in the files. The extensive clip files of civil liberties attorney Brian Barnard also yielded interesting and much appreciated information.

Interviews with more than a score of people involved with the ACLU proved invaluable. Some were interviewed at length or repeatedly, and all deserve appreciation. Throughout the narrative, the integrity of each viewpoint is preserved, including the contradictions and disagreements expected in hard-fought battles of policy and conscience. Missing, regrettably, are the perspectives of the political emissaries of the LDS church, who interacted with ACLU leaders but were not permitted to give interviews. It should also be noted that numerous individuals who contributed to the work of the ACLU are mentioned briefly or not at all. This is due to space and scope limitations, not because their gifts of time, effort, or money were insignificant. The interview notes now join the other materials in the ACLU Collection.

In addition, Samuel Walker’s book In Defense of American Liberties proved helpful in placing the Utah affiliate within the national context, for the American Civil Liberties Union was organized in 1920, preceding the Utah affiliate by more than three decades. In Our Defense: The Bill of Rights in Action, by Ellen Alderman and Caroline Kennedy, also proved useful, particularly the introduction. Here the authors describe how the ACLU frequently defends “not very nice people” in order to preserve for all the liberties delineated in the Bill of Rights and interpreted since in the courts. Utah histories also influenced this work’s context; specifically cited are Ronald Coleman’s essay “Blacks in Utah” in Peoples of Utah, edited by Helen Z. Papinikolas, and John S. McCormick’s Salt Lake City: The Gathering Place.

All these and other sources are listed by chapter in the bibliographic notes at the end of the book. Also helpful were a variety of ACLU events including a biennial conference of executive directors held in 1992 in [p.ix] Santa Monica, California. Local groups whose issues engaged the ACLU’s attention lent perspective on occasion, including a visit with leaders and members of the Gay and Lesbian Youth Group of Salt Lake City. Notes, studies, or clippings pertaining to the events or groups described are included in the collection.

Throughout the years of research and writing, the Special Collections directors and staff offered valuable assistance. Executive director Gregory Thompson provided essential support, encouragement, and guidance, augmented by the advice and assistance of Manuscripts director Nancy Young and the skillful expertise of Mark Jensen, who catalogued the collection. Finally, the Utah ACLU’s executive directors, other leaders, attorneys, and staff all exhibited a spirit of cooperation, openness, introspection, and humor that made this project not only interesting but thoroughly enjoyable.

Notes:

[p.245]1. The Long View
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Nonnan H. Bangerter, Kathryn Kendell, Michele Parish, and Christopher Smart. Also see an oral interview with Michele Parish by Everett L. Cooley, November 30-December 7, 1992, Marriott Library.

Books: Ellen Aldennan and Caroline Kennedy, In Our Defense: The Bill of Rights in Action (New York: Morrow, 1991); John S. McCormick, Salt Lake City: The Gathering Place (Woodland Hills, CA: Windsor Publications, 1980); Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990); and Edward L. Kimball and Andrew E. Kimball, Spencer W. Kimball (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1977).

Contemporaneous Media: Deseret News; The Progressive—see “Nadine Strossen,” by Claudia Dreifus, March 1994; and Salt Lake Tribune, in particular a profile of Spencer L. Kimball by Paul Rolly, August 5,1990.

Legal Documents: The Criminal Abortion Statute of 1991.

For additional information, see: Anthony Summers, Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1993); Thomas G. Alexander and James B. Allen, [p.246]Mormons and Gentiles: A History of Salt Lake City (Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing Co., 1984); Linda Sillitoe, Welcoming the World: A History of Salt Lake County (Salt Lake City: Salt Lake County, 1996) or Salt Lake County (Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1996); Kathryn L. MacKay, “Equal Rights Amendment,” Utah Encyclopedia, ed. Allan Kent Powell (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1994); D. Michael Quinn, “The LDS Church’s Campaign Against the Equal Rights Amendment,” Journal of Mormon History, Fall 1994; and Linda Sillitoe and David Merrill, “Inside the Freemen Institute,” Utah Holiday, Feb. 1981.

2. Conception in Utah
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Steven Cook, Dorothy Davidson, Adam M. Duncan, James H. Joy, Spencer L. Kimball, John Morris, and Stephen Smoot.

Books: Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties (New York: Morrow, 1991); Benjamin Roe, A Blend of the Two, ed. James M. Rock (n.p.: Friends of the University of Utah Library); and “Blacks in Utah,” by Ronald Coleman, Peoples of Utah, ed. Helen Z. Papinikolas (Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1976).

