Brigham Young University
Gary James Bergera and Ronald Priddis

Chapter 7
Intercollegiate Athletics

Initial Prejudice

[p. 269]Like many of their contemporaries, the founders of Brigham Young Academy believed that competitive sports both detracted students from academic work and threatened the tranquillity of their community. Only gradually did the initial prejudice dissipate–first through encouragement from students who organized their own independent sports leagues, and later through the realization that athletic success could bring positive exposure to the school. During the academy’s first sixteen years, the only recreational activity sponsored by school administrators was an occasional short walk to south Provo to quiet younger students. When students inaugurated an intramural Baseball Club in 1891, it was the first sports program of any kind organized at the academy. Student-sponsored intercollegiate baseball, track and field, and football teams were organized two years later. Administrative involvement in athletics occurred in 1905 when the school hired Clayton Teetzel, a non-Mormon athletic coach. Teetzel, who had played football and competed in track at the University of Michigan, was asked to supervise the university’s extracurricular sports program. Shortly afterwards, BYU also began offering its first physical education classes, with “free-arm movements and dumb-bell drills” for men and, for coeds, “fancy marching” and “wand drills.” Classroom instruction in competitive sports would not be offered by the physical education department for another twenty years. In the meantime, BYU joined the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference, evidence not only of an increased official commitment toward extracurricular sports but also marking the end of student sponsorship. Still, it was not until BYU struggled to gain acceptance into the Western Athletic Conference in 1962 that the school’s sports program began to receive the prominence and unqualified administrative support it has since come to enjoy.1

The academy’s first intercollegiate contest took place in 1895, when the school hosted a combined track and field meet and baseball game with the University of Utah. The event was “not the success that it should [p. 270] have been,” according to one account, because the competing teams treated each other so “discourteously.” After several arguments over individual scores, the academy was declared the winner in track and field by a margin of four points. The final score of the baseball game was never fully resolved because, when the University of Utah team scored three runs on what the academy team claimed was a foul ball, a brawl broke out. The umpires decided to grant the university the runs, tying the score, and then called the game a draw.2

Beginning in the early 1890s, baseball, track, and rowing were replaced at American colleges by football as the principle intercollegiate sport. The rules of the game were not well defined and contests were often brutal. When BYA students formed a team and played their first game against the University of Utah in 1896, the event mirrored the schools’ first meeting on the baseball diamond, ending in a fist fight which police had to break up. The next year, a Christmas Day football game against Crescent High School in Salt Lake City also ended in a “slugging match” when BYA took the lead in the second half with the “downhill slope [of the field] in their favor.” The superintendent of the church’s Sunday School Union, George Goddard, complained to church president Wilford Woodruff that “drinking, profanity, and fighting [were] so freely indulged in, that it made it impossible for the officers of the law to repress [them]. Such was the way that some of our young men, who are supposed to be training for the ministry, to teach mankind to revere, honor and obey Jesus Christ, observed the anniversary of his birthday.” Superintendent Goddard was convinced that this behavior was an unavoidable by-product of football. He could not find “one particle of good arising from indulgence in either yells or football games, but [could] see a great amount of evil.” He advised “utter abandonment by all Latter-day Saints.”3

As rowdiness and occasional injuries continued to mar local football contests, opposition from church leaders gained momentum. Two years after Superintendent Goddard’s complaint, the Church Board of Education, presided over by former BYA principal and Superintendent of Church Schools Karl G. Maeser, formally outlawed football at all church schools, labeling it “a barbarous, brutal exercise not to be dignified by the title of a game.” Initially, the board had voted to bar student participation in any sport, but then modified its position to allow each church school to determine its own policy–except in the case of football. BYA students effectively circumvented the board’s edict, however, by organizing an independent Provo team which continued to wear academy uniforms and attract crowds of cheering academy patrons. The captain and quarterback of the illicit squad was Eugene Roberts, who later became BYU’s athletic director and track coach (Gregory). Not until 1922 did the General Church Board of Education again allow football at church schools. At [p. 271] Columbia, Stanford, and other colleges and universities, football was banned after eighteen college gridiron deaths in 1905 (Lee).4

As a result of the board’s 1899 injunction against football, basketball soon emerged as the most popular sport at BYU. The education department’s Training School Building, with its second story gymnasium “attic,” was completed in 1902. Although the basketball playing floor was nine feet short of regulation length and the bleachers were few, the gymnasium housed inter-school competition for over forty years. Spectators crowded not only the bleachers, but also the edges of the playing floor and even the rafters. BYU competed with other Mormon schools–LDS University in Salt Lake City, Weber Stake Academy in Ogden, and Brigham Young College in Logan–in an Intercollegiate Basketball League, beginning in 1904. BYU won two of a possible three league championships before joining five other Utah schools, including the University of Utah, Utah State Agricultural College, and All Hallows College, to form the Utah Intercollegiate Athletic Association, which sponsored competition in a variety of sports. BYU won the basketball championship in 1908. The association was dissolved two years later when the University of Utah joined the Colorado Faculty Athletic Conference. Utah schools continued to compete for an annual state basketball championship, however, which BYU clenched five years out of seven, as well as tying for first place one additional year. In 1917, BYU sent a team to the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) National Tournament in Chicago and came within one game of winning the championship.5

Despite their success in basketball, BYU teams were unable to win many contests in other sports during the early part of the twentieth century. Following a 1906 track and field meet with the University of Utah, the student White and Blue observed optimistically, “Our team, as a whole, made a better showing than it did last year. Fewer points were made, but our men finished closer in everything.” BYU did produce two track and field prodigies, however, whose individual victories were dazzling. Alma Richards, who had won an Olympic gold medal in the high jump while attending the Murdock Academy in Beaver, Utah, became the national AAU high jump champion in 1913 after transferring to BYU. Four years later, BYU’s Clinton Larson set a world high-jump record at the Pennsylvania Relays. The following year, he placed first in the high jump at the United States Championships at Madison Square Gardens.6

Rocky Mountain Conference

Four years following the University of Utah’s entrance into the Colorado Faculty Athletic Conference (renamed Rocky Mountain Faculty Athletic Conference as a result of the Utah school’s admission), [p. 272]Utah State Agricultural College also joined the conference. The governing body of the Rocky Mountain Conference, comprised of faculty representatives from participating schools, brought maturity and stability to the conference which had not been evident in the student-run leagues with which BYU had been affiliated. Still, BYU administrators were reluctant to escalate the university’s involvement in athletics, and it was not until 1918 that the Mormon university followed the state schools into the Rocky Mountain Conference. During its first few years of conference play, BYU found that it was not competitive because of the school’s restricted program and limited budget. For example, BYU had not yet been allowed to participate in football, the conference’s major spectator sport. BYU students also lacked experience in tennis and boxing. Other conference schools boasted large coaching staffs, which not only produced well-trained teams but also recruited athletes. Recruiting was frowned on by BYU administrators. In addition, conference rules prohibited high school students from playing on varsity teams, putting BYU at a decided disadvantage since its college and high school programs still shared a common campus and athletic program. While a few conference members, including Logan’s Utah State Agricultural College (later Utah State University), the Colorado School of Mines, and the University of Wyoming, had student bodies under 1,000, BYU’s 1921 college enrollment of 600 paled in comparison to the University of Denver’s 3,000, the University of Colorado’s 2,000, and the University of Utah’s 2,000. BYU also lacked facilities. Students had leveled ground and erected bleachers for track and field events on Temple Hill in 1904 but could not afford dressing rooms. Basketball facilities were barely adequate, and, as a result, a disproportionate number of matches were scheduled away from home. Considering such obstacles, BYU’s conference placement after nineteen years is remarkable. In those sports in which BYU competed, the school placed fourth overall, trailing behind the University of Utah, the University of Colorado, and Utah Agricultural College.7

