Indian Origins and the Book of Mormon
by Dan Vogel


The following is an annotated bibliography of select pre-1830 English and American sources dealing with the origin, history, and antiquities of the New World Indians relevant to the study of the Book of Mormon.

Entries typically include four kinds of notations. First, the book or periodical is identified according to its bibliographical information, excluding the publisher’s name, and is often referenced by a shortened title. Second, the availability of a source in a microfilm or microtext collection is included for interested readers, although this may not be comprehensive. The following abbreviations refer to microfilm sources:

ACS: American Culture Series 1493-1875: A Cumulative Guide to the Microfilm Collection: American Culture Series I and II, Years 1-20, with Author, Title, Subject, and Reel Number Indexes. Edited by Ophelia Y. Lo. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1979. (Numbers here refer to reel and item numbers; thus ACS 075.008 means reel 75, item 8 in the American Culture Series.)

APS: American Periodicals, 1741-1900; An Index to the Microfilm Collections: American Periodicals, 18th Century; American Periodicals, 1800-1850; American Periodicals, 1850-1900; Civil War and Reconstruction. Edited by Jean Hoarnstra and Trudy Heath. Series 1, 2, and 3. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1979. (Numbers here refer to series and reels; thus APS 2:363 means series 2, reel 363 in the American Periodical Series).

E: Charles Evans. American Bibliography; A Chronological Dictionary of All Books, Pamphlets and Periodical Publications Printed in the United States of America, from the Genesis of Printing in 1639 Down to and Including the Year 1820. 14 vols. [1639-1799.] New York: Peter Smith, 1941-59. Readex Microprint. Edited by Clifford K. Shipton. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society. (Numbers here refer to items in collections; thus E 24085 means item 24086 of the Evans collection. Readex Microprint collection and the Evans bibliography use same numbering system.)

LAC: The Microbook Library of American Civilization. Chicago: Library Resources, 1971. Author and Title Catalogs, 1971; Subject Catalog and Biblioguide, 1972. (Numbers here refer to items in collections; thus LAC 14288 means item 14288 in the Library of American Civilization.)

SAB: Bibliotheca American. A Dictionary of Books Relating to America, from Its Discovery to the Present Time. Begun by Joseph Sabin, continued by Wilberforce Eames, and completed by R. W. G. Vail for the Bibliographical Society of America. 29 vols. New York: Sabin, 1868-1936. Reprint. Amsterdam, N. Israel, 1961-62. Microfiche collection. Louisville: Lost Cause Press, c. 1971-81. (Numbers here refer to alphabetical listings of collections; thus SAB 155 means item 155 in the bibliography.)

SS: Ralph R. Shaw and Richard H. Shoemaker. American Bibliography; A Preliminary Checklist for 1801-1819. 19 vols. New York: Scarecrow Press, 1958-63.

———-. A Checklist of American Imprints for 1820. New York and London: Scarecrow Press, 1964.

—- ——. A Checklist of American Imprints for 1821-1829. 9 vols. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1967-71. Readex Microprint for 1800-1819. Edited by John B. Hench. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society. (Numbers here refer to items in collections; thus SS 24528 means item 24528 in Shaw-Shoemaker.)

W: Donald Wing. Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and British America and of English Books Printed in Other Countries, 1640-1700. 3 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1945-51. Early English Books, 1641-1700: Selected from Donald Wing’s SHORT TITLE CATALOGUE. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1974-78. Microfilm. (Numbers here refer to items in collections; thus W 206 means item 206 in Wing.)

If a microfilm or microtext collection uses an edition of a work other than the one cited, I have indicated so in brackets immediately following microfilm or microtext information.

Third, a list of other known pre-1830 editions of a work is given, compiled from The National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints, 685 vols., Supplements 686-754 (London: Mansell, 1972), Evans, Shaw-Shoemaker, and Wing. I have made no attempt to check every edition of a work and thus accept responsibility only for the edition cited in the bibliographic entry. Finally, the bibliography provides a brief summary of a source’s contents as they pertain to the Book of Mormon (page numbers correspond to the edition first cited).

In compiling a working bibliography, I found the following sources especially helpful: Thomas Warren Field, An Essay towards an Indian Bibliography. Being a Catalogue of Books, Relating to the History, Antiquities, Languages, Customs, Religion, Wars, Literature, and Origin of the American Indians, in the Library of Thomas W. Fielding (New York, 1873); Dale L. Morgan, “Documents from Early Mormon History,” John Phillip Walker, comp. (unpublished manuscript in my possession); James D. Bales, The Book of Mormon? (Rosemead, CA, 1958); Charles A. Shook, Cumorah Revisited (Cincinnati, 1910); Robert Silverberg, Mound Builders of Ancient America: The Archaeology of a Myth (Greenwich, CT, 1968); Lee Eldridge Huddleston, Origins of the American Indians: European Concepts, 1492-1729, Latin American Monographs, no. 11 (Austin, 1967); Gustav H. Blanke, “Early Theories about the Nature and Origin of the Indians, and the Advent of Mormonism,” Amerikastudien 25 (1980): 243-68; Ethan Smith, View of the Hebrews; or the Tribes of Israel in America (Poultney, VT, 1825); and Josiah Priest, American Antiquities and Discoveries in the West (Albany, NY, 1833).

The following bibliography together with this book demonstrate that curiosity among Joseph Smith’s contemporaries about the New World and its Indians was widespread. Again, however, I wish to remind readers that the works which follow do not necessarily represent direct borrowings in regards to the text or composition of the Book of Mormon.

I. Books

Acosta, Joseph [de] (1539-c. 1600). The Naturall and Morall Historie of the East and West Indies. Translated by E[dward] G[rimston]. London, 1604. ACS 075.008. Originally published in Latin in 1589, in Spanish in 1590, 1591, and 1608.

Acosta traveled to Peru as a Jesuit missionary in 1570. His book was the first to deal with problems regarding men and animals in the New World. He does not commit himself on Indian origins, except to say that he is sure they came from Adam (50-51), and is skeptical of contemporary speculations that the Indians came from Atlantis or were descendants of the ten tribes (71-77). He also rejects the notion that the Indians migrated by sea, whether intentionally or because of storms (56-71). Rather Acosta suggests that both men and animals entered the New World through a northern passage where the Old World and the New touched or were in close proximity (64-68).

Adair, James (c. 1709-c. 1783). The History of the American Indians. London, 1775. LAC 14288; SAB 155.

Adair was a pioneer Indian trader who lived among the North American Indians (principally the Chicksaw and Cherokee), 1735-75. He wrote his book, a proof that the Indians descended from the ten tribes of Israel, to contradict writers such as Lord Kames who asserted the Indians were pre-Adamites (3). Adair’s evidence for the Indian-Israelite theory consists of twenty-three parallels between Indian and Jewish customs. For example, he claims the Indians spoke a corrupt form of Hebrew (37-74), honored the Jewish sabbath (76), performed circumcision (136-37), and offered animal sacrifice (115-19). He also describes ancient fortifications which he had personally observed (377-78). Although Adair’s thesis was later dismissed, his account of the various tribes, their customs and vocabularies, together with his narration of life among the Indians continues to interest scholars.

Adams, Hannah (1755-1832). The History of the Jews. 2 vols. Boston, 1812. SS 24528; LAC 22643. London, 1818.

Adams discusses the Indian-Israelite theory of Manasseh ben Israel and James Adair (2:333-38) and mentions the black Jews of Cochin and their brass plates (2:197-99).

Ashe, Th[omas] (1770-1835). Memoirs of Mammoth, and Various Other Extraordinary and Stupendous Bones, of Incognita, or Non-Descript Animals, Found in the Vicinity of the Ohio, Wabash, Illinois, Mississippi, Osage, and Red Rivers, &c. &c. Liverpool, 1806. SAB 2179.

———- . Travels in America. 3 vols. London, 1808. [New York, 1808; SAB 2180.] London, 1809, 1818; Baltimore, 1808; Newburyport, MA, 1808; Pittsburgh, 1808; New York, 1808, 1811.

Irish traveler Thomas Ashe describes several ancient fortifications and burial mounds he encountered during his 1806 trip to North America (1:76-86, 308-19, 2:13-16, 26-34).

Barton, Benjamin Smith (1766-1815). Archaeologiae Americanae Telluris Collection et Specimina; or, Collections with Specimens, for a Series of Memoirs on Certain Extinct Animals and Vegetables of North-America. Philadelphia, 1814. SAB 3803.

Barton describes various mammoth bones found in North America.

———- . New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America. Philadelphia, 1797. ACS 230.003; LAC 15385; SAB 3819. Philadelphia, 1798.

Barton compares the Indian’s language to several Old World languages, including the Semitic languages (80).

———- . Observations on Some Parts of Natural History. London, [1787?]. SAB 3820.

In 1775 Barton accompanied his uncle, David Rittenhouse, to survey the western boundary of Pennsylvania. He describes the Indians and various mounds in the area. In addition, Barton rejects the notion that the Indians had Christian doctrines before their discovery (47).

Bartram, John (1699-1777). Observations on the Inhabitants, Climate, Soil, Rivers, Productions, Animals, and Other Matters Worthy of Notice. Made by Mr. John Bartram, in His Travels from Pennsylvania to Onodago, Oswego and the Lake Ontario, In Canada. London, 1751. ACS 013.146; LAC 14492.

Bartram mentions the controversy over Indian origins and declares that only God knows why men have different skin colors (vii-viii).

Bartram, William (1739-1823). Travels. London, 1766. SAB 3870. Philadelphia, 1791; London, 1792, 1794; Dublin, 1793.

Bartram describes several ancient fortifications.

Beatty, Charles (1715?-72). The Journal of a Two Months Tour. London, 1768. SAB 4149. Edinburgh, 1798.

In 1755, Beatty, a Presbyterian clergyman, became chaplain to Pennsylvania troops sent to defend the northwestern borders of the state against Indians. This gave him an opportunity to observe the Indians. Beatty favors the Indian-Israelite theory and makes comparisons between Indian customs and the law of Moses (27, 83-92).

Beaufoy, Mark (1764-1827). Mexican Illustrations. London, 1828. SAB 4169.

Beaufoy describes Mexican pyramid temples and fortifications, including the buildings at Palenque (189-99, 218), and mentions ancient hieroglyphical books (199, 221) and the theory that St. Thomas preached the gospel in ancient Mexico (150, 220-21).

Beaufoy, [Mark?]. Tour through Parts of the United States and Canada. London, 1828. ACS 452.004; LAC 12142; SAB 4168.

Beaufoy, a British subject, visited entrenchments and burial mounds in Ohio (104). “Some insist they are the remains of a civilized people, exterminated by the Indian hordes from Asia,” he wrote. He also mentions the pyramids of Mexico and the Welsh theory of Indian origins.

Beck, Lewis C[aleb] (1798-1853). A Gazetteer of the States of Illinois and Missouri. Albany, 1823. SAB 4231.

Beck describes ruins of stone buildings (203, 305), mounds (43, 203, 281, 331), and mammoth bones (260).

Belknap, Jeremy (1744-98). A Discourse, Intended to Commemorate the Discovery of America. Boston, 1792. E 24085.

Belknap discusses the problems of Indian origins and how the gospel reached America (43-44, 48). He suspends judgment on Indian origins and rejects the notion that the gospel was preached in ancient America. He also describes fortifications in Ohio (44-45).

Bernhard, Karl (1792-1862). Travels through North America, during the Years 1825 and 1826. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1828. ACS 093.003.