Contemporaneous Media: Chronicle, Deseret News, New York Times, and Salt Lake Tribune, in particular “Mormon’s Mission Led Him to Fight for Civil Rights,” by Chris Jorgensen, April 19, 1993.

Correspondence: February 25, 1957, letter from Marion D. Hanks to Adam M. Duncan regarding civil rights legislation; July 15, 1959, letter from Adam Duncan to ACLU membership regarding issues and fundraising; September 22, 1971, letter from Michael Rudick to Deseret News regarding “moral pollution”; August 18, 1973, letter from Michael Rudick to Susy Post regarding women’s participation in ACLU; November 8, 1974, letter from Ruth Bader Ginsburg to James H. Joy regarding Turner v. Department of Employment; February 21, 1975, letter from James H. Joy to Melvin Wulf regarding Turner v. Department of Employment; March 4, 1975, letter from Kathleen Peratis to [p.247]James H. Joy regarding Turner v. Department of Employment; March 16, 1976, letter from Michael Rudick to John Gallivan regarding publishing advertisements from homosexual groups; and April 29, 1993, letter from Myron Q. Hale to Chris Jorgensen regarding race relations in Salt Lake City in the 1930s-40s.

Other: “Utah,” 1961 Report to the Commission on Civil Rights from the State Advisory Committee, Hon. Adam M. Duncan, chair; December 15, 1964, and January 5, 1965, “Minutes of General Membership Meeting”; February 1972 Utah affiliate newsletter; September 26, 1973, press release announcing a class action suit against the Utah State Prison; and September 16, 1974, press release by James H. Joy regarding draft policy.

3. Coming of Age
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Brian Barnard, Kathryn Collard, Steven Cook, Dorothy Davidson, Elizabeth Dunning, Shirley Pedler, and Judith Wolbach.

Books: Norman Mailer, The Executioner’s Song (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1979); and Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties (New York: Morrow, 1991).

Contemporaneous Media: Deseret News; Salt Lake Tribune, in particular “ACLU Director’s Tears Fall for Liberty Violations,” Judy B. Rollins, March 26, 1978, and “Utah ACLU Chief Heads to Louisiana,” Joan O’Brien, January 4, 1987; and Wall Street Journal.

Legal Documents: Amos v. LDS Church; Van Avery v. Jordan School District; Cable Television Programming Decency Act voided April 10, 1985, by senior district judge Aldon J. Anderson; Lanner v. Logan School District; and Students Against Apartheid v. Peterson.

Correspondence: June 30, 1976, letter from Michael Rudick to membership regarding Terrace incident; undated letter from Shirley Pedler to membership regarding Terrace incident; April 12, 1984, letter from Ross Anderson to membership regarding issues and fundraising; [p.248]and September 1, 1986, letter from Students Against Apartheid and Coalition to Stop Apartheid to Shirley Pedler regarding ACLU assistance.

Other: Undated ACLU flier for Gilmore rally; spring 1984 ACLU annual dinner program; June 27, 1983, press release by Shirley Pedler regarding Van Avery v. Jordan School District; and April 21, 1975, “Executive Director’s Report.” The Judge Building incident was related to the author by Salt Lake City Police Department detectives Kenneth Farnsworth and Jim Ben during research for Salamander: The Story of the Mormon Forgery Murders, by Linda Sillitoe and Allen D. Roberts (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1988).

4. Welcome to Utah
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Brian Barnard, Robyn Blumner, Dorothy Davidson, Gary DeLand, Boyer Jarvis, Michele Parish, and David Yocom.

Books: Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties (New York: Morrow, 1991).

Contemporaneous Media: Salt Lake Tribune, in particular “Common Carrier” columns October 4, 1987, David L. Wilkinson, “Who Is the Real Threat?” and October 18, 1987, Robyn E. Blumner, “Let’s Meet the Real Judge Bork; Deseret News; Newsweek; and Chronicle.”

Legal Documents: Initial complaint in what became Henry v. DeLand; Reynolds v. Reynolds.

Correspondence: October 21, 1987, letter from Ross Anderson to ACLU membership regarding current issues.

Other: “Statement by Robyn E. Blumner” regarding seizure by the Drug Enforcement Agency; “Public Speaking Engagements” for Robyn Blumner 1987-88; April 30, 1988, annual ACLU dinner program; and July 20, 1988, press release by Robyn Blumner regarding a cooperative effort by the ACLU, the Legal Center for the Handicapped, and the Department of Corrections to evaluate medical care.