Indicative of the fierce competition in the Rocky Mountain Conference compared to previous affiliations, BYU won only four basketball championships in nineteen years, two of which were first-place ties. In baseball, golf, and boxing, BYU failed to win a single championship. Boxing was outlawed by administrators in 1922 and not re-allowed on campus for twenty years. The strongest sports proved to be track and field, wrestling, tennis, and swimming, although performance in these areas was inconsistent. While BYU’s Clinton Luke won a national title in the running broad jump in 1919 and Clinton Larson continued to win national and world titles in the high jump, the track and field team was unable to win a conference championship until 1928. Two years earlier, when the team scored [p. 273] fewer than half as many points as the University of Utah at a meet, a Y News headline had announced, “Kerplunk! We’ve Hit the Bottom.” But the following year, the team’s Owen Rowe recorded the best time in the country for the 220-meter low hurdles. The track and field team eventually won a total of four conference championships. In swimming, the school exhibited a similar inconsistency, marked by individual accomplishments which exceeded overall team ability. Because the school did not have a swimming pool when it joined the conference, team members practiced strokes on the gymnasium floor, only occasionally venturing into chilly Utah Lake for actual, in-water experience. “If, while passing in the vicinity of the men’s gym, you are led to think that you hear the sound of splashing waters, don’t believe it; it’s a delusion,” explained a student reporter in 1921. After the team’s first meet the following spring, BYU swimmers were said to have felt “elated in the fact that all came through without drowning.” The newspaper observed, “After the first splash, it was plainly evident that the ‘Y’ paddlers lacked coaching and . . . training,” especially in the “slow getaways.” When Provo Central High School installed a swimming pool, BYU swimmers were allowed to train there, and their performance gradually improved. In fact, in 1928, BYU sent Bud Shields to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) finals, where the local hero placed first in both the 220-meter freestyle and the 440-meter freestyle, setting national records in both events. The following year, Shields returned to the NCAA finals to set a world record in the 440-meter freestyle (Black).8

In late 1921, church officials announced that BYU would again be allowed to play football. President Franklin S. Harris pledged himself to “exert every effort and endeavor to make football the major sport at the ‘Y.'” Despite initial optimism, however, BYU won only an average of three conference games per season over the next fifteen years. The upbeat review of a 1926 game read, “Not withstanding [the University of] Utah’s decisive victory, . . . the ‘Y’ gained glory in another way by scoring on the Utah eleven for the first time in the last five years.” Another year, the student Y News reported that “Brigham’s big blue boys outplayed, outsmarted, but slightly underscored the Agricultural College eleven.” Determined to make a success of their football program, students raised funds in 1928 for a stadium, which they erected on the current location of the Stephen L Richards Physical Education Building. Every student donated a minimum of two days’ work toward construction of the facility. Critics questioned the “flurry about the stadium” when “what the school needs is not seats for spectators who have never yet attended its games, but conditions that will make possible the production of teams that will attract spectators to fill the seats that are already provided.” The school’s locker room, they noted, had only five showers for 400 [p. 274] athletes–a situation which would not be improved by building grand stands. But most students were impressed by the architectural plans for the proposed stadium, which included Roman columns on the south and a bowl-shape at the north. Unfortunately, financial restrictions finally precluded either the columns or the enclosed stands, and it would be another twenty-three years before a locker room would be added to the stadium.9

Skyline Conference

By 1936, so many smaller colleges had joined the Rocky Mountain Conference, including Colorado Teachers’ College, Montana State College, and Western State College, that the larger schools felt the prestige of the conference was being endangered. Limited gate receipts at the smaller campuses was an additional source of dissatisfaction to the larger conference schools. Accordingly, the seven principle schools–University of Colorado, University of Denver, Colorado Agricultural College, University of Wyoming, University of Utah, Utah State University, and Brigham Young University–broke away to form a new conference: the Mountain States Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, popularly known as the Skyline Conference. By this time, BYU’s student body had grown to over 2,000. BYU continued to do well in the new conference in track and field, winning eight championships; basketball, winning four championships, with one tie; and tennis, winning two championships. BYU also improved markedly in baseball and golf, but was unable to clench a conference title in either wrestling or swimming during the twenty-five-year history of the conference. Again, BYU placed fourth overall in the cumulative conference record for all sports, lagging behind the University of Utah, the University of Wyoming, and Denver University.10

In football, BYU remained the underdog, placing last for five separate seasons and losing more games than it won nearly every year. Against its rival University of Utah, BYU was unable to score a single point during fifteen contests. The eagerly anticipated, first, all-time victory over the University of Utah came in 1942 but was repeated only once during the conference’s history. In 1949, after losing eleven games straight, BYU was named the “losingest” team in the nation by a syndicated sportscaster (DU, 22 Nov. 1949). After beating the University of New Mexico seven years later, the campus newspaper observed that this was BYU’s first win since the first game of the previous season and its first conference win in two years. BYU was accused of upsetting otherwise unblemished records when it lost to Kansas State and the University of the Pacific in 1963, neither school having previously won a game that season. Denver University’s student Clarion editorialized, “Let’s beat someone besides BYU or let’s give [p. 275] up football” (in YN, 22 Jan. 1947). BYU claimed a “moral victory” when the team deadlocked against the University of Wyoming in a no-score game. At a 1942 football banquet, after their first-ever win over the University of Utah, BYU players were “promised a very sweet piece of immortality for their part in dumping Utah.” But the athletes found it difficult to hide their embarrassment, since the victory over Utah was their only win that season. A student reporter, who was also an athlete, wrote, “To you who have never played football, such an attitude . . . will seem strange. To Bird Chatterton, and [others], . . . who know how damned disgusting and humiliating it is to walk off the field after being handed a first-class licking, our feeling of shame and discontent will be easily understood. . . .By hell,” the reporter concluded, “if you’re going to play–WIN! That’s [our] . . . philosophy” (YN, 28 Jan. 1943).11

In basketball, BYU’s Skyline Conference performance was more impressive, although the team initially lacked coaching. In 1913, when BYU faced a team which played “fast-break basketball,” student reporters claimed it was “a style of basketball the like of which [they had] never seen before” and wrote that the pace was “too fast to follow.” But in the early 1950s, BYU’s newly hired basketball coach, Stanley Watts, introduced a similar fast-break, single-post offense to BYU basketball, establishing a tradition that continued to the 1980s. Basketball was already so popular in Provo when Coach Watts arrived that games were being scheduled in the Springville High School Gymnasium to accommodate growing crowds. But with the introduction of the running game, contests had to be scheduled in the University of Utah Fieldhouse to satisfy the enormous ticket demand. Construction of a BYU fieldhouse had been approved three years earlier but delayed because of disputes over what the appropriate seating capacity would be and whether funds alloted for construction could be recovered by ticket sales. Construction finally began during the 1950-51 season, with approval for double the seating of the University of Utah Fieldhouse. That same season, after nearly placing first in conference play, Watts led his explosive team to a national championship in the National Invitational Tournament (NIT) at Madison Square Gardens, an annual event sponsored by the Metropolitan Basketball Writers Association. BYU’s Mel Hutchins received national press attention at the tournament as “probably the most stylish player in the country[;] . . . tricky in the pivot, accurate from outside, facile underneath the basket” (in Black). Hutchins was the 1951 National Basketball Association’s number one draft choice. The team placed fourth in NCAA play-offs that year, the highest a BYU team has ever placed in NCAA play.12

During half time at the final NIT match between BYU and the Dayton Ohio Fliers, BYU president-designate Ernest Wilkinson was [p. 276] interviewed on national radio about the school’s sports program and the church’s health code. Wilkinson said that he hoped to be able to “demonstrate to the world the physical superiority of young men and young women who abstain from the use of intoxicating beverages and tobacco, and who maintain the single standard of morality.” The favorable press from the interview prompted Apostle Ezra Taft Benson to suggest that winning athletic contests could be of “incalculable” value to the church’s missionary program. BYU’s Board of Trustees had not previously shown any particular enthusiasm for the university’s athletic program, but by 1955 it recommended that Wilkinson find a replacement for football coach Charles Atkinson because of the team’s poor win-loss record (18-49). Wilkinson subsequently accused board members of taking “more interest in the selection of a football coach than in the selection of deans on campus,” to which they “pled guilty” (Wilkinson Journal). Stephen L. Richards, first counselor in the church’s First Presidency, suggested that, if necessary, BYU should hire a non-Mormon coach to give the team adequate direction. In fact, Harold Kopp, who received the head coaching appointment, was not a Mormon. His replacement three years later was an inactive Mormon. To have filled, with board approval, any other faculty position with an inactive Mormon would have been unthinkable.13