Bernhard describes the mammoth skeleton he saw at Peale’s Museum in Philadelphia (1:139-40).

Bingly, William (1774-1823). Travels in North America. London, 1821. LAC 13140. London, 1823.

Bingly mentions the mammoth skeleton found in New York (4-5) and the one in Peale’s Museum (48).

Bonnycastle, R[ichard] H[enry] (1791-1847). Spanish America. Philadelphia, 1819. London, 1818.

Bonnycastle describes ancient fortifications, temples, ruins, and highways in Mexico and Peru (55, 58-59, 70, 91-92, 99-100, 107-108, 113-16, 120-22).

Boudinot, Elias (1740-1821). A Star in the West; or, a Humble Attempt to Discover the Long Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. Trenton, 1816. LAC 14290; SAB 6856.

The title of this work was no doubt inspired by Claudius Buchanan’s popular book, A Star in the East (Boston, 1811), which claimed the ten tribes were east of Israel in Persia and India. Boudinot wrote to defend the Indians’ character and to save them from extinction. He relies heavily on evidences compiled by James Adair. He also mentions the Indian’s lost book of God (110-11).

Brachenridge, H[enry] M[arie] (1786-1871). Views of Louisiana. Pittsburgh, 1814. SS 30979.

Brachenridge describes mounds and palisaded forts in North America (121, 183-88) and mentions various theories on Indian origins, including the Indian-Israelite theory of Adair (189-90).

Brerewood, Edward (1565?-1613). Enquiries Touching the Diversity of Languages. London, 1674. London, 1614, 1622, 1635.

Brerewood, an English philologist, believed the North American Indians to be a group of Tartar origin who came to America via the northern land bridge. He also states that animals came by the same route, for certainly no one would have transported wild and vicious beasts.

Bry, Theodore de (1528-98). Grands Voyages. Frankfort, 1590. ACS 003.002.

Bry’s book is a collection of pieces by various authors who had described the New World and its natives.

Buchanan, James. Sketches of the History, Manners, and Customs, of the North American Indians, with a Plan for Their Melioration. 2 vols. New York, 1824. LAC 22210. London, 1824.

Buchanan, a British consul at New York, urges the Americans to be merciful to the Indians, who are being mistreated (1:vii-xi). He reviews various theories on Indian origins but refrains from speculating himself (1:13), reprints a speech of Samuel Jarvis arguing that Indian religion is not like Judaism as Adair and others suppose (2:1-47), and includes an “Extract from Blome’s State of His Majesty’s Isles and Teritories in America” [London, 1687], which states that the Indians are the lost ten tribes (2:101).

Bullock, W[illiam] (fl. 1808-28). Six Months Residence and Travels in Mexico. London, 1824. London, 1825.

Bullock describes Mexican temples, fortifications, and idols (111-12, 326-42).

[Burke, Edmund] (1729?-97). An Account of the European Settlements in America. 2 vols. 2nd ed. London, 1758. LAC 20774. London, 1757, 1758, 1760, 1765, 1766, 1770, 1777, 1808; Dublin, 1762.

Burke describes how the Indians looked when they were first discovered (1:167-75). He also mentions the Mexican and Peruvian temples (1:173) and gives an account of Montezuma receiving Cortes as the returning white god (1:70-129).

Burnet, Thomas (1635?-1715). The Theory of the Earth: Containing an Account of the Origin of the Earth. 2 vols. London, 1684. W 206. London, 1690, 1691, 1697.

Burnet, an early primitivist, believes the Indians reflect man’s true, innocent nature (1:249) and discusses how Adam’s posterity could have come to the New World after the Flood (1:270-73).

Burton, Richard [Nathaniel Crouch] (1632?-1725?). The British Empire in America. London, 1684. W 178. London, 1685, 1692, 1698, 1702, 1711, 1728, 1729, 1739.

Burton, an anti-primitivist, includes many examples of Indian barbarity, cruelty, idleness, and idolatry.

———- . A Journey to Jerusalem. Philadelphia, 1794. E 26833. London, 1672; Glasgow, 1786; Hartford, 1796.

Burton discusses the ten tribe theory (31-36, passim).

Carter, Jarvis. A Topographical Description of the State of Ohio, Indiana Territory, and Louisiana. Boston, 1812.

Carter describes mammoth bones (48).

Carver, J[onathan] (1710-80). Three Years Travels through the Interior Parts of North-America. Philadelphia, 1796. LAC 13164. Philadelphia, 1784, 1786, 1789, 1792; Boston, 1794, 1797, 1802; Portsmouth, NH, 1794; Edinburgh, 1792, 1798, 1807, 1808; Glasgow, 1805; Walpole, NH, 1813.

Carver’s Travels is probably the work of Dr. John Lettsome (see E. G. Bourne, “The Travels of Jonathan Carver,” American Historical Review 11 [Jan. 1906]: 287-302). The book contains a lengthy discussion of the various theories on Indian origins (115-253) and a description of ancient fortifications (35-36).

Casas, Bartolome de las (1474-1566). A Relation of the First Voyages and Discoveries Made by the Spaniards in America. London, 1699. LAC 16616.

Charlevoix, P[ierre Francois Xavier] de (1682-1761). Journal of a Voyage to North-America. 2 vols. London, 1761. ACS 540.005.

In his thorough and scholarly “Preliminary Discourse on the Origin of the Americans” (1:1-59), Charlevoix reviews previous theories and presents his own views on the subject. He evidently believes that all men descended from Adam and that the Indian’s skin color is due to climatic and environmental conditions (1:15, 47, 49). Hence he concludes that the Indians came to the New World shortly after the dispersion from the tower of Babel in a ship similar to Noah’s (1:49, 53).

Chastellux, [Francois Jean] de (1734-88). Travels in North America. 2 vols. London, 1787. ACS 481.001. [New York, 1827; LAC 12165.] Paris, 1786; Dublin, 1787; New York, 1827, 1828.

Chastellux describes ancient entrenchments he visited in North America (1:411).

Clarke, Adam (1760?-1832). The Holy Bible . . . with a Commentary and Critical Notes. 6 vols. N.p., 1810. Many editions, including New York, 1811-25; London, 1810-17.

Clarke rejects the ten tribe theory of Indian origins and instead places the Israelites in Persia and vicinity (2:535-36).

Clavigero, Francesco Saverio (1731-87). The History of Mexico. Translated by Charles Cullen. 3 vols. Philadelphia, 1817. SS 40488. London, 1787, 1807; Philadelphia, 1804, 1817; Richmond, VA, 1806.

Clavigero describes Mexican fortifications (2:174). He discusses and rejects the notion that St. Thomas preached the gospel to the ancient Americans (2:13-15).

Clinton, DeWitt (1769-1828). Discourse Delivered before the New-York Historical Society. [6 Dec. 1811]. New York, 1812.

Clinton, governor of New York, describes the various fortifications in his state (57-58). He also makes a distinction between the mound builders and the Indians, who supposedly destroyed the mound builders in a terrible war (53, 61).

Cooper, W. D. The History of North America. New Brunswick, 1802. SS 2088. London, 1789; Bennington, VT, 1793, 1800; Lansingburgh, NY, 1795, 1805; New York, 1796, 1797, 1809; New Brunswick, 1797; Philadelphia, 1797, 1798; Catskill, NY, 1810, 1811; Hartford, 1814; Albany, 1815, 1818.

Cooper, largely indebted to Edmund Burke, describes the Indian’s appearance at the time of their discovery. He finds them a naked and idle people (2-3).

Cotton, John (1584-1652). God’s Promise to His Plantations. Boston, 1634. E 402. London, 1630; Boston, 1686.

Cotton, a leader in the New England Puritan community, justifies taking the Indians’ lands by asserting that they are lazy and neglecting of God’s command to subdue the earth (4-5).

Crawford, Charles (b. 1752). An Essay upon the Propagation of the Gospel. Philadelphia, 1799. E 35362. Philadelphia, 1801.

Crawford believes that America was settled by two major groups: first, by descendants of Noah before the earth was divided in the days of Peleg; later, by the ten tribes (17). He cites evidence of the Indians’ Hebrew origins from Adair and Penn (20-23) and urges his fellow Christians to resist conflict with one another and rather concentrate their efforts on civilizing and converting the Indians (40-48).

Cusick, David (d. ca. 1840). Sketches of the Ancient History of the Six Nations. Lewistone, NY, 1827. [Lockport, NY, 1848; ACS 085.004].

Cusick records Indian fables which he believes support the mound builder myth. One fable, for example, speaks of the descendants of two brothers continually at war with the other until one group is finally destroyed in North America. These fables, according to Cusick, explain the remains of fortifications and burial mounds in New York state, including those near Canandaigua (about ten miles south of the Joseph Smith, Sr., farm).

Duncan, John M. (1795?-1825). Travels through Part of the United States and Canada in 1818 and 1819. 2 vols. New York, 1823. ACS 100.001. Glasgow, 1823.

Duncan describes the Indian’s religion and America’s ancient antiquities (2:91-101). Like Clinton, he distinguishes between the mound builders, whose bodies supposedly filled the burial mounds of North America, and the Indians, who were said to have destroyed them (2:91-93).

du Pratz, [Antonoine Simon] le Page. The History of Louisiana. London, 1774.

Du Pratz suggests multiple origins for the American Indians. For example, he speculates that some Indians might have descended from Phoenicians or Carthaginians who shipwrecked on the shores of South America. The hieroglyphic writing of the Mexicans suggests to him that their ancestors might have been Chinese or Japanese. He also comments on the resemblance between North American Indians and the Tartars of Asia. In addition, he mentions the discovery of mammoth bones in Ohio.

[Dwight, Theodore] (1796-1866). The Northern Traveller. New York, 1826. New York, 1825, 1828.

Dwight describes mounds and fortifications in western New York (74, 102-3).

Dwight, Timothy (1752-1817). Travels; in New-England and New-York. 4 vols. New Haven, 1821-22. LAC 23194-96. [ACS 542.003; London, 1823].

Dwight, eighth president of Yale College, describes various theories on Indian origins and specifically denounces the pre-Adamite theory (1:126).

Eden, Richard. The History of Travel in the West and East Indies. London, 1577. ACS 002.010.

Eden discusses Indian origins and the cause of their skin color (4-5).

Edwards, Jonathan (1745-1801). Observations on the Language of the Mahhekaneew Indians; in which . . . Some Instances of Analogy Between That and the Hebrew are Pointed Out. New Haven, 1788. ACS 160.001. New Haven, 1787; London, 1788; New York, 1801; Boston, 1823.

Edwards argues that Indian language was derived from Hebrew.

Ellicott, Andrew (1754-1820). The Journal of Andrew Ellicott. Philadelphia, 1803. LAC 15198; ACS 078.006. Philadelphia, 1814.

Ellicott describes a burial mound he visited near Wheeling, West Virginia (9).

Flint, Timothy (1780-1840). A Condensed Geography and History of the Western States for the Mississippi Valley. 2 vols. Cincinnati, 1828. LAC 22672-73; ACS 047.006.

Flint, missionary and author of several works, describes the mounds of New York and Ohio (1:192-95). He too adopts the theory that the mounds were built by people more industrious and numerous than the Indians but rejects the notion that the mound builders used iron tools (1:193-94, 2:164, 314). He also mentions the discovery of mammoth bones in North America (1:197).

———- . Recollections of the Last Ten Years, Passed in Occasional Residences and Journeyings in the Valley of the Mississippi. Boston, 1826. LAC 16608.