[p.249]5. To Pray or Not to Pray
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Norman H. Bangerter, Brian Barnard, Gary DeLand, Pam Elliott, Boyer Jarvis, John Morris, and Michele Parish.

Contemporaneous Media: The Cache Citizen, Chicago Tribune—see Jim Robbins article, October 16, 1990; Church & State—see “Whither Zion?” by Rob Boston, December 1992; Deseret News, in particular “ACLU Fights for Principles that Will Protect Practices: For Utah Director, Controversy Just Comes with Job,” by Dennis Lythgoe, September 15, 1989; Salt Lake Tribune; Standard-Examiner; and Wall Street Journal—see “When ‘Freedom’ Becomes Religious Censorship,” Dallin H. Oaks, May 23,1990.

Legal Documents: Johanson v. Fischer.

Correspondence: March 1989 letters to Governor Norman H. Bangerter regarding a sweat lodge at the prison from Rabbi Frederick L. Wenger, Father Robert J. Bussen, the Very Reverend William F. Maxwell; March 24, 1989, letter from Danny Quintana to Michele Parish regarding sweat lodge victory; November 6, 1989, Elder John K. Carmack to Michele Parish regarding school prayer; January 10, 1990, Michele Parish to Elder John Carmack regarding school prayer; January 16, 1990, Elder John Carmack to Michele Parish regarding school prayer; June 13, 1990, Michele Parish to Wall Street Journal regarding its publication of Elder Dallin Oaks’s speech; June 22, 1990, Elder Dallin H. Oaks to Boyer Jarvis regarding Michele Parish’s letter to Wall Street Journal; June 25, 1990, Boyer Jarvis to Elder Dallin Oaks regarding Michele Parish’s letter; June 29, 1990, Boyer Jarvis to Michele Parish, resigning as ACLU president; and July 5, 1990, Michele Parish to Boyer Jarvis, accepting his resignation.

Other: August 1, 1989, press release by Michele Parish regarding hair length of Native American inmates; February 8, 1989, press release by Michele Parish regarding sweat lodge lawsuit; August 31, 1989, press release by Michele Parish regarding Harding v. DeLand; September 19, 1989, press release by Michele Parish regarding hair length of Native American inmates; April 25, 1989, press release by Michele [p.250]Parish regarding Johanson v. Fischer; national and Utah ACLU policies on polygamy; October 25, 1989, joint press release regarding religious services for Jewish inmates; “Notes to File-Prison,” by Michele Parish, recounting initial discussion with Scott McAlister; “Tape Transcripts, January 2, 1990” regarding Jolivett incident; and May 17, 1991, and July 26, 1991, press releases by Michele Parish regarding school prayer.

6. Guns Blazing
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Norman H. Bangerter, Brian Bamard, Cullen Battle, Kathryn Kendell, John Morris, Michele Parish, Christopher Smart, Kathleen Switzer, and David Yocom.

Contemporaneous Media: Deseret News; Standard-Examiner; and Salt Lake Tribune.

Legal Documents: Harding v. DeLand; Baker v. DeLand; and Henry v.DeLand.

Correspondence: February 28, 1989, letter from Michele Parish to Gary DeLand regarding evaluation of the Utah State Penitentiary; March 31, 1989, letter from Michele Parish to Gary DeLand regarding medical care; May 16, 1989, letter from Michele Parish to Gary DeLand regarding prison budget; September 28, 1989, letter from Michele Parish to Scott McAlister regarding prison policy; October 11, 1989, letter from Michele Parish to Attorney General Paul Van Dam questioning Scott McAlister’s dual role; December 8, 1989, letter from Michele Parish to Hon. Scott Daniels requesting a grand jury to investigate prison conditions; January 9,1990, from Boyer Jarvis to Gary DeLand regarding meeting between executives; January 2, 1990, Gary DeLand to Boyer Jarvis suggesting ACLU investigate Michele Parish; January 18, 1990, Gary DeLand to Boyer Jarvis regarding Michele Parish visiting inmates; April 19, 1990, Gary DeLand to Michele Parish regarding prison visits; June 15, 1990, letter from Michele Parish to Lynn Lund regarding mental health care at prison; March 19, 1991, letter from Michele Parish to Bud Scruggs regarding Department of Corrections chief; and March 20, 1991, letter from Bud Scruggs to Michele Parish [p.251]regarding new Department of Corrections chief.