When Coach Atkinson was released in 1956, he took advantage of his farewell banquet to tell administrators, friends of the university, and athletes what he believed was lacking in the school’s football program; specifically, dormitories for the players, grant-in-aid money to recruit better athletes, and improved playing facilities. If his replacement were not provided with these improvements, Atkinson predicted that the new coach would find himself “in the same trouble [he] was in.” He further suggested that the new coach should be paid what he was worth and concluded that if he had it to do over again, he would have been “much smarter and more demanding.” Atkinson’s address underscored a number of controversies which had been brewing at BYU for years, not the least of which were recruiting and compensating athletes. The school’s first athletic director, Eugene Roberts, had established a tradition of strict amateurism in BYU sports. “Our primary objective,” Roberts had said, “is not to turn out winning athletic teams, even though if a large number of men report for practice and training, we shall win our share of victories.” Rather, according to Roberts, the important thing was that all students be given equal chance to participate with no favoritism for the “star athlete or the Olympic hero.” During his twenty years as athletic director, Roberts had stressed noncompetitive activities as much as intercollegiate sports. He is most remembered today for his promotion of an annual community hike to the top of nearby Mount Timpanogos. [p. 277]While Roberts was on sabbatical in 1928, a new coach, Ott Romney, initiated BYU’s first contacts with talented high school students to try to persuade them to enroll at BYU. “With the arrival of Ott [Romney] on the ‘Y’ campus,” Roberts explained to Ernest Wilkinson in 1951, “an open season on high school athletes was declared. Provo businessmen were almost hysterical and contributed willingly to a ‘slush’ fund for the benefit of education-hungry men of muscle, speed and performance skills.” At the time, the constitution of the Rocky Mountain Conference prohibited “any remuneration [to students] in the form of money, board, tuition, or other substantial return for athletic services.” However, the regulation was universally disregarded. Roberts transferred to the University of Southern California following his sabbatical to supervise a training program for athletic directors there.14

The Skyline Conference Constitution initially prohibited “paying money to students for services as athletes” and later specifically forbade granting scholarships or grants-in-aid to students for athletic ability. But because of the difficulty in determining when a grant had been issued for athletic skill, together with a prohibition against discrimination in the disbursement of financial aids, grants continued to be one of the incentives coaches offered prospective students. Among those who resisted this trend was BYU’s faculty representative to the conference, English professor Parley A. Christensen. Addressing delegates to a regional NCAA meeting in 1950, Christensen claimed that colleges “exploit[ed] the energies of the [athletes], as largely to banish them from the larger life of the campus, [making] it quite impossible for [athletes] to carry the normal academic load with any degree of distinction.” Christensen suspected that athletes had been encouraged to “sell themselves to the highest bidders, sometimes in the open market, more frequently, perhaps, in the black one,” and compared college athletes to “thoroughbreds, [which are] fed, groomed, and stabled apart, exhibited on weekends to ecstatic presidents, faculties, students, alumni, and the sporting public, and . . . pointed ultimately toward national derbies and sweepstakes.” Christensen lamented the fact that a failure on the part of coaches to produce winning teams often resulted in “the presidential axe, supplied and sharpened by irresponsible sportswriters and half-educated alumni.” He predicted that, because of financial considerations, many schools would be forced eventually to follow the example of the University of Chicago and withdraw from intercollegiate athletics altogether.15

When Ernest Wilkinson assumed the presidency of Brigham Young University the year after Christensen’s renewed plea for amateurism, he too called for a return to stricter observance of conference rules, particularly regarding athletic “proselyting.” The new president realized that few other schools in the conference followed rules precisely, [p. 276] but he intended to bring about a renewed commitment through the Skyline Conference presidents’ council which met yearly to consider resolutions adopted by the conference’s faculty council. Instead of influencing the conference, however, Wilkinson encountered resistance from his own athletic director, Edwin Kimball, and members of his board of trustees who thought that conference rules should be expanded to embrace current practices rather than to further tighten them. Stephen L Richards recommended that the university spend “top price” to hire the best possible football coach, perhaps not realizing that the conference limited coaches’ salaries to that of “men of equal rank in other departments.” Kimball forwarded a petition to Wilkinson in August 1952 signed by thirty-two athletes, informing him that if BYU did not reconsider its position on grants to athletes, the athletes would transfer to other schools where they would be fully compensated for their ability. To Wayne B. Hales, chair of BYU’s Athletic Council, Kimball wrote the next spring, “Because of the amount of time required for athletes’ studies and work, the athletes are beginning to wonder just what is the use of attempting to participate in athletics. Nineteen of our freshmen players have become discouraged and discontinued school.” Kimball believed that participation in athletics at BYU was quickly becoming a luxury “available only to young men of considerable financial income.”16

Discussion of financial aid to athletes became particularly animated during the 14 May 1953 Skyline presidents’ council meeting. The president of Colorado A & M announced that, because he knew others in the conference disregarded recruiting regulations, he was going to instruct his staff to go to Chicago and buy a quarterback with an athletic subsidy; that the others could expel his school from the conference if they wished, but that he would not be a hypocrite. By the end of the meeting, the council had voted to revise the conference constitution to allow “promise of superior performance in extracurricular activities, including athletics, [to be] one of the factors considered in awarding grants-in-aid,” but stipulating that athletes “shall be required to meet the same standards of academic performance and economic need as are required of all other recipients.” Grants were not to exceed the amount required for tuition, fees, room, and board. One year later, the executive committee of BYU’s Board of Trustees approved 110 grants-in-aid for BYU athletes. First Counselor Stephen L Richards was especially enthusiastic about the new allowance and told faculty in September 1955, “If each year [the university] could attract one hundred, two hundred, or three hundred young men with athletic proclivities to [the] university, who might otherwise go to other schools, and [thus train these prospective] missionaries for the church, . . . I would be willing to go to a considerable expense to provide such attraction.”17

Western Athletic Conference

[p. 279]President Wilkinson remained ambivalent about committing large sums to the school’s athletic program until the late 1950s, when a number of schools in the Skyline Conference began making plans to break away to form a new conference. In addition, the University of New Mexico had left the Border Conference to join the Skyline Conference and the University of Arizona was contemplating the same change. Representatives from these and other universities met with officials from three schools in the Pacific Coast Conference to discuss the possibility of forming a group of schools of comparable athletic strength. BYU’s Eddie Kimball was one of the original proponents of the idea, but when the group finalized its entrance standards, BYU found itself excluded. Membership was restricted to schools with large facilities, close proximity to an international airport, and demonstrated fan support. Based on these criteria, the founding schools were to have been the University of Utah, University of New Mexico, University of Arizona, Arizona State University, University of Oregon, Oregon State University, and Washington State University. When the three northwestern schools decided to remain in the Pacific Coast Conference, the University of Wyoming was invited to join the new conference, as well. Brigham Young University was not included until the last moment when the Mormon president of Arizona State University, G. Homer Durham, threatened to withdraw his school from the proposed conference if BYU were not also admitted. The six schools, including BYU, announced their intent to secede from the Skyline Conference to form the Western Athletic Conference (WAC) in mid-1962. Colorado State University and the University of Texas at El Paso were later also admitted. When the Arizona schools subsequently withdrew to join the Pacific Athletic Conference, San Diego State University and the University of Hawaii joined the WAC as their replacements. Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs was also later admitted.18