Flint describes the Indians as savage and uncivilized (135, 156-67, 159, passim). He mentions the idea that they were Jewish but does not commit himself on the subject (136). He describes various burial mounds and fortifications of North America (157, 164-70) and mentions the discovery of mammoth bones and stone coffins (171-73). He distinguishes between mound builders and Indians (157, 164-65).

Freneau, Philip [Morin] (1752-1832). Poems. Philadelphia, 1796. ACS 020.204. [Philadelphia, 1772; LAC 40118.] Philadelphia, 1786, 1809; Providence, RI, 1797.

Freneau jointly composed a poem with H. H. Brackenridge, “The Rising Glory of America” (42-58). In this poem, the authors reject the pre-Adamite theory on the grounds that the Bible makes it clear that the entire world was destroyed during the Flood. Some philosophers had speculated that the Indians survived by climbing the Andes Mountains, but Freneau and Brackenridge reject the notion, arguing that the mountains were made by convulsions which accompanied the Flood (43-44). They speculate that the Indians came to America via the northern passage and were possibly descendants of the Jews, Siberians, or Tartars (44). Their poem also suggests that the New Jerusalem may be built in America (57).

Gass, Patrick (1771-1870). A Journal of the Voyage and Travels of a Corpse of Discovery. Pittsburgh, 1807. LAC 12290. Pittsburgh, 1808; London, 1808; Philadelphia, 1810, 1811, 1812.

Gass describes North America’s ancient fortifications, which he believes are a thousand years old (34-35).

Gomora, Francisco Lopez (1510-60?). The Pleasant Historie of the Conquest of the West India. London, 1578. ACS 002.009. London, 1596.

Gomora mentions that temples and towers of Mexico were made of lime stone and the houses of brick (35). He describes the great temple of Mexico and its idols (201-6).

Goodrich, Charles Augustus (1790-1862). A History of the United States of America. 3rd ed. Hartford, 1823. LAC 11675. Hartford, 1822, 1824, 1826; Brattleboro, VT, 1823, 1828; Bellows Falls, VT, 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827, 1828; Greenfield, MA, 1824, 1825, 1828; New York, 1824, 1825, 1826; Louisville, KY, 1825; Lexington, KY, 1827; Boston, 1827, 1828.

Goodrich includes a general discussion of Indian origins (7-19).

Gookin, Daniel (1612?-87). Historical Collections of the Indians in New England. Boston, 1792. Boston, 1793.

Gookin discusses the various theories of Indian origins (4).

Gordon, James Bentley (1750-1819). An Historical and Geographical Memoir of the North-American Continent. Dublin, 1820. ACS 423.007.

Gordon describes the mounds of Mexico (45-47).

Gordon, Thomas F. (1787-1860). The History of Pennsylvania, from Its Discovery by Europeans to the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Philadelphia, 1829. SAB 28002.

Gordon describes the mounds of the Mississippi valley (44).

Hakluyt, Richard (1552?-1616). Divers Voyages Touching the Discoveries of America. London, 1582. ACS 002.012.

———- . Principal Navigations and Discoveries of the English Nation. London, 1589. ACS 003.001.

Both of Hakluyt’s books are collections of pieces by various authors who described the New World and its natives. They contain both early primitivist and anti-primitivist assessments of the Indians.

Hale, Matthew (1609-76). The Primitive Origination of Mankind. London, 1677. London, 1678, 1779.

Hale discusses the problems of animal and human origins in the Americas. He believes that their uniqueness is the result of climatic and environmental conditions and rejects the notion that Indians were products of a special act of creation (198-203).

[Hale, Sarah Josepha (Buell)] (1788-1879). The Genius of Oblivion; and Other Original Poems. Concord, NH, 1823.

Hale’s romance depicts the mound builders of North America as coming by ship from Tyre, a hundred miles from Jerusalem, during the siege of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia, 585-73 B.C. She concludes her work with eight pages of notes where she describes mounds and fortifications (65-69) and mentions that some fortifications had “pickets” (69). According to Hale, mound builders had metallurgy, including a knowledge of how to make steel (72). She believes that they were a different race than the Indians (67-68).

Hariot, Thomas (1560-1621). A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. London, 1588. ACS 002.015. London, 1589, 1590.

Hariot includes anti-primitivist views regarding the Indians’ religion and customs.

Harris, Thaddeus Mason (1768-1842). The Journal of a Tour into the Territory Northwest of the Alleghany Mountains; Made in the Spring of the Year 1803. Boston, 1805. LAC 13219; ACS 078.010; SAB 30515.

Harris, a Unitarian clergyman in Massachusetts, describes the burial mounds and fortifications of Ohio and elsewhere (61-63, 147-62). He speculates that the fortifications were more than a thousand years old and once included, in addition to ridges of earth, wooden walls (155, 157). He rejects the notion that the mound builders were expert metallurgists but maintains a distinction between them and the Indians (153, 160). He also mentions the discovery of ancient inscriptions and mammoth bones (178, 182).

Haywood, John (1762-1826). The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee. Nashville, 1823. SAB 31085.

Haywood, first president of the Tennessee Antiquarian Society, attempted a pre-history of the state. He compares American antiquities with those of Hindus, Egyptians, and Hebrews. He describes North America fortifications and Mexican temples (77, 107, 121-53, 168-73) and discusses the mound builders’ use of metals, including steel (11, 181, 348-49), copper and brass plates (82, 345-46, 348), and metal coins (173-82, 342-43). He reports the discovery in a mound of brass plates inscribed with strange characters (82), describes stone boxes used by the Indians to bury their dead (203-4, 348, 352), discusses the possible use of the wheel and horse in ancient America (134, 163), and concludes that the mound builders were a white people destroyed by the Indians (1, 191, 218).

[Heald, Henry]. A Western Tour, in a Series of Letters Written during a Journey through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and into the States of Illinois and Kentucky:–Giving an Account of the Soil, Face of the Country, Antiquities and Natural Curiosities. [Wilmington, DE, 1819?].

Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus (1743-1823). An Account of the History, Manners, and Customs, of the Indian Nations, Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and Neighbouring States. Philadelphia, 1819. ACS 160.003; LAC 15143. Philadelphia, 1818.

See the description under Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society in the pre-1830 periodical section of this bibliography.

Herrera, Antonio de (1559-1625). The General History of the Vast Continent and Islands of America. Translated by John Stevens. 6 vols. London, 1740.

Herrera describes the Indians, their antiquities, and their customs.

Hobbes, Thomas (1588-1679). Leviathan. London, 1651. W 107. London, 1680?

Hobbes, an anti-primitivist, believes the Indians live in an inferior state of existence (I, xiii, 83).

Home, Henry [Lord Kames] (1696-1782). Six Sketches on the History of Man. Philadelphia, 1776. E 14801. Dublin, 1774-75, 1775, 1779; London, 1774; Edinburgh, 1778, 1807, 1813; Basil, 1796; Glasgow, 1802, 1819.

Home, a Scottish judge also known as Lord Kames, defends the idea that the American Indians descended from pre-Adamites (1, 11, 29).

Howitt, E[manuel]. Selections from Letters Written during a Tour through the United States, In the Summer and Autumn of 1819; Illustrative of the Character of the Native Indians, and of Their Descent from the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. Nottingham, [1820]. SAB 33372.

Howitt describes ancient fortifications he has visited (135-6, 183). He believes the mounds were erected more than a thousand years previous (183), states that they were the work of a people superior to the Indians (136), and mentions the mound builders’ use of iron (135, 183). He also subscribes to the thesis that Indians are descendants of the ten tribes of Israel (161-84). He describes the mammoth skeleton on display during his 1819 visit to Peale’s Museum in Philadelphia (61).

Hubbard, William (1621-1704). A General History of New England, from the Discovery to MDLXXX. Boston, 1815. LAC 13230. Cambridge, MA, 1815.

Hubbard rejects the ten tribe theory of Indian origins but is certain that the Indians descended from Adam and Eve (26-27).

———- . A Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians in New England, from the First Planting Thereof in the Year 1607, to this Present Year 1677. Boston, 1677. LAC 15306. Boston, 1775; Worcester, MA, 1801; Norwich, CT, 1802; Danbury, CT, 1803; Stockbridge, MA, 1803; Brattleboro, VT, 1814.

Hubbard states that only God knows the true origin of the Indians (1).

Humboldt, Alexander [von] (1769-1859). Concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of America. Translated by Helen Maria Williams. London, 1814.

———- . Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent, during the Years 1799- 1804. Translated by Helen Maria Williams. 7 vols. London, 1818-29. SS 34971. London, 1814-29, 1818, 1822; Philadelphia, 1815.

As traveler, explorer, and scientist, Humboldt, one of the most qualified men of his day, reports to his fellow Europeans his finds in the New World. For example, he describes antiquities of North America and Mexico (6:315-22).

———- . Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain. Translated by John Black. 4 vols. London, 1811. SS 23066. [Baltimore, 1813; SS 28788.] [London, 1811-14; LAC 22213-15.] London, 1822; New York, 1811; Baltimore, 1813 [abridged edition].

Humboldt describes Mexican fortifications and temples (1:33; 2:62-70) and mentions the use of metals in Mexico (3:111-15).

Imlay, George [Gilbert] (1754?-1828). A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America. London, 1793. ACS 103.001. [London, 1792; ACS 122.007]. London, 1797; Dublin, 1793.

Imlay includes a letter from John Hart to Benjamin Smith Barton describing North American fortifications (296-304) and an essay by John Filson, “The Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of Kentucky,” which claims mound builders buried their dead in stone boxes (305-306) and describes mammoth bones found in North America (306-308).

[Irving, Washington] (1783-1859). A History of New York . . . by Diedrich Knickerbocker. 2nd ed. 2 vols. New York, 1812. SS 25726. New York, 1809, 1824, 1826; Philadelphia, 1819, 1829; London, 1820, 1821, 1824, 1825, 1828; Glasgow, 1821; Paris, 1824.

Among other so-called learned theories of his day, Irving pokes fun at various ideas about Indian origins, including the pre-Adamite theory (1:24-38).

Israel, Manasseh ben (1604-57). The Hope of Israel. Translated by Moses Wall. London, 1652. First published in Latin (Amsterdam, 1650); subsequently translated into English (1650, 1651, 1652, and 1792), Spanish (1650, 1659, 1723), Dutch (1666), Judeo-German (1691, 1712), and Hebrew (two editions before 1703, six thereafter).

Israel includes the story of Antonio de Montezinos that a remnant of the ten tribes of Israel had been discovered in the wilderness of Peru, reports the discovery of Hebrew inscriptions and Jewish synagogues in South America, and notes the similarity between certain Jewish and Indian customs. According to Israel, the discovery of the ten tribes in America was a sign that the coming of the Messiah was near.

James, Edwin (1797-1861). An Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1823. Philadelphia, 1822, 1824; London, 1823.

James describes North American mounds and fortifications (1:59-66) and mentions the “lost races” theory to explain their existence (1:62-63). He also discusses the theory that the Indians came from Asia (1:64-65).

Jarvis, Samuel Farmer (1786-1851). Discourse on the Religion of the Indian Tribes of North America. New York, 1820.

In this speech delivered before the New York Historical Society on 10 December 1819, Jarvis argues for a more objective study of the Indians’ religion and flatly rejects the ten tribe theory of Adair and Boudinot (8-10).