Other: June 6, 1989, press release by Michele Parish regarding double bunking; September 28, 1989, press release by Michele Parish regarding lawsuit over conditions at Salt Lake County Jail; June 1990 Department of Corrections newsletter, The Rap Sheet; Fall 1992 ACLU Reporter; and December 18, 1989, press release by Michele Parish regarding filing of Henry v. DeLand.

7. The Scarlet Issue
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Norman H. Bangerter, Carol Gnade, Kathryn Kendell, Howard Lundgren, and John Morris.

Books: Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties (New York: Morrow, 1991).

Contemporaneous Media: Chronicle; Deseret News; New York Times; Private Eye; Salt Lake City Magazine; Salt Lake Tribune; and Standard-Examiner.

Legal Documents: Jane L. v. Bangerter, including amended complaints, appeals, and decision.

Other: Governor Norman H. Bangerter’s comments on abortion in his January 14, 1990, State of the State speech, as transcribed by ACLU intern Sharon Smith; summer 1992 ACLU Reporter; winter 1992 ACLU Reporter; and “Temple Spires and Capitol Dome” (postcard), by Frank Jensen (Mountain West Prints).

8. Scene Change
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Brian Barnard, Carol Gnade, Kathryn Kendell, Howard Lundgren, and Michele Parish.

Contemporaneous Media: Deseret News; Legal Times; Rutherford— see “Back Page column, September 1993; and Salt Lake Tribune.

[p.252]Legal Documents: Jane L. v. Bangerter, i.e. Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals Decision.

Correspondence: March 1, 1993, letter to the Utah State Legislature from Rev. Robert Busssen, Rev. Max E. Flenn, Rev. Roger H. Anderson, Pastor Janet L. Swift, Rev. Donald H. Baird, Rev. Barbara Hamilton-Holway, Rev. Bill Hamilton-Holway, Rabbi Frederick L. Wenger, Rev. Marie Green, and Rev. Lyle D. Sellards regarding the Religious Liberties Amendment; and January 19, 1994, letter from Carol Gnade and Kathryn Kendell to Salt Lake City Council regarding prayer at meetings.

Other: ACLU Reporter, spring 1993, summer 1993, winter 1993; and April 12, 1994, Minutes of ACLU Board Meeting regarding number of complaints and cash award from Henry v. DeLand.

9. The Prison Medical Ward the ACLU Built
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Cullen Battle, Gary DeLand, Carol Gnade, Kathryn Kendell, Michele Parish, and Kathleen Switzer.

Contemporaneous Media: Deseret News; and Salt Lake Tribune, in particular “Utahns Cry Foul Over Warrantless Search,” by Michael Phillips, February 5, 1994.

Legal Documents: Henry v. DeLand, including stipulated settlement, affidavits, appeal, and United States District Court decision; Soto v. Mangleson; Fitches v. Mercer; TDP v. Leavitt; and Valdez v. Samuel McPheters and Greg Littlewhiteman.

Correspondence: September 23, 1993, letter from Kathryn Kendell to Governor Michael Leavitt.

10. And Justice for All
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE:

Author’s Interviews: Jensie Anderson, Norman H. Bangerter, Brian Barnard, Kathryn Collard, Carol Gnade, Dorothy Davidson, Kathryn [p.253]Kendell, and Michele Parish.

Contemporaneous Media: Deseret News, Daily Universe, in particular “Number of Utah Suicides Above National Average” by Jennifer Duke, January 14, 1993; Salt Lake Tribune, in particular “SL Students Rally, Rail, and Rebel,” by Samuel Autman, Jennifer Skordas, and Robert Bryson, February 24, 1996; and Private Eye Weekly’s cover story “Club Dread,” by Ben Fulton, February 15, 1996.

Legal Documents: Society of Separationists v. Whitehead; Wilson v. Brigham Young University; Wilson v. Glenwood Intermountain Properties; and Dennis Scott Jolley v. Utah State Senate.

Other: Memorandum May 4, 1994, from Kathryn Kendell to ACLU Board of Trustees regarding Utah Curriculum Guidelines; Memorandum May 5, 1994, from Kathryn Kendell to ACLU Board of Trustees regarding BYU housing policy; “Injury in Utah 1986-1990” (Utah Department of Health Research and Development Program, 1992), regarding suicide rates and methods; and Branbury Park Apartments contract and letter citing violations by rentees.