As the result of being admitted to the conference, BYU officials were forced to upgrade BYU’s athletic facilities. A new football stadium was constructed and the Stephen L. Richards Physical Education Building–including three swimming pools (complete with underwater observation windows and a 1,100-seat balcony), four gymnasia, two dance studios, classrooms and offices–was erected on the site of the old stadium. Indoor tennis courts were also built. Other improvements were made on existing facilities. By the late 1960s, BYU had completed its new ten-story, 23,000-seat, $9 million basketball arena, the J. Willard Marriott Center. After signing the initial contract, President Wilkinson wrote pessimistically in his journal on 13 December 1969 that if BYU did not produce a winning basketball team, [p. 280] the Marriott Center would become known as “Wilkinson’s Folly.” To begin construction on the mammoth arena, Wilkinson had obtained permission from the Board of Trustees to borrow internally from other university accounts, which he promised to repay later from contributions and ticket sales, thus temporarily freezing other building programs. To Wilkinson’s relief, the arena drew a full house for the first basketball game in December 1971, despite the fact that seats had not yet been installed. The Marriott Center has since attracted near-capacity crowds at almost all games involving the school’s basketball team.19

Besides constructing superior sports facilities, Wilkinson and other administrators–including successive presidents–demonstrated an increased concern for other aspects of the athletic program including more latitude in recruiting, generous athletic scholarships, and postponing athletes’ mission calls. In 1964, BYU’s Alumni Association and the intercollegiate athletics department followed the lead of other schools across the country by creating an athletic booster club to raise money for recruiting purposes. The Western Athletic Conference limited recruiting and NCAA regulations prohibited the use of school funds for recruiting. Thus the BYU Cougar Club, with membership based on a pledge of at least $100 per year, provided necessary financing to court potential athletes. The university continued financing athletic grants-in-aid, which WAC regulations restricted to the cost of tuition, fees, room, board, books, insurance, and private tutoring. BYU also began providing all football and basketball athletes, whether on athletic scholarships or not, with three free meals a day during training. The school’s Cannon Center cafeteria reported in April 1981 that it spent $5.30 per meal on athletes, compared to $1.62 per meal for regular dormitory residents.20

WAC constitution provisions required that athletes maintain a cumulative grade point average of at least 1.6 (C-) their freshman year, 1.7 their sophomore year, 1.85 their junior year, and 1.92 their senior year. The Skyline Conference, by comparison, had stipulated that athletes need only pass two-thirds of their classes. BYU upgraded its academic standards in 1972, after Dallin H. Oaks’s appointment as president, to require that all students maintain a cumulative grade point average of 2.0; but, out of consideration for the athletic program, administrators postponed applying the new standard until incoming athletes had been alerted to the change (Academic Standards Committee). Freshmen had previously been required to maintain a grade point average of 1.75. A study conducted by BYU revealed that if the new standard had been applied immediately, 14 percent of the school’s athletes would have been expelled (Academic Standards Committee). Athletes have since received special consideration from the school’s Academic Standards Committee because of their required average of five hours of practice per day, which reportedly impacts on their [p. 281] academic performance. In a 1981 Daily Universe story, the chair of BYU’s Academic Standards, Gerald Dye, explained that because of the university’s financial investment in its athletic program, administrators were particularly sensitive to athletes in academic or moral trouble. Executive vice-president Rolfe Kerr reported in the same article, “We need to underscore the feeling that BYU needs to have a strong athletic program,” and dean of students David Sorenson added that problems involving athletes were often “very complicated.” Less than six months later, the Universe reported that one of the school’s key basketball players had been advised that he was being suspended because of poor grades. School officials subsequently intervened to give him an extra semester to improve his academic record, explaining that he had not been properly forewarned of the decision. Perhaps as a result of such attention, BYU has graduated 75 percent of its athletes, compared to a 50 percent graduation rate among college athletes nationally.21

As evidence of the leniency allowed coaches in recruiting key athletes following BYU’s admission into the WAC, the percentage of Mormon athletes on BYU teams dropped from nearly 100 percent in the early 1950s to 55 percent by 1968 when only 4 percent of the student body was non-Mormon. By the 1980s, the number of Mormons on the school’s athletic teams had risen again to approximately 70 percent (“Summary,” Tuckett). One of the disadvantages of recruiting church members has been the two-year mission obligations of all nineteen-year-old Mormon males. Football coach Harold Kopp reported in the late 1950s that he always seemed to have three teams: “One on the field, one in the hospital, and one on missions” (in BYU 3:448). One sportswriter subsequently added that “the loss in time in the mission field does not seem to hurt basketball players as much as it does football players. There is something about teaching love of your fellow man that just does not seem to go with knocking his brains out on the football field” (DU, 19 Jan. 1961). Football coach Tommy Hudspeth later agreed that “most of them, when they return from missionary work, are really not too much interested in taking part in athletics.” Consequently, Wilkinson proposed to school trustees in 1962, the year BYU entered the Western Athletic Conference, that mission calls for athletes be delayed three years, until the four-year athletic eligibility periods had been used. The executive committee ruled that coaches could advise their players to postpone missions with the permission of the First Presidency. Twelve years later, the church’s Quorum of the Twelve Apostles informed President Oaks that “when key athletes at BYU contemplate receiving a mission call, the university [should] confer with the young men and notify the Missionary Committee concerning any athletic grant-in-aid commitments.” The Missionary Committee, Oaks was told, would “confer with the appropriate bishop or stake president concerning the appropriate timing for [p. 282] the mission call, [because] priesthood leaders often have a perspective about a young man which a coach may not have.” Despite the exception allowed athletes, many BYU players have nevertheless elected to fill missions at the usual age. In recent years, the football team has boasted nearly as many former missionaries as non-Mormons, about 21 percent. Mormon athletes realize that if they postpone mission service and are then drafted into professional sports, they will not have the opportunity for a mission. Once drafted, athletes also face the dilemma of playing on Sunday. BYU has repeatedly declined opportunities to compete in post-conference football, baseball, and skiing championships because of Sunday play.22

Under Wilkinson, as with previous presidents, athletes were held to the same rules prohibiting the use of alcohol and tobacco, and premarital sexual intercourse as other students. In 1963, for example, twelve football players, including five starters, were suspended from play for drinking. More recently, some leniency has been shown to non-Mormon athletes involved in off-campus violations, with a policy of judging each case “on its own merits.” In the early 1980s, when a coed claimed she was carrying the child of a single, non-Mormon athlete–an accusation the athlete would neither confirm nor deny to school officials–the athlete was suspended from pre-season play but allowed to participate as usual during the regular season. Some found the punishment inappropriate because of the inevitable publicity surrounding disciplinary actions; others, however, condemned the disciplinary measure as hypocritical and inconsistent.23

Although there have been some unforeseen adjustments in BYU policy to accommodate its intercollegiate sports program, the university has achieved its intended goal of attracting attention to the school by demonstrated athletic prowess. BYU has not only competed at a level equal to other conference schools but has become nationally ranked in some sports. At the end of the first fourteen years of Western Athletic Conference play, BYU placed first over-all in the conference for that period, ahead of Arizona State University, the University of New Mexico, and the University of Arizona. BYU continues to win the all-around conference championship year after year and remains the conference’s all-time, all-around leader. In wrestling and golf, BYU has clenched two-thirds of the conference championships since the WAC was founded. In basketball and football, it has earned approximately one-third of all conference titles. In track and field, baseball, tennis, and other sports, the school has been competitive, if not regularly victorious. There have been outstanding individual performances in all sports. In 1966, the wrestling team sent one of its members, Mac Motokawa, to the national AAU wrestling finals, where he placed first in his weight division in both free-style and Greco-Roman wrestling. The golf team, coached by Karl Tucker, has earned [p. 283] one national NCAA championship (1981) and sent five golfers–Johnny Miller, Mike Reid, John Fought, Bobby Clampett, and Rick Fehr–to the U.S. Open Golf Tournament to claim Low Amateur title. By 1985, eleven of its golfers had gone on to play professionally.24