Jefferson, Thomas (1743-1826). Notes on the State of Virginia. Boston, 1802. London, 1787; Philadelphia, 1788, 1794, 1801, 1825; Baltimore, 1800; Walpole, NH, 1801; New York, 1801; Newark, 1801; Trenton, 1803; Boston, 1829.

Jefferson had long been interested in America’s antiquities, and in his only published book, he discusses the North American mounds and the discovery of mammoth bones. He was also one of the first to study the mounds by strata and to suggest that the dead were buried at various times rather than all at once after some great war.

Jones, David (1736-1820). A Journal of Two Visits Made to Some Nations of Indians on the West Side of the River Ohio, in the Years 1772 and 1773. Burlington, 1774.

Jones describes ancient fortifications found in Ohio (56-57).

Juarros, Domingo (1752-1820). A Statistical and Commercial History of the Kingdom of Guatemala. Translated by J[ohn] Baily. London, 1823. SAB 36817. London, 1825.

Juarros claims his history of Guatemala was taken from ancient manuscripts. He rejects the pre-Adamite theory, argues the Indians originated in the Old World (118), and mentions the Indian-Israelite theory (162). According to him, the original inhabitants arrived in the New World shortly after the dispersion from the tower of Babel, since the Indians retain stories both of the tower and of the Flood (208-9). Juarros also describes Guatemalan fortifications, buildings, temples, and palaces, including the ruins of Palenque (18-19, 171-72, 187, 383).

Kalm, Pehr (1716-79). Travels into North America. Translated by John Reinhold Foster. 3 vols. London, 1770-71. ACS 629.005; LAC 20681-82. London, 1772.

Kalm describes mammoth bones found in North America (1:135; 3:12).

Kendall, Edward Augustus (1776?-1842). Travels through the Northern Parts of the United States, in the Years 1807 and 1808. 3 vols. New York, 1809. ACS 129.003; SAB 37358; SS 17862.

Kendall describes palisaded fortifications in North America (1:92) and Indian inscriptions found on rocks (1:241-46; 2:221-24; 3:230-31).

Ker, Henry. Travels through the Western Interior of the United States, from the Year 1808 up to the Year 1816. Elizabethtown, NJ, 1816. SS 37997.

Ker discusses various theories on Indian origins (151-70), describes an ancient mound-builder city discovered in North America (324), and mentions mammoth bones (320-23).

Kilbourn, John (1787-1833). The Ohio Gazetteer. 6th ed. Columbus, 1819. SS 48423. Columbus, 1816, 1817, 1818, 1821, 1826, 1829; Albany, 1817.

Kilbourn describes burial, temple, and fortification mounds in Ohio (21-25). The North American mounds commence in western New York, he writes, and extend through the western states in a southwest direction, terminating in Mexico (21).

Laskiel, George Henry. History of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Indians in North America. London, 1794. LAC 14030.

Laskiel discusses various theories of Indian origins (1-2).

Lescarbot, Mark. Nova Francia: Or the Description of that Part of New France which is One Continent with Virginia. Translated by Pierre Erondelle. London, 1609.

Lescarbot entertains the idea that the Indians descended from and inherited the curse of Canaan but because of his primitivist view of the Indians doubts the theory. His translator, however, believes the Canaanite theory and is consequently more harsh in his description of the Indians’ character (vi, 215, 264).

L’Estrange, Hamon (1605-60). Americans no Jewes, or Improbabilities that the Americans are of that race. London, 1652. ACS 006.056. Probably published in 1651, though the date reads 1652.

L’Estrange, an English theologian, wrote to disprove Thomas Thorowgood’s thesis that the Indians were the lost ten tribes of Israel. L’Estrange argues instead that the Indians were descendants of Noah’s son Shem, who came to America at the dispersion from the tower of Babel.

[Lewis, Meriwether] (1774-1809). History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1814. LAC 21138-39.

This work describes ancient fortifications near the Missouri River (1:62-65).

Locke, John (1632-1704). Two Treatises of Government. London, 1690. W 388. London, 1694, 1698, 1713, 1728, 1764, 1772, 1824; Glasgow, 1796; Dublin, 1779.

Locke was a primitivist who believed that man is better off without civilization; Indians were “natural” men still in their original and innocent state.

Loudon, Archibald. A Selection of Some of the Most Interesting Narratives of Outrages Committed by the Indians, in Their Wars with the White People. 2 vols. Carlisle, PA, 1811. ACS 160.006.

Loudon’s description of the Indians is negative and anti-primitivist. For example, he reports idol worship and human sacrifice (2:283). However, he supports the ten tribe theory (2:285-92), mentions that the Spaniards dug up Indian tombstones covered with Hebrew characters (2:285), and compares Peruvian temples to Jewish synagogues (2:288).

Lyon, G[eorge] F[rancis] (1795-1832). Journal of a Residence and Tour in the Republic of Mexico in the Year 1826. London, 1828.

Lyon describes mounds and buildings in Mexico (1:54, 141, 236-42).

McCulloh, James H[aines], Jr. (1793?-1870). Researches on America; Being an Attempt to Settle Some Points Relative to the Aborigines of America &c. Baltimore, 1817. ACS 289.001; SS 41313. Baltimore, 1816.

McCulloh discusses various theories explaining Indian origins and also problems of transoceanic crossing (19-35). He personally favors the lost continent of Atlantis theory, popular with some of the learned but rejected by the common folk, and discusses the theory that the mound builders were a white group more advanced than the Indians (210-19).

———- . Researches, Philosophical and Antiquarian, Concerning the Aboriginal History of America. Baltimore, 1829. ACS 231.002.

McCulloh reviews most of the material covered in his earlier book. He describes temples in Mexico and Peru (249-371) and mounds and fortifications in North America (501-22), discusses various theories about Indian origins, rejecting the pre-Adamite theory (418-64), mentions problems for animals migrating through the Bering Strait (428), and ultimately favors the Atlantis theory. He again discusses the theory that the mound builders were a white race far superior to the Indians (501-22).

McKenney, Thomas L[oraine] (1785-1859). Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes. Baltimore, 1827.

McKenney states that the origin of the Indians is unknown but believes that the time is arriving when the problem will be solved (13).

MacKenzie, Alexander (1763-1820). Voyages from Montreal. 2 vols. London, 1802. ACS 540.007. London, 1801; New York, 1802, 1803, 1814; Philadelphia, 1802; Baltimore, 1813.

MacKenzie describes the Chepewyan Indians of eastern North America and mentions their belief in the Flood and the long life of the patriarchs (1:145).

Martyr, Peter (1455-1526). The Decades of the World. London, 1812.

Martyr describes the Indians and their customs.

Mather, Cotton (1663-1728). India Christiana. A Discourse, Delivered unto the Commissioners, for the Propagation of the Gospel among the American Indians. Boston, 1721. ACS 374.003.

Mather supports a continuing Protestant mission to New England Indians. His description of the Indians is anti-primitivist in tone. They are “the most forlorn Ruins of Mankind, and very doleful Objects,” live a life “lamentably Barbarous,” and practice a religion “beyond all Expression Dark” (28). He flatly rejects the pre-Adamite theory and suggests that those in the Old World could have sailed to America (23). He also discusses the theory that the devil brought the Indians to America after Christ’s resurrection in order to keep them from hearing the gospel (24) and thus rejects the notion that St. Thomas somehow preached the gospel to the ancient Americans (26).

——— . Magnalia Christi Americana; or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England. 2 vols. Hartford, 1820. LAC 22361-62; SAB 46393. London, 1702.

Mather includes a poem by Nicholas Noyes about Indian origins (1:14-15), mentions the ten tribe theory of Thomas Thorowgood and Manasseh ben Israel (1:506), and assesses Indian religion rather negatively (1:503-4).

———- . The Serviceable Man. Boston, 1690.

Mather advances the idea that the Indians migrated to America after the expulsion of the Canaanites by Joshua. The Indians–as descendants of the Canaanites and inheritors of the curse in Genesis 9:27–properly become New England’s “serviceable man.” It is thus God’s will that the New Israel in America subjugate the Indians.

[Mather, Samuel] (1706-85). An Attempt to Shew, that America Must Be Known to the Ancients. Boston, 1773. E 12861; SAB 46792.

Mather, a Congregational clergyman, believes that America was populated by two major migrations, one from the tower of Babel (13) and the other, centuries later, from Asia or possibly Phoenicia (18-19). He also subscribes to the theory that ancient America was visited by Christ’s apostles or perhaps by some of the seventy (22-25).

Michaux, Francois Andre (1770-1855). Travels to the Westward of the Allegany Mountains, in the States of the Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and Return to Charlestown, through the Upper Carolinas. Translated by B. Lambert. London, 1805. LAC 13267.

Michaux describes ancient fortifications in North America (111).

Mill, Nicholas. History of Mexico. London, 1824. SAB 48989.

Mill describes Mexican pyramids and compares them with those of Egypt (140, 158).

Morse, Jedidiah (1761-1826). The American Universal Geography. 2 vols. Boston, 1793. Philadelphia, 1793; Boston, 1796, 1802, 1805, 1812, 1829; Charlestown, 1819.

Morse, a Congregational clergyman, discusses various problems of Indian origins and rejects the pre-Adamite theory (1:75).

———- . The History of America. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1808. SS 15654. Philadelphia, 1790, 1795, 1798, 1819.

Morse suggests that the Indians originally came from Asia across the Bering Strait (1:80). He mentions burial mounds and suggests that some of the lager mounds once served as bases for temples (1:98).

Morse, Jedidiah and Elijah Parish. A Compendious History of New England. 2nd ed. Newburyport, MA, 1809. SS 18130. Charlestown, MA, 1804, 1820; London, 1808.

Morse and Parish describe the dealings between colonists and Indians. Their interpretation of various events is typically Puritan. For example, they state that God punished the Indians with smallpox for their cruelty to the Puritan colony (20-21).

Morton, Thomas (1575-1646). New English Canaan. Amsterdam, 1637.

Morton rejects the Tartar theory of Indian origins and proposes instead a Trojan origin.

[Moulton, William]. A Concise Extract, from the Sea Journal of William Moulton. Utica, NY, 1804. ACS 4477.002.

Moulton describes his visits to ruined Peruvian cities with “large palaces” and “elegant buildings” and Incan highways running over a thousand miles (122, 125).

Nashe, Tho[mas]. Christs Teares over Jerusalem. London, 1593.

Nashe mentions the atheistic theory that the American Indians are pre-Adamites.

Nash[e], Thomas. Pierce Penilesse his Suplication to the Divell. London, 1592.

Nashe criticizes the atheistic notion that men existed before Adam.

Niles, John Milton (1787-1856). A View of South America and Mexico. New York, 1825. New York, 1826, 1827, 1828.

Niles describes palaces and temples in Peru (47).

Nuttall, Thomas (1786-1859). Journal of Travels into the Arkansa Territory, during the Year 1819. Philadelphia, 1821. LAC 13279.

Nuttall speaks of the destruction of ancient mound builders by the Indians (247) and describes various mounds and fortifications (25-26, 80-81, 110, 114).

Ogilby, John (1600-76). America: Being the Latest, and Most Accurate Description of the New World. London, 1671. W 613. London, 1670.

Ogilby discusses various theories of Indian origins, including the ten tribe and other Hebrew theories (7-18).

Parish, Elijah (1762-1825). A New System of Modern Geography. Newburyport, MA, 1810. Newburyport, MA, 1812, 1814.