Basketball

In 1966, BYU’s basketball team won the WAC championship and then traveled to New York City to compete in another National Invitational Tournament where the team emerged as NIT champion for the second time in fifteen years. Coach Stan Watts subsequently led his basketball squad to four additional conference championships before being named director of Intercollegiate Athletics. Part of Watts’s success lay in his vigorous recruiting program which brought to Provo such players as Kresimir Cosic, a participant on the Yugoslavian national basketball team that had won an Olympic silver medal in 1968. With the help of two members of the Finnish national team, who had also played for BYU, Cosic was first approached about BYU at a European All-Star game. The two Finns, who had been recruited to Provo by a former BYU player, Bob Petersen, then coach of the Finnish national team, persuaded Cosic to give BYU a chance. After coordinating his plans with Coach Watts, Cosic defected to Utah from Italy, where his basketball team was touring. He was met at the Salt Lake City airport by a BYU coach and a Yugoslav tennis player, who was also playing for BYU. Though Cosic spoke very little English, he was soon on the varsity basketball team, winning the applause of spectators wherever they played. The coach of one opposing team called him “the looniest guy with talent ever.” Sports Illustrated reported that his “zest for the game [was] something to behold,” explaining that he was “forever clapping his hands, raising fists high, laughing, shouting `Opa! Opa!’ (I’m open, I’m open), jackknifing for layups, dribbling through his legs, passing behind his back, and joyfully firing all manner of shots from improbable positions and angles.” Although teammates claimed they were sometimes hurt by Cosic’s “circus act,” his crowd appeal was unprecedented. He later returned to Yugoslavia and participated on the Yugoslavian national team that won the 1980 Olympic gold medal.25

The year after Stan Watts assumed his administrative position over all BYU intercollegiate sports, he was replaced as head basketball coach by his assistant, Glenn Potter. After three losing seasons, Potter was asked to resign. He was replaced in 1975 by Frank Arnold, formerly assistant basketball coach in charge of recruiting and scouting (observing opponents in play) at UCLA. After eight years of earning a reputation as a “hot tempered, unfriendly, and outspoken” coach, Arnold was asked to resign. An effective recruiter and skillful motivator, [p. 284] Arnold also possessed a heated temper, evident in his having led the conference in technical fouls called against coaches. During his nine years as coach, he led BYU to three conference championships. His most outstanding recruit was Danny Ainge, who came to BYU from Oregon. Ainge set an NCAA record while at BYU for scoring in double figures for 112 consecutive games–the most ever. His senior year, Ainge proved to be a key figure in the NCAA playoff tournament, where BYU finished eighth in the country with wins over Princeton, UCLA, and Notre Dame. In the Notre Dame contest, Sports Illustrated (30 March 1981) described Ainge’s decisive victory. With only ten seconds left and BYU trailing by one point,

Ainge did the most extraordinary thing. He took the inbounds pass and, guarded tight all the way, dashed up the right sideline and slashed through three men at midcourt, while dribbling behind his back. . . . Ainge then went left past the fourth Irish at the free-throw line and slipped a shot over the fifth and final defender for a lay-up just before the buzzer. 51-50 BYU. It was the stuff of legends.

Ainge went on to join the Boston Celtics, making a major contribution as a reserve player to their 1984 National Basketball Association (NBA) championship win over the L.A. Lakers and playing first string in the following year’s championship game. Besides Ainge, BYU has seen eight former varsity men enjoy extended playing time in the NBA.26

Football

At football, BYU had lost so consistently for so many years that when the team finally began to narrow the margin of losses to wins, some supporters saw the upswing as a manifestation of divine will. After one contest in which BYU nearly emerged victorious, the claims of supernatural intervention were so extreme that one incredulous student wrote in the campus newspaper that he “deeply regretted the spirit of [the] student body and faculty,” especially as displayed in a campus assembly. The student reminded his peers that “reason, as well as sound emotion, argues that the presence of God in this so important contest would have assured ‘our side’ the victory. The fact that the other side was so favored can hardly indicate any partiality of God toward us.” After an encouraging initial performance in BYU’s first post-season bowl game in 1974, the team’s first-string quarterback was injured. BYU subsequently lost by ten points. Using the setback as a teaching opportunity, Apostle Marvin J. Ashton asked, “The game could have been such a missionary tool. Why does the Lord let things like that happen?” Because, Elder Ashton continued, when BYU “dug in and played harder” and showed “maturity,” the game turned out to be “a good missionary tool” after all. Similarly, in the early [p. 285] 1980s, BYU president Jeffrey Holland reportedly commented on BYU’s loss to the University of Georgia with the observation that God’s will had actually been accomplished because, if BYU had won, there could have been increased animosity on the part of Georgia fans toward Mormon missionaries. But in a campus address, German professor Alan F. Keele reminded students that, just as Notre Dame’s victories did not imply the superiority of Catholicism, a BYU win should not be interpreted as a sign that Mormonism would prevail. Many loyal fans, however, still interpret BYU’s gradual rise as a major football power as a modern miracle.27

Anticipating admission into the WAC, BYU officials searched for a new head football coach in 1961 and found Hal Mitchell, who had played football for UCLA. Mitchell remained only three years, during which time the university won a total of only nine games, only four of which were conference games. Most of the winning games were played in 1962, when the school’s 150-pound quarterback, Eldon Fortie, brought unexpected recognition to the team by gaining 1,963 yards in rushing and passing, placing him second in the nation in total offense for the season. When Mitchell was “discharged” after a no-win season in conference play, he was replaced by Tommy Hudspeth, former assistant football coach for the Calgary (Alberta) Stampedes. Hudspeth arrived on campus in late 1963, announcing, “I’ve come to stay.” His first major concern was recruiting. Two members of the football coaching staff, LaVell Edwards and Chris Apostol, were promptly sent on recruiting tours throughout the western United States.28

Edwards returned from California with an eighteen year-old quarterback, Virgil Carter, who broke two NCAA records while at BYU, one for passing yardage in a single game and the other for total yards offense in a single game. Apostol returned from San Diego with nearly half a football team. Until the peak of the Vietnam War, the San Diego Marine Recruit Depot had fielded an independent football team which played against local colleges. When those who were eligible for release in 1965 began looking for a college to attend, one of their coaches, a Mormon, invited Apostol to tell the seasoned football players about Brigham Young University. The obvious advantage to recruiting marines was that they had experience but had not yet expended any years of college eligibility. A student reporter commented that rather than “go through all sorts of involved procedures to put together a football team,” Hudspeth “simplified the process: He called in the marines.” One of the seven military transfers, Phil Odle, is still listed in college record books as the fourth highest in NCAA history in career pass receptions.29

Approaching the 1965 season, BYU had not won a conference game in two years. The student newspaper promised that Coach [p. 286] Hudspeth would field “two teams–an offensive and a defensive unit, instead of the one basic squad that BYU fans saw a lot of last fall.” Though the larger team added potential, no one expected the success the team would soon realize. For the first time in seven years, BYU won more games than it lost. For only the third time in the school’s history, the team scored a victory against the University of Utah. “Virgil Carter, BYU’s sensational quarterback,” the 8 November 1965 Daily Universe exulted, “passed for 253 yards and four touchdowns and ran for eighty-three yards!” After beating the University of Utah, BYU took three out of four games on the road and accomplished what few thought possible: the school’s first conference football championship. Not until nine years later would the school see this accomplishment repeated. Before Coach Hudspeth left BYU in 1972 to become head football coach at the University of Texas El Paso, BYU finished second or third in the conference three times. Hudspeth also trained at least two additional record-breaking athletes. In 1969, Chris Farasopoulos accumulated the greatest amount of punt-return yardage in the country for that year. Two years later, Golden Richards broke an NCAA record for punt-return yardage in a single game.30

Hudspeth’s assistant, LaVell Edwards, was named the new head football coach following Hudspeth’s departure. Remembering that BYU had been most successful when quarterback Virgil Carter was throwing the ball, Edwards recruited Dewey Warren, assistant coach at the University of Tennessee, to help establish a passing attack for BYU. “There is only one way to beat an opponent who is bigger and stronger and faster than you are, and that is by passing,” Edwards would later remark. In 1976, Edwards hired Doug Scovil, of the San Francisco Forty-Niners, to serve as offensive coach, to further perfect the team’s passing strategy. Scovil developed a tradition of rotating four wide receivers, who earned such descriptive nicknames as the “bomb squad,” and of sending nearly every eligible player down-field for a pass. He was once hyperbolically accused of sending “the entire [Mormon] Tabernacle Choir” out for a pass (Sports Illustrated, 8 Dec. 1980). After Scovil’s arrival, BYU won or tied all subsequent conference football championships and produced six NCAA record-holding quarterbacks or receivers. Because pass protection was so difficult to establish, the Edwards/Scovil team also gained a reputation for holding infractions and other penalties. Since 1980, BYU has retained the NCAA record for most penalties assessed against a team during a single game. In addition, a few BYU athletes used steriods (male sex hormones) to increase their body weight and muscle size with the tacit approval of school officials, the football team’s orthopedic surgeon sometimes prescribing the drugs. The director of the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics explained that “steroids are not illegal and they are not against the Word of Wisdom [i.e. the church’s health [p. 287] code],” but added that the school did not have plans to encourage their use in the future.31

BYU’s football record improved gradually under Coach Edwards. The first conference championship in 1976 was followed by two less successful years before the team began to accumulate its impressive, unbroken string of championships. In 1974, while the passing offense was still being perfected, BYU’s Dave Atkinson set a national record for career interceptions, Pete Van Valkenburg established himself as the leading rusher in the country for one season, Jay Miller set two NCAA records for pass receptions and pass reception yardage in one game, and quarterback Gary Sheide nearly set a collegiate passing efficiency record. Unfortunately, Miller also received a broken scapula and an injured knee his senior year and never played football again. Gary Sheide suffered a shoulder separation in the Western Athletic Conference’s Fiesta Bowl at Tempe, Arizona, but later recovered and continued to play football. BYU lost to Oklahoma State in that Fiesta Bowl, 16 to 6. Replacing Sheide the next year as quarterback was Gifford Nielsen, the fourth highest scorer on the varsity basketball team before he decided to try out for the football team. Nielsen came to be known as the “Mormon Rifle,” setting NCAA records for the most touchdown passes in a season and for the greatest amount of passing yardage in a game. During Nielsen’s tenure as quarterback, BYU was given a second chance to beat Oklahoma State in another season’s Tangarine Bowl in Orlando, Florida, but lost again, 49 to 21. When Nielsen tore a knee ligament the following year, he was replaced by Marc Wilson, who broke an NCAA record two games later for passing yardage in a single game during an emotional encounter with the University of Utah. After the match, the scoreboard blinking 38 to 8, the University of Utah’s head football coach, Wayne Howard, accused BYU of intentionally running up the score to humiliate his team. “The hatred between Utah and BYU is going to continue,” Howard said. “I’m going to make a crusade of it and [foment] it.” He promised that “in two years, Utah will drill BYU, but won’t run up the score” (DU, 7 Nov. 1977). Since 1977, BYU has beaten the University of Utah seven times out of eight, holding Utah to a no-score finish in one contest.32

In 1978, after winning the conference title, BYU faced Naval Academy in the WAC’s new Holiday Bowl in San Diego. BYU lost, 23 to 16. The following year, Marc Wilson led his team through an eleven-win, no-loss season, as well as to top-ten rankings in Associated Press and United Press International post-season polls. Included in the victories was a one-point win over Texas A & M, though BYU paid a price for its victory in linebacker Danny Frazier’s broken neck. In the second Holiday Bowl, BYU experienced its only defeat of the season, losing to the University of Indiana by one point. Before the game, the University of Indiana’s student newspaper warned its readers [p. 288] that BYU had “a fellow named Brother Marc Wilson, and he throws to Brother Harold Redd, or Brother Lou Kamma [sic], or a whole bunch of other brothers. Why,” the article read, “[Brother Wilson] had twenty-one points on the scoreboard last Saturday [against San Diego State] and had used up only two minutes . . . in the first quarter. . . .[And] San Diego is no slouch, having creamed teams like Arizona and Wisconsin and Colorado” (in DU, 6 Dec. 1979). Wilson graduated the next semester with a 3.6 grade point average and ten NCAA records, including the highest figures ever in career passing yardage, total career offense, career passes completed, and career touchdown passes. Wilson was the 1980 first-round draft pick of the Oakland (later L.A.) Raiders.33

BYU replaced Wilson with an equally impressive passing quarterback, Jim McMahon. Drawing attention in Provo when he told national press representatives that life at Brigham Young University was not a “bed of roses” for a “rowdy, Irish Catholic kid who was born in New Jersey and grew up in California,” McMahon drew professional attention by the accuracy of his passing arm. The school’s first Holiday Bowl victory came in 1980 under McMahon’s leadership when BYU beat Southern Methodist University in what BYU fans labeled the “Miracle Bowl.” “I like to think miracles are used on things more important than football,” quipped Southern Methodist University football coach Ron Meyer after the game, adding, “Don’t let that word get back to Texas.” With under three minutes remaining in the final quarter and SMU leading by twenty points, BYU gathered determination, passed the ball nearly every play, recovered an on-sides kick, passed again, and quickly brought the score to within six points. After blocking a punt to retain possession of the ball with eighteen seconds remaining, McMahon threw an end zone “Hail Mary” pass to BYU’s Clay Brown, encircled by three SMU defenders–no time remaining. BYU’s Kurt Gunther kicked the extra point to win the game. The immediate result of this turn-around victory was pandemonium on the field and ecstatic disbelief in Provo. The long-range impact was increased interest in football and greater fund-raising potential, resulting in a $12 million expansion of the BYU football stadium two seasons later, bringing the seating capacity to 65,000. In the meantime, BYU played in two more Holiday Bowls, beating Washington State University by two points and losing to Ohio State University by thirty points. A sportswriter for the church-owned Deseret News described Ohio State as having “a pickup truck at fullback, a greyhound at left half, and an offensive line that can make holes in cement.”34

McMahon ended his college career with seventy NCAA records, including the most yards per attempted pass and the highest career yardage for passing and rushing combined. Soon after leaving the university, he signed a multi-million dollar contract with the Chicago [p. 289] Bears. Other NCAA records established in the early 1980s included Clay Brown’s record for touchdown passes caught in a season by a tight end, Kurt Gunther’s record for extra points scored in a season, and Gordon Hudson’s record for pass reception yardage in a single game. Hudson was also named to Playboy magazine’s all-American team and treated to a Playboy all-American weekend in Miami. University administrators were somewhat embarrassed by the publicity surrounding the award and concerned about Hudson’s participation in the festivities, although the event proved to be decorous. Replacing McMahon and his fellow all-Americans was another talented crew of athletes, led by quarterback Steve Young, a descendant of Brigham Young. The team finished the 1983 season with eleven wins and one loss, and went on to beat the University of Missouri in the Holiday Bowl. BYU was ranked seventh in the country in both Associated Press and United Press International post-season polls. Young, who had maintained a 3.38 grade point average, retired from college play with twelve NCAA records, including the highest average number of yards gained per game and the most number of career passes completed. He signed a record $40 million, forty-year contract with the L.A. Express (United States Football League), which BYU president Holland estimated brought the university $25 million in publicity. The 1984 season brought even more publicity to BYU, as the football team garnered the highest football honor possible: the first-place national ranking in both the Associated Press and the United Press International post-season polls, generally considered the definitive pronouncement of national championship status. Quarterback Robbie Bosco, previously unknown outside of Utah, gave an impressive season performance, placing third in the prestigious, national Heisman Trophy balloting at the end of the year. The Heisman Trophy is presented to the season’s all-around most accomplished college football player. Bosco led BYU to a 24-14 win over the University of Michigan in the Holiday Bowl. With national attention focused on BYU football, the game will probably become even more of a priority in funding and general concessions by school officials. BYU players are increasingly recruited to play professional football. By 1985, more than forty alumni had achieved starting positions with professional football teams, most of them recruited since the mid-1970s. As one recent example of the accomplishment of former BYU players, Todd Christensen, of the L.A. Raiders, led the National Football League in 1984 in pass receptions.35