Parish, a Congregational clergyman, wrote his geography for use in New England schools. He describes mounds in North America (84, 95, 100-111, 120) and the Peruvian temple at Cusco (138). He also mentions a mammoth skeleton found in South Carolina (123). Although Parish does not commit himself on any theory of Indian origins, he does include a comparison of Indian and Israelite customs (22-26).

Peale, Rembrandt (1778-1860). Account of the Skeleton of the Mammoth. London, 1802.

Peale discusses the mammoth skeleton which his father Charles W. Peale unearthed in 1801 in New York.

———- . An Historical Disquisition on the Mammoth. London, 1803.

This book is essentially a second edition of Account of the Skeleton of the Mammoth (1802).

[Penn, William] (1644-1718). A Letter from William Penn. London, 1683. ACS 008.082.

“I am ready to believe them of the Jewish Race, I mean, of the stock of the Ten tribes,” wrote Penn of the Pennsylvania Indians (7). He believes their general appearance and customs are Jewish and their language similar to Hebrew (5, 7). He also believes their dark complexion the result of climatic and environmental conditions (5).

Poinsett, Joel Roberts (1779-1851). Notes on Mexico, Made in the Autumn of 1822. Philadelphia, 1824. London, 1825.

Poinsett mentions the Mexican tradition of the Flood (46), notes their immense pyramids and long paved roads, and mentions their hieroglyphic drawings and knowledge of astronomy and metallurgy (248).

[Priest, Josiah] (c. 1790-1850). The Wonders of Nature and Providence, Displayed. Albany, 1825. This book was published twice in 1825 and once in 1826. The first edition contained no plates, but the second and third editions were enlarged and included ten plates. See Winthrop Hillyer Duncan, Josiah Priest, Historian of the American Frontier: A Study and Bibliography (Worcester, MA, 1935), 12-15.

This work, a compilation of many previously published works, includes an extract from Francisco Clavigero’s History of Mexico recounting the ancient Mexican traditions of idolatry and human sacrifice (569-93) and a portion from Ethan Smith’s View of the Hebrews detailing evidence that Indians were of Hebrew origin (297-332).

Purchase, Samuel (1577?-1626). His Pilgrimage. London, 1613. London, 1614, 1617, 1626.

Purchase describes the New World and its inhabitants.

[Purchase, Samuel]. Purchase His Pilgrims. 7 vols. London, 1625.

Purchase introduces his work with an essay, “The Peopling of America” (vol. 1, bk. 1, 58-61). He also includes translations and extracts from Jose de Acosta (vol. 3, bk. 5), Bartolome de las Casas (vol. 3, bk. 5), and Antonie Knivet, who discusses the belief that St. Thomas preached the gospel in ancient America (vol. 4, bk. 6, 1219).

Rafinesque, C[onstantine] S[amuel] (1783-1840). Ancient History, or Annals of Kentucky; with a Survey of the Ancient Monuments of North America. Frankfort, KY, 1824. LAC 40142.

Rafinesque believes that America was populated some time after the Flood via the lost continent of Atlantis (10-13). He also mentions the discovery of mammoth bones in Ohio (9).

Ranking, John. Historical Researches on the Conquest of Peru, Bogota, Natchez, and Talmeco, in the Thirteenth Century, by the Mongols, Accompanied with Elephants; and the Local Agreement of History and Tradition, with the Remains of Elephants and Mastodontes, Found in the New World. London, 1827.

Ranking, inspired by Indian legends and mammoth remains, writes of thirteenth-century Mongolians who use the mammoth in their conquest of Mexico and Peru. He assumes the mound builder myth.

———- . Remarks on the Ruins at Palenque, in Guatemala, and on the Origin of the American Indians. London, 1828.

Ranking describes the ruins at Palenque as reported by Antonio del Rio and discusses the origin of the Indians.

Rees, Abraham. The Cyclopaedia; or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature. 41 vols. Philadelphia, [1805-25]. SS 9234.

According to the entry titled “America,” neither Phoenicians, Carthaginians, nor Chinese came to ancient America, although Icelanders may have. The horse and the ox did not exist in America before the Spanish, but the American bison may have been used in tillage. The discovery of mammoth bones in both North and South America is also noted (vol. 1, no pagination, alphabetically arranged).

Rio, Antonio del. Description of the Ruins of an Ancient City, Discovered Near Palenque, in the Kingdom of Guatemala. London, 1822.

Rio describes various ruins at Palenque, including several houses and palaces and a very large building. He includes plates of some of the structures, several Mayan codices, and an article, “Teatro Critico Americano; or, a Critical Investigation and Research into the History of the Americans,” written by Paul Felix Cabrera. Cabrera interprets the pre-Adamite theory of Indian origins as an attack on the atonement of Christ (28-29). He suggests instead that the ancient Americans came by sea (101). He also mentions the tradition of an eclipse in A.D. 34 and speculates that the Mexican god Quetzalcoatl was St. Thomas preaching the gospel in ancient America (93-94, 113).

Robbins, Thomas. A View of All Religions; and the Religious Ceremonies of all Nations at the Present Day. 3rd ed. Hartford, 1824.

Robbins includes a section, “The Religion and Ceremonies of the North American Indians,” which discusses the Indian-Israelite theory of James Adair and Elias Boudinot (158-163).

Robertson, William (1721-93). The History of America. 2 vols. London, 1777. LAC 20829-30. London, 1778, 1780, 1783, 1788, 1796, 1800, 1812, 1817, 1821; New York, 1798; Albany, 1822; Philadelphia, 1812, 1821, and others.

Robertson discusses various problems and theories regarding Indian origins (1:1-4), includes the stories of Cortez and Montezuma (2:1-145), of Pizarro and the conquest of Peru (2:147-266), and mentions the practice of human sacrifice in Mexican temples (2:46-47). Drawings of Mayan glyphs and a Mexican pyramid are included (483-84).

Romans, Bernard (c. 1720-84). A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida. 2 vols. New York, 1775. ACS 504.007; E 14440. New York, 1776.

Romans, a cartographer sent to North America by the British government, believes the Indians were a separate creation and not descended from Adam (1:38-39). Consequently, he rejects any theory which has American natives originating in the Old World, including the ten tribe theory (1:46-49). He also argues for a partial flood at the time of Noah, thus accounting for Indian survival in the New World (1:57-58).

Schoolcraft, Henry R[owe] (1793-1864). Narrative Journal of Travels through the Northwestern Regions of the United States, Extending from Detroit through the Great Chain of American Lakes, to the Sources of the Mississippi River. Albany, 1821. ACS 450.010; LAC 13309.

Schoolcraft mentions mounds and fortifications he saw during his travels (29-30).

Sewall, Samuel (1652-1730). Phaenomena Quaedam Apocalyptica. Boston, 1697. E 813. Boston, 1727.

Sewall, a Congregational clergyman, suggests that the Indians are Israelites (2, 35), that America might be the place of the New Jerusalem, and that the “other sheep” mentioned in John 10:16 are the American Indians (1-2, 42).

———- . The Selling of Joseph. Boston, 1710.

Sewall argues against the descent of the Indians from Canaanites who were expelled by Joshua and rejects the idea that Puritans have a right to subjugate Indians because of the curse in Gen. 9:27 (40-44).

Sigourney, Lydia Howard (1791-1865). Traits of the Aborigines of America. A Poem. Cambridge, MA, 1822. LAC 12069.

In her poem, Sigourney portrays the Indians in a positive light, relatively uncommon for her day, and refers to Elias Boudinot and the ten tribe theory (8-9). She appends notes to the poem defending the theory (187-88).

Simon, Barbara Anne. Hope of Israel; Presumptive Evidence that the Aborigines of the Western Hemisphere are Descended from the Ten Missing Tribes of Israel. London, 1829.

Smith, Ethan (1762-1849). View of the Hebrews; or the Tribes of Israel in America. Poultney, VT, 1825. [Poultney, VT, 1823; ACS 306.014.]

Smith’s is by far the most important and interesting work dealing with the origin of the American Indians and the mound builders. Smith quotes from many other writers, both American and European, to support his thesis that the first settlers of the New World were the lost ten tribes of Israel. He also includes extracts from Alexander von Humboldt’s description of Mexican antiquities, Caleb Atwater’s description of the mounds and fortifications of North America, and the evidence compiled by James Adair and Elias Boudinot to connect Indians with the lost ten tribes. Smith, so far as can be determined, is the only writer before 1830 to combine the Hebrew origin theory with the mound builder myth. Several times he repeats the notion that the mound builders were destroyed by the Indians (184, 172, 173). His ten tribe theory forces him to develop the hypothesis that the Indians had degenerated from a civilized condition to their wild and savage state. He also mentions the Indian legend of the lost book of God which would one day be returned (130, 223).

Smith, John (1580-1631). The General Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. London, 1624. London, 1625, 1626, 1627, 1632, 1666, 1727; Richmond, VA, 1819.

Smith refers to the Welsh and Carthaginian theories of Indian origins (1).

Smith, Samuel Stanhope (1750-1819). An Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and figure in the Human Species. To which are Added Strictures on Lord Kaims’s Discourse, on the Original Diversity of Mankind. Philadelphia, 1787. LAC 12694; SAB 84103. Edinburgh, 1788; London, 1789; New Brunswick, NJ, 1810.

Smith describes the Indians as lazy and filthy and proposes that their skin color is the result of climatic conditions (27, 33). He flatly rejects Lord Kames’s [Henry Home] pre-Adamite theory.

Smyth, [John] F[erdinand] D[alziel] (1745-1814). A Tour in the United States of America. 2 vols. London, 1784. Dublin, 1784.

Smyth mentions the mammoth bones in Ohio (1:332).

Solis, Antonio de (1679-1764). The History of the Conquest of Mexico. 2 vols. London, 1753.

Southey, Robert (1774-1843). Madoc. A Poem. 2 vols. Boston, 1806. London, 1805, 1807, 1812, 1825; Boston, 1808.

Southey’s poem is based on the Welsh theory of Indian origins.

Spafford, Horatio Gates (1778-1832). A Gazetteer of the State of New-York. Albany, 1813. Albany, 1824.

Spafford describes various fortifications in New York (58).

Stoddard, Amos (1762-1813). Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana. Philadelphia, 1812. LAC 13321.

Stoddard discusses various theories of Indian origins (465-66) and mentions the presence of white Indians in North America (474-75).

Stoddard, Solomon (1643-1729). Question Whether God is Not Angry with the Country for Doing so Little Towards the Conversion of the Indians? Boston, 1723. E 2479.

As the title implies, Stoddard believes that God is angry because whites have done little to convert the Indians.

Sullivan, James (1744-1808). The History of the District of Main. Boston, 1795. LAC 11734.

Sullivan discusses various theories of Indian origins and is satisfied with none of them (80). According to Sullivan, Ohio fortifications were built by people from Mexico and Peru because North American Indians did not possess the knowledge to construct them (83).

Thompson, George Alexander. A New Theory of the Two Hemispheres; Whereby It Is Attempted to Explain, on Geographical Facts, the Time and Manner in which America was Peopled. London, 1815.

Thorowgood, Tho[mas]. Jews in America, or, Probabilities That the Americans are of that Race. London, 1650. ACS 006.054. London, 1652.

Thorowgood includes Antonio de Montezinos’s account of the discovery of the ten tribes in Peru as well as other evidence of the Israelite origin of the American Indians. He also mentions the notion that the gospel was anciently preached in America (chap. 7, 24). Thorowgood, an English theologian, emphasizes the millennialistic nature of his Indian-Israelite identification and the importance of the Indians’ conversion to Christianity.