Track and Field

As with basketball and football, recruiting contributed significantly to the development of BYU’s track and field program. Beginning in the late 1960s, track and field coach Clarence Robison oversaw the [p. 290] recruiting of some thirty European athletes, many of whom had previously competed in international meets, including the Olympic Games. With the help of its foreign athletes, BYU won its first WAC championship in 1968 and captured nearly every subsequent championship for six years. The team also tied two other schools in 1970 for the NCAA championship. One of the early European recruits was Finland’s Pertti Pousi, who won the NCAA championship in the triple jump in 1968 and 1969. Kenneth Lundmark, the Swedish national high jump champion and a former Olympic competitor, won the 1970 NCAA indoor high jump championship for BYU. A survey of other NCAA titles reveals the importance of foreign recruits to Coach Robison’s aggressive program. In the early 1970s, for example, BYU’s Raimo Pihl (Sweden) won the NCAA decathlon championship two separate years. In 1974, Zdravko Pecar (Yugoslavia) clinched the NCAA discus championship for BYU, while teammate Runald Backman (Sweden) won the decathlon. Four years later, Kenth Gardenkrans (Sweden) confirmed BYU’s dominance in the discus, earning for BYU its second national championship in that event. A third NCAA discus championship was won two years later by BYU’s Goran Svensson (Sweden). In 1977, 1979, and 1981, Tito Steiner (Argentina) won the NCAA decathlon championship, making it BYU’s most frequently won NCAA event. Robinson had first approached Steiner about studying in Provo when he met him at the Montreal Olympics.36

When a 1971 NCAA rule was adopted requiring athletes to pass the American College Entrance Test (ACT) to participate in intercollegiate competition, members of BYU’s Department of Intercollegiate Athletics expressed concern. According to one coach, “Even if [the foreign athletes] could speak English, they probably couldn’t pass [the entrance test]” because of its cultural bias. Still, BYU continued to look for foreign talent. A BYU trainer conducted yearly clinics in Europe, where he contacted potential recruits, and Coach Robison maintained contact with European coaches and former BYU players. But in the mid-1970s, BYU’s recruiting strategy began to receive public criticism. When three-fourths of the university’s track and field points at a national meet were scored by foreign athletes, UCLA’s track coach complained to the press. Robison admitted that “without the foreign athletes, we’d have a hard time competing against UCLA.” The Los Angeles Times noted the unfamiliar surnames of BYU’s track and field men, including Alarotii, Arrhenius, Borg, Gardenkrans, Gustafsson, Hamalainen, Kokkonen, Pecar, Pihl, Stubbendorff, Tamani, and Von Gerich. Sports Illustrated cited the University of Texas El Paso and Brigham Young University as the country’s major offenders in recruiting foreign Olympians to compete against nineteen- and twenty-year-old, American-born college students. The magazine reported that BYU’s track and field team toured Europe every three years “for the [p. 291] purpose of promoting Mormonism, but with the inevitable result of attracting track men to the campus.” Sensitive to this 1974 barrage of criticism, BYU cut back its recruiting of foreign athletes. The school did not win another conference title until 1982. A 1980 NCAA rule requiring that athletes use their eligibility before their twenty-third birthday unless their schooling was interrupted by military or church service virtually eliminated European recruits.37

Not all BYU track and field stars have been foreign recruits. Beginning in 1969, Ralph Mann, of California, won the NCAA championship in the 440-meter intermediate hurdles three years in a row, then took an Olympic silver medal in 1972 in the 400-meter intermediate hurdles. Californian Paul Cummings was the 1974 NCAA leader in the mile. Bob Tobler, Bob Richards, and Mike Louisiana won NCAA titles during the 1960s and 1970s in the 440-meter race, the steeplechase, and the discus. Ed Eyestone won the NCAA 10,000 meters in 1984 and 1985. Three Americans have also won World Games medals while attending BYU. Richard George earned a bronze medal in the javelin in 1975, Henry Marsh took the gold medal in the steeplechase in 1978, and Doug Padilla captured the gold medal in the 500-meter race in 1980.38

In baseball, BYU has only recently begun to attract national attention. During the 1979 season, Marc Thomas led the nation in hits. The following year, Cliff Pastornicky led the nation in home runs hit in a game (four). In 1983, BYU pitcher Scott Nielsen broke the all-time NCAA record for consecutive wins pitched. Nielsen accumulated twenty-six straight victories in three seasons. In 1984, Cory Snyder became the second all-time home-run hitter in NCAA history. The university has seen nine former baseball stars enter the major leagues, including Jack Morris of the Detroit Tigers who pitched two winning games in the 1984 World Series, and Dane Iorg of the St. Louis Cardinals who has led his team in batting average. In other sports, BYU’s Troy McRae won the National Collegiate Ski Association championship in men’s downhill slalom in 1982 and 1983, and Cathy Hoffman won the women’s downhill slalom in 1983. BYU gymnast Wayne Young participated in the 1975 NCAA championships, finishing first over-all. In weight-lifting, BYU has realized one team championship and four individual titles in national competition. The team championship was in the U.S. Power-lifting Federation’s (USPF) collegiate finals in 1973. BYU’s Tapio Kuusela garnered the USPF collegiate championship in his weight division in 1981; Victor Petruschin and Lars Henrickson clenched U.S. Weight-lifting Federation (USWF) collegiate championships in 1983; and Parry Markle won a 1984 U.S. Drug-free Association collegiate championship in his weight division. The weight-lifting team has been coached by BYU alumnus Jay Silvester, an Olympic silver medalist in the javelin.39

Women’s Sports

[p. 292] At the turn of the century, BYU women participated in dancing and basketball only, wearing black bloomers made from three yards of cloth, black stockings, black blouses with white ties, and black caps (Nettles). When BYU joined the Western Athletic Conference in 1962, the school’s women were still competing in the informal Intermountain Conference for College Women’s Physical Education. The conference sponsored competition in fourteen sports, including paddleball, badminton, archery, and bowling–as well as in more conventional sports such as track and field and softball. BYU coeds did not receive professional coaching and were often required to pay their own expenses traveling to and from athletic tournaments. It was a major accomplishment in the late 1960s when the women’s track team first donned matching uniforms of jamaica shorts and sleeveless, turtleneck tops. The Intermountain Conference eventually sponsored playoffs for women competing in some sports, making the winners eligible to compete in national tournaments sponsored by the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW). BYU’s 1972 volleyball team won the Intermountain Conference playoff and went on to place second in national AIAW competition. In 1973, BYU joined thirteen other universities in Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas to form the Intermountain Athletic Conference. The new conference coordinated competition in basketball, volleyball, track, cross country, tennis, golf, swimming, and gymnastics. During BYU’s nine-year membership in the conference, its teams won five conference championships in basketball, five in volleyball, four in tennis, and one in swimming. When AIAW authorized the awarding of athletic grants-in-aid in 1973, BYU quickly approved fifteen grants for female athletes, later increasing the number to thirty-five. One of BYU’s first important recruits was Themis Zambrzycki (Brazil), who won the national AIAW title in the indoor pentathalon in 1978 and 1979. BYU’s 1979 basketball star Tina Gunn led the nation in scoring and received an appointment to the AIAW All Tournament Team. Also in the late 1970s, Tracy Tanner and Barbara Barnes garnered the national Clay Court Doubles Tennis Championship for their age group.40