Thorowgood, Thomas and John Eliot. Jews in America, or Probabilities, that those Indians are Judaical, made more probable by some Additionals to the former Conjecture. London, 1660. ACS 006.064. Two editions in 1660.

Thorowgood, this time teamed with the famed “Apostle to the Indians,” John Eliot of Massachusetts, strengthens his arguments that the Indians are of the ten tribes of Israel. Thorowgood had been attacked by fellow theologian Sir Hamon l’Estrange, who argued similarities listed by Thorowgood were not peculiar to Jews or Indians. Thus Thorowgood and Eliot include evidence that American Indians are distinctly Israelite.

Vega, Garcilaso de la (1539-1616). Royal Commentaries of Peru. London, 1688.

Vega mentions a Peruvian tradition that a race of giants built some of the great ancient buildings and that God swept them off the earth for their wickedness. Vega, a scholar, noted that horses and wheat were brought to the New World by the Spanish.

Volney, C[onstantin] F[rancois] (1757-1820). View of the Climate and Soil of the United States of America. London, 1804. ACS 193.002. [LAC 12704; Philadelphia, 1804].

Volney includes his essay, “General Observations on the Indians or Savages of North America” (393-491), which argues Indian skin color is the result of climatic and environmental conditions (394, 405-7). He mentions the Tartar theory of Indian origins (408) but unlike most other Indian observers, rejects the idea that all Indians look the same (411). He believes that Adair distorted and misrepresented Indian customs and language in order to prove his Indian-Israelite theory (403). He also describes the mounds and fortifications of North America as inferior to those of Mexico (485-87).

Wafer, Lionel (1660?-1705?). A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America. London, 1699. London, 1699, 1729, 1816; Paris, 1706; Glasgow, 1794.

Wafer refers to white-skinned Indians he found in Central America (133-34).

Wakefield, Priscilla (Bell) (1751-1832). Excursions in North America. London, 1810. SAB 100980. [London, 1806; ACS 455.006.] London, 1806, 1819.

Wakefield visited some fortifications and saw mammoth bones at several locations along the Ohio River (115, 149).

Walton, William (1784-1857). Present State of the Spanish Colonies. 2 vols. London, 1810.

Walton mentions the Indian belief in the Creation and Flood (2:23-24) and includes a description of Mexican architecture and metalwork (2:43-44).

Ward, Henry George (1797-1860). Mexico in 1827. London, 1828.

[White, John] (1575-1648). The Planters Plea. London, 1630.

White mentions the belief of some that Indians are of Ham’s posterity and therefore excluded from grace until after the Jews are converted. He argues that although the Indians might be Ham’s posterity, only Ham’s son Canaan was cursed. The Indians, he contends, are not Canaanites (54-57).

Williams, John (1727-98). An Enquiry into the Truth of the Tradition, concerning the Discovery of America by Prince Madog ob Owen Gwynedd, about the Year 1170. London, 1791.

Williams’s work is based on the theory that the Indians originated in Wales.

———- . Further Observations on the Discovery of America by Prince Madog ob Owen Gwynedd, about the Year 1170. London, 1792.

Williams’s second work is also based on the Indian-Welsh theory.

[Williams, Roger] (1604?-83). The Bloody Tenet. [London], 1644. W 228.

Although Williams believes the Indians worshiped the devil, he defends their right to freedom of conscience (102-3).

Williams, R[oger]. The Bloody Tenet Yet More Bloody. London, 1652. ACS 006.057.

Williams expands his previous arguments that it is unchristian to kill the Indians in order to take their lands. He argues against John Cotton’s view that the Indians must be swept aside as were the ancient Canaanites to make way for God’s chosen people, the Puritans. Rather, Williams insists on Puritan toleration of Indian religion: “They should be tolerated in their hideous worships of creatures and devils” (25).

Williams, Roger. A Key into the Language of America. London, 1643. SAB 104339. [Boston, 1827; ACS 580.010.] Boston, 1643, 1810, 1827; Charlestown, RI, 1827; also published in the Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, Boston, 1794, rep. 1810, 3:203-39.

Williams believes that Indian language is a form of Hebrew and that their customs resemble those of the Jews (20-21). Although he is tolerant of the Indians, Williams believes their religion is devil inspired (112-13, 118).

Williams, Samuel (1743-1817). The Natural and Civil History of Vermont. Walpole, NH, 1794. LAC 11740. [Burlington, VT, 1809; SAB 104350.]

Williams discusses various theories of Indian origins, including the pre-Adamite theory, but prefers the Tartar theory (187-89). He also believes that all Indians originated from the same place (158). He mentions the discovery of mammoth bones in North America and the Indians’ belief that such animals still existed in the western territories (103).

Williamson, Hugh (1735-1819). Observations on the Climate in Different Parts of America. New York, 1811. SAB 104451; SS 24459.

Williamson describes in detail fortifications in North America (189-99) and states that the Toltecs possessed the art of metallurgy, including the knowledge of hardening copper (113).

Wilson, J[ohn] (1588-1667). The Day Breaking if not the Sun Rising of the Gospel with the Indians in New England. New York, 1647. LAC 40107.

Wilson advocates a Tartar origin for the Indians (18).

Winterbotham, W[illiam] (1763-1829). An Historical, Geographical, Commercial, and Philosophical View of the American United States, and of the European Settlements in America and the West-Indies. 4 vols. New York, 1796. E 31647. [London, 1795; ACS 193.003.] New York, 1795; London, 1799.

Winterbotham mentions the Welsh and Carthaginian theories of Indian origins but rejects them both (1:1).

Wood, William (fl. 1629-35). New Englands Prospect. London, 1634. London, 1635, 1637, 1639.

Wood disagrees with those who believe the Indians spoke Hebrew (102).

Worsley, Israel (1768-1836). A View of the American Indians. London, 1828.

Worsley relies heavily on Ethan Smith’s View of the Hebrews but adds additional information, including Manasseh ben Israel’s account of Antonio de Montezinos’s discovery of the ten tribes in Peru (147). Worsley believes that the tribes of Manasseh and Ephraim arrived in America first and that the other tribes followed after (150-52). He describes mounds and iron tools (137-44) and explains that the mound builders had been destroyed by the Indians (144). He also mentions the discovery of large stone crosses in Central America (161-62) and records the Indian tradition of a lost book of God (182).

Wynne, [John Huddlestone] (1743-88). A General History of the British Empire in America. 2 vols. London, 1770. ACS 075.007; LAC 20841-42. London, 1776.

Wynne discusses various problems of Indians coming to the New World but is certain they descended from Adam (1:19-25).

Yates, John V[an] N[ess] (1779-1839) and Joseph W[hite] Moulton (1789-1875). History of the State of New York. New York, 1824. LAC 15772.

Yates and Moulton trace the ancient and colonial history of New York, discussing in detail the problems and various theories of Indian origins in America (13-93). They describe mounds and fortifications in their state and neighboring states (13-20, 33-34), as well as the ruins of an ancient city near Palenque (73-77). According to them, these mounds, part of a great chain running down through Mexico and into South America (19-20), were built by a separate race of white-skinned people who were destroyed by the Indians (21-22, 40-44, 92-93). They mention the discovery of hieroglyphic writing and mammoth bones (14-15, 20), and include reports that Indians in certain locales possessed the signs and tokens of Freemasonry (55-56).

II. Periodicals

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Memoirs. Cambridge, MA, 1785-19–. APS 2:363.

Vol. 3, 1809: E[dward] A[ugustus] Kendal[l], “Account of the Writing-Rock in Taunton River; In a letter to the Hon. John Davis, Esq. Recording Secretary of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences” discusses Indian hieroglyphic writing and includes a plate of the “Writing Rock” (165-91).

American Journal of Sciences (followed by American Journal of Science and Arts). New York, 1818-19. Edited by Benjamin Silliman. APS 2:53.

Vol. 1, 1818: Caleb Atwater, “On the Prairies and Barrens of the West . . . in letters to the Editor,” discusses theories of how the North American prairies were made: one popular theory is that the aborigines burned down the forests in order to hunt wild animals, another that the forests were cut down by the aborigines in order to cultivate large crops (116). Both theories are rejected by Atwater who believes the prairies were once covered by the waters of the Great Lakes (120-24). The Journal also prints the call of an Ohio museum for extinct animal bones and curious works of the ancients (203-206).

American Journal of Science and Arts (follows the American Journal of Science). New Haven, 1820-79. Edited by Benjamin Silliman, 1818-64. APS 2:53.

Vol. 2, Nov. 1820: Caleb Atwater, “On some ancient human bones &c. with a notice of the bones of the Mastodon or Mammoth, and of various shells found in Ohio and the west,” describes discovery of a mammoth skeleton by Charles W. Peale (35, 242, 245-46).

Vol. 9, June 1825: Announces that New York’s Lyceum of Natural History has just received some mammoth bones (387).

Vol. 19, 1828: Reports on the mammoth skeleton at the Lyceum of Natural History in New York (31-33).

American Monthly Magazine. Boston, 1829-31. Edited by N. P. Willis. APS 2:468.

Vol 1., April-May 1829: “Aborigines of America,” Parts 1 and 2, advocates the Bering Strait theory and discusses other theories of Indian origins (48-52). The article presents the idea that all American Indians are descended from the same source (45, 48) and describes Mexican idolatry, human sacrifice and “hieroglyphic paintings” (42, 44, 46). Although the Mexicans are somewhat more civilized than North American Indians, they are not the builders of the great pyramids and buildings of Central America but had assumed these from an earlier civilization (44). The article also describes North American mounds and Mexican and Peruvian structures (41-46).

Archaeologia Americana: Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society. Worcester, MA, 1820-1911.

Vol. 1, 1820: Caleb Atwater, “Description of the Antiquities Discovered in the State of Ohio and other States,” describes North American mounds and fortifications, speculating that at least some of the ancient works were picketed (145), and includes several drawings of the mounds. Atwater, president of the American Antiquarian Society, believes that mound builders were metallurgists who possessed knowledge of making iron and possibly steel (232) and reports their use of “rude stone coffins” (162). At the end of this work, he offers his “Conjectures, respecting the Origin and History of the Authors of the Ancient Works in Ohio,” comparing American mounds to those of various nations in Europe and Asia. He rejects the idea that the Indians or their ancestors built the mounds, thus making a sharp distinction between Indians and mound builders (206-10). The Archaeologia also contains a letter from Samuel L. Mitchill, professor of natural history at the University of New York, to DeWitt Clinton, president of the New York Philosophical Society, dated 31 March 1816 (325-32), which connects the Indians with Asiatics.

Belles-Lettres Repository. New York, 1819-20. Edited by A. T. Goodrich (1819) and C. S. Van Winkle (1820). APS 2:161.

Vol. 1, 1 Aug. 1819: Letter from H. M. Brackenridge to Thomas Jefferson, dated 25 July 1813, which had been read before the American Philosophical Society on 1 October 1813, reports Brackenridge’s visits to mounds near Pittsburgh as well as those along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers (290-95). He distinguishes between Indians and mound builders (291-92) and estimates that some five thousand mounds can be found in eastern North America (291).

Vol. 3, 15 May 1820: [John Haywood?], “Mounds,” a reprint from the Nashville Whig, describes mounds near Nashville (49-52).

Vol. 3, 15 Sept. 1820: “Researches into American Antiquities” describes fortifications in Jefferson County, NY, and at Rodman, NY, (321-22).

Boston Recorder. Boston, 1817-24 (under various names, 1816-1924). Founded by Nathaniel Willis and Sidney E. Morse. APS 2:540.

Vol. 8, 27 Dec. 1823: Review of Ethan Smith’s View of the Hebrews expresses skepticism about Smith’s hypothesis and wonders if “a fertile imagination might not discover the Israelites in China or Arabia, as well as in America” (206). The reviewer also recognizes the speculative and inconclusive nature of Smith’s evidence: “The time may be at hand when the origin of the Indian tribes on this continent will be clearly ascertained; but that time has not yet come” (206).

Christian Examiner and Theological Review. Boston, 1824-28 (under various names, 1813-69). Edited by John Gorham Palfrey, 1823-30. APS 2:79; LAC 31319-66.

Vol. 2, 1825: Extract from William Bullock’s Six Months’ Residence and Travels in Mexico describes Mexican temples and idols (433-34).

Cincinnati Literary Gazette. Cincinnati, 1824-25. Edited by John P. Foote. APS 2:127.

Vol. 1, 24 Jan. 1824: “The Antiquities, in the West,” a satire on those who spin strange theories about North American antiquities, pokes fun at those who believed the mound builders were Christian (27).

Vol. 1, 21 Feb.-29 May 1824: C[onstantine] S[amuel] Rafinesque, “Ancient History of North America,” Parts 1-6, maintains that the Indians came to America via the lost continent of Atlantis and describes mounds and fortifications of Ohio (59-60, 107-8, 116-17, 146-47, 155, 170).

Vol. 2, 25 Dec. 1824: Reviews Rafinesque’s Ancient History and includes “Our Aborigines,” an article about William H. Crawford’s proposal that Americans intermarry with Indians to help civilize them as well as make their race “white and beautiful” (206-7).

Vol. 4, 2 July 1825: Contains a description and diagram of an Ohio fortification (209).

Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Boston, 1792-19–. LAC 23621.

Vol. 1, 1792: Contains the entire text of Daniel Gookin’s Historical Collections of the Indians in New England (1792).

Vol. 3, 1794: Contains the text of Roger Williams’s A Key into the Language of America (1794).

Vol. 4, 1795: Jacob Bailey, “Observations and Conjectures on the Antiquities of America,” describes North American fortifications and mentions hieroglyphic writing discovered on rocks in North America and on cloth in Mexico (100-105). He speculates that the mound builders’ destruction occurred ten or twelve hundred years before the discovery of their earth works.

Columbian Historian. New Richmond, Ohio, 1824-25. APS 2:95.

Vol. 1, 13 May 1824: Discusses the problems of when and how early man reached America, favoring the opinion that both men and animals crossed the Bering Strait from Asia some time after the Flood (1-7).

Vol. 1, 17 June 1824: Exhorts readers to have faith in God’s power to cause men and animals to migrate from the Old to the New World (9).

Vol. 1, 13 Aug. 1824: “Antiquities of the People who formerly inhabited the Western Parts of the United States” describes several fortifications and states that they are the work of “a people far more civilized than our Indians” (60).

Vol. 1, 20 Aug. 1824: States that mounds in North, Central and South America have a common origin (65) and mentions the mound builders’ use of metals, including a purported discovery of an oxidized iron sword in an Ohio mound (65-66).

Vol. 1, 3 Sept. 1824: Describes the contents of the various North American mounds, mentions the discovery of gold, silver, copper, oxidized iron, and speculates on the existence of steel (83, 86).

Columbian Magazine, or Monthly Miscellany. Philadelphia, 1786-90. APS 1:11.

Vol. 1, Sept. 1786: “An Account of the Vices pecular to the Savages of N[orth] America” argues against primitivist European writer who only mention Indian virtues; it lists instead Indian vices: uncleanness, nastiness, drunkenness, gluttony, treachery, idleness, and theft (9).

Vol. 1, Nov. 1786: “Description of Bones, &c. found near the River Ohio” describes mammoth bones and includes drawings of a bone, a tooth, and a tusk (105-107).

Vol. 1, April 1787: Thomas Jefferson discusses the American mammoth (366-69).

Vol. 1, May 1787: J[ohn] Heart, “Account of some Remains of ancient Works, on the Muskingum, with a Plan of those Works,” describes Ohio fortifications and includes a diagram (425-27).

Vol. 1, July 1787: Gives a brief discussion on several theories about the origin of the Indians (552).

Vol. 2, May 1788: Contains “Extracts from Du Pratz’s History of Louisiana, and other Authors, respecting the resemblance between the traditions and Customs of the Nations of America, and those of the Ancient Jews” (240-41). Extracts were also included in June and July issues.

Vol. 2, July 1788: Reprints John Smith’s letter about Hebrew among the Indians and Charlevoix’s Journal of Travels in North America (1761), which states Indians are similar to Jews (367-71).

Vol. 2, Nov. 1788: Contains information on fortifications at Muskingum, Ohio (645-46).

Vol. 3, Sept. 1789: Abraham G. Steiner, “Account of some Old Indian Works, on Huron River, with a Plan of them, taken the 28th of May, 1789,” describes fortifications and includes a diagram (543-44).

Companion and Weekly Miscellany. Baltimore, 1804-6. Edited by Edward Easy. APS 2:13.

Vol. 1, 23 Feb. 1805: Connects the Indians with the Tartars of Asia who supposedly invaded America and destroyed the mound builders (133-34).

Gleaner; or, Monthly Magazine. Lancaster, PA, 1808-9. Edited by Stacy Potts. APS 2:32.

Vol. 1, April 1809: Contains a review and discussion of Robert Southey’s poem Madoc (1806) which is based on the Welsh-Indian theory (355-58).

Missouri Gazette and Public Advertiser. St. Louis, 1808-22. Edited by Joseph Charles, 1808-20.

16 June 1819: Discusses Welsh-Indian theory and discovery of white Indians.

23 June 1819: Continues discussion of Welsh-Indian theory.

Monthly Review. London, 1749-1844.

Vol. 8 (second series), May 1792: Reviews Robert Ingram’s edition of Manasseh ben Israel’s The Hope of Israel (London, 1792). The review mistakenly attributes to Ingram the belief that the Jews were scattered to America after the Babylonian captivity rather than the Assyrian captivity (11).

Museum of Foreign Literature and Science. Philadelphia, 1822-42. Edited by Robert Walsh, Jr., Eliakim and Squier Littell.

Vol. 7, 1825: Compares Mexican and Egyptian antiquities (165-70). The writer knows of the works of Bullock and Del Rio.

Vol. 13, 1828: Reviews Worsley’s A View of the American Indians (757-58). The reviewer is also aware of the works of Elias Boudinot and Ethan Smith.

Nashville Whig. Nashville, 1812-19–.

Vol. 6, 30 May 1818: “The Mammoth” describes North American mammoth bones and reports on the Indian belief that the creature still exists.

Vol. 7, 12 Dec. 1818: “Antiquity,” reprinted from the St. Louis Enquirer, describes the discovery of ancient stone coffins near the Merrimack River.

Vol. 8, 26 April 1820: [John] H[aywood?], “Mounds,” describes certain mounds.

Vol. 8, 5 July 1820: J[ohn] H[aywood], “Antiquities of Tennessee,” describes mounds and ancient stone coffins found in Tennessee.

Vol. 9, 3 Oct. 1820: “Antiquities” describes an ancient fortification discovered in Alabama.

New-Magazine, and General Repository of Useful Knowledge. New York, 1814. Edited by James Hardie. APS 2:162.

Vol. 1, July 1814: Refers to Mather’s An Attempt to Shew, that America Must Be Known to the Ancients (1773) and marshals additional support for his hypothesis (154-56).

New York Magazine; or Literary Repository. New York, 1790-97. APS 1:21.

Vol. 4, Jan. 1793: “Newly Discovered Indian Fortifications” describes fortifications discovered in New York (23-24).

Vol. 4, Oct. 1793: “Consequences of the Discovery of America and the Indians” states that many authors have tried to solve the mystery of the Indians’ origin, but nothing certain has been found (582-84).

Vol. 2 (new series), 1797: Contains a diagram of the fortification at Muskingum, Ohio (555).

Niles’ Weekly Register. (Weekly Register, 1811-14; Niles’ Weekly Register, 1814-37; Niles’ National Register, 1837-49.) Baltimore, 1811-49. Edited by Hezekiah Niles. LAC 31236-62.

Vol. 1, 11 Jan. 1812: James Foster, “American Antiquities,” describes fortifications in Ohio as well as an ancient stone wall and ruins of an ancient city and its streets (360). Foster speculates that the mounds were the work of another race “much more civilized than the present Indian inhabitants.” He speculates that the Indians came from Asia and are probably Scythians.

Vol. 10, 30 March 1816: “Remains of ancient Fortifications” describes several fortifications in western New York, claiming they were surrounded by a ditch and perhaps “picketted” (68).

Vol. 10, 15 June 1816: “American Antiquities” discusses various theories regarding the mounds (258-59).

Vol. 12, 14 June 1817: Announces the discovery of the remains of a mammoth in Orange County, New York (251).

Vol. 12, 5 July 1817: “Ancient Fortifications and Tumuli” reports on a fortification and burial mound in Ridgeway, New York (300).

Vol. 13, 27 Sept. 1817: States that the mound builders, a highly civilized nation, were destroyed by the savage Indians (74). As evidence of the mound builders’ superiority over the Indians, the author claims that glass objects have been discovered in some of the mounds (74-75).

Vol. 13, 17 Jan. 1818: Reports a St. Louis paper’s claim that living mammoths were seen near the Rocky Mountains (344).

Vol. 14, 13 June 1818: Reports several old Indians seeing a mammoth (279-80).

Vol. 16 (supplement), 1819: Reprints a letter from H. M. Brackenridge to Thomas Jefferson, dated 25 July 1813, which had been read before the American Philosophical Society on 1 October 1813 (89-91). The same letter was printed 1 August 1819 in the Belles-Lettres Repository, and Monthly Magazine. This issue of the Register also contains a notice that a mammoth was discovered in New York and laments that such a beast had become extinct in America, for “with teams of mammoths forests might be torn up by the roots, rocks removed, and in short, agriculture could be carried on upon a scale commensurate with the vastness of our country” (104).

Vol. 19, 28 Oct. 1820: “Antiquities, in Alabama” describes mounds and fortifications discovered in Alabama (144).

Vol. 22, 10 Aug. 1822: Reports discovery of a mound in Chautauque County, New York, containing many skeletons and weapons of war (379).

Vol. 29, 3 Sept. 1825: Describes mammoth bones discovered in Genessee County, New York (6).

Vol. 32, 7 July 1827: “Mexican Antiquities” describes the Mexican antiquities, including hieroglyphic books (311).

Vol. 35, 17 Jan. 1829: Mentions mammoth bones and teeth discovered in North and South America (344).

North American Review and Miscellaneous Journal. Boston, 1815-77. Edited by William Tudor. APS 2:178.

Vol. 15, Sept. 1817: William Cullen Bryant’s poem “Thanatopsis” is thought to be about the “millions” of ancient mound builders who slumber in American mounds (338-40).

Vol. 16, Nov. 1817: “Indian Antiquities” reports on an item in the Western Gazetteer describing several mounds found in Harrison, Indiana. The editor of the North American Review introduces the item by stating that the mounds were the work of a people “who had made much greater advances in the arts of civilized life” than any of the Indians (137). The article quotes a portion from the Western Gazetteer to the effect that the mound builders were more civilized than the Indians and that the numerous skeletons which filled the mounds “were doubtless killed in battle, and hastily buried” (137). The Gazetteer also mentions the discovery of several stone houses (138).

Palmyra Herald (follows Palmyra Register, then as Western Farmer, 1821-22, and followed by Wayne Sentinel). Palmyra, NY, 1821-23. Edited by Timothy C. Strong.

Vol. 2, 24 July 1822: Includes “Poetical Description of the Mammoth, by a Shawnee Indian.”

Vol. 2, 21 Aug. 1822: “Antiquary” reports discovery of a mound containing many bones and relics near Fredonia, Chautauque County, New York.

Vol. 2, 30 Oct. 1822: “American Antiquities” reports the discovery in an Ohio mound of large skeletons buried in a Christian manner, west to east. This source also makes a distinction between mound builders and Indians.

Vol. 2, 19 Feb. 1823: Distinguishes between mound builders and Indians. The first settlers of North America are supposedly the descendants of Shem who come by sea. Later the descendants of Japheth cross the sea and subjugate them. This source also speaks of mammoths.

Palmyra Register (followed by Western Farmer, then Palmyra Herald). Palmyra, NY, 1817-21. Edited by Timothy C. Strong.

Vol. 1, 21 Jan. 1818: “Indian Antiquities” is a reprint of an article from the North American Review (Vol. 16, Nov. 1817) which in turn reported on an item from the Western Gazetteer describing several mounds found in Harrison, Indiana. The editor of the North American Review introduces the item by stating that the mounds were the work of a people “who had made much greater advances in the arts of civilized life” than any of the Indians. The Western Gazetteer is quoted as stating that the mound builders were more civilized than the Indians and that the numerous skeletons which fill the mounds “were doubtless killed in battle, and hastily buried.” The Gazetteer also mentions the discovery of a number of stone houses. See also North American Review.

Vol. 1, 18 Aug. 1818: Describes a Roman coin found in Tennessee, which had caused some to speculate that the Romans built the fortifications.

Vol. 2, 26 May 1819: “American Antiquities” reports on the discovery of mounds and expresses the belief that their builders were exterminated by the Indians.

Plough Boy. Albany, 1819-23. Edited by Henry Homespun, Jr. [Solomon Southwick]. APS 2:19091.

Vol. 1, 11 Sept. 1819: “Antiquities of Marietta” reports the discovery of a sword in one of the Ohio mounds. “Here then is conclusive evidence that a people formerly inhabited the country who must have made considerable proficiency in the arts, with which the present natives were found totally unacquainted when Europeans first came among them. What has become of this people?” (118)

Port Folio. Philadelphia, 1801-27. Edited by Oliver Oldschool [Joseph Dennie]. APS: 2:40-2, 220, 228, 915; LAC 31440-84.

Vol. 4 (new series), 7 Nov. 1807: Describes Charles W. Peale’s Museum in Philadelphia (293-96). Peale’s Mammoth Room contained an entire mammoth skeleton which had been discovered in New York in 1801 and several other bones of prehistoric animals (295-96).

Vol. 1 (second series), Jan. 1809: Reviews Thomas Ashe’s Travels in America (150-62) and discusses North American fortifications (159-60).

Vol. 3 (second series), Feb. 1810: Discusses mammoths discovered in the Arctic in 1806 (111-13).

Vol. 4 (second series), Oct. 1810: Letter from Benjamin Smith Barton to Thomas Jefferson, 13 July 1810, discusses the American mammoth (340-44).

Vol. 7 (second series), June 1812: Reviews Benjamin Smith Barton’s New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America (Philadelphia, 1797), discussing Barton’s view that the Indians came from Asia. The review maintains that another race, predating but surpassing the Indians, constructed the ancient forts and cities east of the Mississippi River (507-26).

Vol. 5 (third series), Jan. 1815: Announces that the periodical possesses an unpublished manuscript which refutes the theory that America was peopled from Asia through the Bering Strait and that a portion of the manuscript will be printed in a forthcoming issue (80-81).

Vol. 5 (third series), March 1815: “Proposed Solution of the Question, Touching the Peopling of the Continent of America,” an extract from the unpublished manuscript in the periodical’s possession, argues the impossibility of men and animals crossing the Bering Strait, since no one would transport snakes or wolves. Rather the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans were once dry land, allowing men and animals to migrate to the New World. This land disappeared during the convulsions of the earth at the time of Peleg (231-41).

Vol. 6 (third series), July 1815: “Whence come the Men and Animals to America?” (7-10), another extract from the unpublished manuscript, again argues that animals such as iguanas, alligators, monkeys, and parrots could not have migrated through the extremely cold Arctic region.

Vol. 1 (fourth series), June 1816: “Of the Aborigines of the Western Country” reveals that the extracts published in the March and July issues, supposedly the work of Henry Frost, were in fact written by the late Dr. John P. Campbell (457). The periodical then discusses at length the common notion that the mounds and fortifications were built by a civilized, agricultural, white-skinned race. This white-skinned race, according to the Port Folio, came from Asia and were perhaps Israelites of the ten tribes. These civilized people were eventually destroyed by other more savage and dark-complected Asiatics who also migrated to the New World (457-63).

Vol. 2 (fourth series), July 1816: Continues the June article about the aborigines of the western country, discussing the mound builders’ metallurgy and use of copper, brass, and iron (1-8).

Vol. 3 (fourth series), May 1817: Samuel Mitchill, “American Antiquities,” discusses the Tartar origin of the Indians (422).

Vol. 4 (fourth series), Aug. 1817: “Origin of the North American Indians” mentions that a cross was found around the neck of a skeleton taken from a mound at Chilicothe, Ohio (168).

Vol. 4 (fourth series), Sept. 1817: C. W. Short, “Antiquities of Ohio,” describes a fortification in Hamilton County, Ohio, and includes a diagram (179-81).

Vol. 7 (fourth series), April 1819: “Antiquities of the West” describes antiquities of Tennessee, including a stone fort, some glass, and an iron sword (350).

Vol. 2 (fifth series), Aug. 1822: Describes an Ohio mound, states that the mounds cannot be the work of the Indians, and compares the mounds to the pyramids of Egypt (125-26).

Portico. Baltimore, 1816-18. Edited by Tobias Watkins. APS 2:192.

Vol. 5, April-June 1818: Describes bones of a mammoth discovered in New York (311-12).

Royal American Magazine, or Universal Repository of Instruction and Amusement. Boston, 1774-75. Edited by Isaiah Thomas. APS 1:26.

Sept. 1774: Discusses mammoth bones discovered in Ohio and concludes that the species is now extinct despite stories among the Indians (349-50).

Susquehanna Register (as Montrose Register, 1826; Susquehanna Register, 1827-31?; Susquehanna Register and Northern Farmer). Montrose, PA, 1826-55?

18 Jan. 1826: States that “the Indians–aborigines of America–are, with a few Tartar exceptions, the literal descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” (3).

Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia, 1819-43.

Vol. 1, 1819: John Heckewelder, “An Account of the History, Manners, and Customs, of the Indian Nations, Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighbouring States,” describes ancient fortifications in the Great Lakes region (30). Heckewelder was a missionary to the Delaware Indians.

Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York. New York. APS 2:840; SS 35116.

Vol. 2, 1815-25: DeWitt Clinton, “A Memoir on the Antiquities of the Western parts of the State of New-York,” describes mounds and fortifications scattered throughout the state of New York, including those of Canandaigua and Oxford (71-84). This speech was delivered before the society on 13 November 1817.

United States Literary Gazette. Boston, 1825-26. Edited by James G. Carter. APS 2:242.

Vol. 1, 15 June 1824: Announces the discovery of a mammoth skeleton in New Jersey. The skeleton, nearly entire, was taken to New York’s Lyceum of Natural History (77).

Vol. 1, 1 Oct. 1824: Reviews Ethan Smith’s View of the Hebrews (1823). The reviewer does not agree with Smith’s hypothesis that the Indians are the lost ten tribes (179-81).

Vol. 1, 15 Jan. 1825: Reviews James Buchanan’s Sketches (1824) (292-94). In addition, the periodical also mentions various theories on Indian origins, expresses doubt that any ancient record would ever be discovered to solve the mystery, and states that the mounds and fortifications were built by a people superior to the Indians who had been driven southward and probably became the Mexicans and Peruvians.

Utica Christian Repository. Utica, NY, 1822-26. APS 2:245.

Vol. 4, May 1825: Reviews Ethan Smith’s View of the Hebrews (143-49). The reviewer advises Smith to separate his evidence for Indian-Israelite origins into that which is strictly Hebrew and that which might be construed as patriarchal.

Wayne Sentinel (follows Palmyra Herald). Palmyra, NY, 1823-19–. Edited by E. B. Grandin and Pomeroy Tucker.

Vol. 2, 3 Nov. 1824: Edmund James, “Antiquities in Missouri,” reports on the discovery in Missouri of an inscribed rock and ancient city and speculates that the inscriptions and city were the work of a race exterminated by the Indians.

Vol. 3, 4 Oct. 1825: Contains the speech of Mordecai M. Noah delivered at the dedication of the City of Ararat (situated on Grand Island in the Niagara River) as a refuge for world Jewry.

Vol. 3, 11 Oct. 1825: Noah, whose speech is concluded in this issue, claims that the Indians are the lost ten tribes of Israel and disputes the idea that the natives are indigenous. He also argues against the idea that the Indians are savages or inherently uncivilized.

Vol. 4, 1 June 1827: “Decyphering of Hieroglyphics” compares Mexican hieroglyphics and Egyptian hieroglyphics.

Vol. 6, 24 July 1829: Mentions a mammoth bone in New York City and reprints an item from the Batavia People’s Press on “The Aborigines.” This item describes the mound builders, whose once great nation “stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific,” and wonders what calamity swept them from the face of the earth, speculating that perhaps they had become so wicked that “the Almighty in his wrath utterly annihilated them.”

Western Farmer (follows Palmyra Register, and is followed by Palmyra Herald, 1821-23, then by the Wayne Sentinel). Palmyra, NY, 1821-22. Edited by Timothy C. Strong.

Vol. 1, 18 July 1821: “A Curiosity” mentions the Indians’ use of hieroglyphic-like picture writing.

Vol. 1, 19 Sept. 1821: Mentions that workers on the Erie Canal discovered human skeletons and “several plates of brass.”

Western Review. Lexington, KY, 1819-21. APS 2:253.

Vol. 1, Sept. 1819: Reviews John Heckewelder’s An Account of the History, Manners, and Customs, of the Indian Nations (65-74) and describes several Ohio mounds, explaining that it was a widespread belief that they contain the bodies of those killed in some terrible war (96-98).

Vol. 1, Oct. 1818: Reviews Francisco Clavigero’s The History of Mexico (129-42) and describes North American mounds (171-82).

Vol. 1, Nov. 1819: Concludes the review of Clavigero’s book (193-202) and describes additional ruins and fortifications (193, 220-28).

Vol. 1, Jan. 1820-Vol. 2, April 1820: Two articles describe North American antiquities (346-53, 29-42, 112-20, 153-60).

Vol. 2, May 1820: Describes two ancient modes of burial which indicate to the writer that “there were too [two] powerful nations contending for the country” (200). The fortifications and burial mounds are evidence that a terrible war had been fought in North America (200). The writer also rejects the Bering Strait theory and proposes instead that the ancient Americans came by ship (204).

Vol. 3, Sept. 1820: Reviews the first volume of Archaeologia Americana (Worcester, MA, 1820) (89-112).