In 1982, Brigham Young University became a charter member of the High Country Athletic Conference, along with the University of Utah, the University of Wyoming, Colorado State University, the University of New Mexico, and New Mexico State University. Utah State University was also later admitted. During its first two years of play, BYU won High Country championships in track and field, cross country, volleyball, basketball, and tennis. In 1983, BYU sent Aisling [p. 293] Molloy, a recruit from Ballymahon, Ireland, to the NCAA Women’s Indoor Championships where she claimed the title in the mile. (The women’s division of NCAA has nearly replaced the AIAW.) Also in 1983, BYU’s Kelli Antolock won the prestigious USGA Women’s Amateur Public Links Golf Championship.41

Fan Support

An important factor in both men’s and women’s intercollegiate competition has been fan support. Women’s volleyball has occasionally attracted capacity crowds in the George Albert Smith Fieldhouse, while other women’s events have sometimes drawn as much attention as some men’s sports. The mainstays in ticket sales, however, have remained men’s basketball and football. At the earliest BYA basketball games, students rocked the small gymnasium with such organized chants as, “Rah, ra! Rah, ra, the B.Y.A./Academy, ‘cademy, B.Y.A./Whop, whoop, way up on top;/Academy, ‘cademy, B.Y.A.” Opponents responded with their own enthusiastic yells, including Utah Agricultural College’s, “Strawberry shortcake, gooseberry pie; V-I-C-T-O-R-Y.” By 1910, BYU’s students were yelling, “Wah-hoo! Wah-hoo! Rip, zip, bazoo! I yell, I yell, for the B.Y.U. Wah-hoo! Wah-hoo! Wah-hoo!” When football was again allowed on campus in the early twenties, cheers became more sanguinary. Students yelled, “Hit ’em in the wish bone,/Hit ’em in the jaw;/Send ’em to the cemetary,/Rah! Rah! Rah!” Another verse was later added to the same cheer, “Kick ’em in the knee,/Throw ’em in the mud;/Tear their hairy arms off,/Blood, blood, blood!”42

Demonstrating that BYU was also capable of higher levels of team support, students Glen Potter and Walt Daniels composed lyrics and music in 1929 for “Alma Pater,” the school’s first pep song. Intentionally light-hearted, the first lines read, “We praise our Alma Mater, our Alma Mammy too; We cheer for Yale and Harvard, with a boo-la-boo-la-boo.” Alma Pater fast became a regular part of BYU sports events. Eighteen years later, BYU alumnus Clyde Sandgren composed a second pep song, “Rise and Shout.” The words to Sandgren’s piece were adapted from the original school song, “Our Glorious Banner,” which concluded, “We’ll rise, we’ll rise and shout; And shout for the BYU. On to victory.” Sandgren’s catchy lyrics and lively beat soon replaced Alma Pater as the standard pep song.43

Students first began writing what one reporter labeled “pedantic cheers” in the 1960s. “Brigham’s Brawlers” and “Young Men,” two social clubs, were primarily responsible for the rash of new cheers, including the immortal “Smite them, Brethren!” and the laconic rhyme, “Peaches and Cream, Bacon and Eggs; Your team’s got the hairiest legs” (Sports Illustrated; “Young Men Yells”). Upon hearing [p. 294] the new yells, an 18 November 1965 Daily Universe columnist contributed, “Do unto them thy most scurrilous. Bazooka, Bazooka, Bang! Elbow and poke and be injurious. Equivocate, Equivocate, Wahoo!” For the referee, the columnist suggested, “Blasphemous fool! Fie, Fie, Fie! Scoundrel! Winebibber! Nero! Go melt off that lardage. Posh! Posh! Posh! Fathead!” Whether or not the columnist’s creations were ever performed, they illustrated the emerging genre of cheers. Many of the yells had an ironic twist, such as the popular Young Men cheer, “One, two, three-four-five,/BYU don’t take no jive./Six, seven, eight-nine-ten,/ BYU is gonna win./We’ as mean as we can ‘git,’/BYU don’t take no . . . trouble.” Opponents’ cheering sections began responding with their own assaults, both shouted and written, referring to Brigham Young University as “Jesus Tech” and casting aspersions on BYU morals.44

When football was reallowed on campus in 1921, students decided to nickname their athletes the BYU “Cougars.” Trustees subsequently suggested that a more appropriate nickname would be “BYU Pioneers” or “BYU Mormons,” but the student body clung to its totem nickname, engaging professional help to capture a live mascot in the nearby mountains. They returned with both a male cougar, which they named “Tarbo,” and a female companion, “Cleo.” The animals were kept in an on-campus cage. Local residents voiced concern in 1929 when the cougars escaped and killed two dogs, but the offense was soon forgotten. An additional cage was constructed to transport Tarbo to and from athletic events, but, during a BYU-Utah State University football game, the mascot was stolen and later found dead. Students donated Cleo to a Salt Lake City zoo. Fifteen years later, a third cougar, “Bubinga,” was obtained. The campus paper reported that the animal weighed 220 pounds, consumed seven pounds of meat a day, and slept through football games. When the state legislature later passed a bill prohibiting students from bringing wild animals to athletic contests, Bubinga was given a home elsewhere. As a replacement, students created their own cougar which they named “Cosmo.” At athletic events, the mascot was portrayed by a student, dressed in a comical, cougar-like costume. A tradition soon emerged of concealing the identity of the student in the costume until the end of the school year. When Cosmo took off his mask during the last basketball game of the 1960 season, students were surprised to learn that BYU president Ernest Wilkinson had been that year’s Cosmo. The sixty-year-old president wrote in his journal that he received “more plaudits and praise” for playing Cosmo than he had for “most of the serious things I have done for years.”45

The night before the first football game of the 1923-24 school year, students celebrated the arrival of the season by lighting the block Y, then returned to Provo parading “serpentine style” through the city [p. 295] streets. One reporter described the procession as “a winding, zig-zag column of more than five hundred yelling, screaming, raving maniacs.” Students carried with them the flaming torches that had been used to ignite the “gunk” around the Y. This extemporaneous celebration set a precedent for subsequent pre-football season parties, and the ritual was eventually enhanced by the inclusion of bonfire rallies at which effigies of opponents’ mascots were immolated. Students were so anxious about their team’s performance the first few years that they installed a telegraph receiver in College Hall to receive play-by-play reports of away-games. To enhance the presentation of the minute-by-minute news, students painted a football grid on a white sheet and indicated offensive and defensive positions with flashlights. “When BYU had the ball, the light would zig zag around,” explained alumnus Golden Brimhall, who added that at third down and yards to go the lights would flash on and off. “Everyone would be yelling,” he continued, and when BYU approached the goal line, the auditorium would “just about go crazy.” After three years of flashlight football, the student body purchased an electrically-operated football grid, eight feet by six feet, run by three volunteers, “each one looking after various details of every play.”46

Another football ritual, initiated by BYU in 1939, was the painting of other schools’ athletic landmarks–notably the block U in Salt Lake City–with blue paint. The initial offense, involving a blue “U” and “Scalp Utah” on University of Utah sidewalks, brought a quick reprisal by Utah Utes, who painted the steps to the Maeser Building, the school’s sundial, and the campus flag pole a bright red. They then returned to campus and painted, “The ‘Y’ is a Girls’ School” on the road to upper campus. In 1956, BYU took their northern rivals by surprise when they lit a giant Y on the hill above the block U. Anticipating retaliation, the Intercollegiate Knights stood guard on the block Y with scissors and blue paint to scalp and paint the tops of heads of any foreign invaders. Instead of attacking the block Y, University of Utah students carried out an elaborate blitzkrieg that left a large U burned into a lawn in the center of campus and “Beat BYU” painted in red on sidewalks, road signs, and trash cans. Three months later, members of U of U fraternities sneaked back to Provo, broke into the George Albert Smith Fieldhouse, and stole the BYU Victory Bell. The bell, which students had purchased from Provo city when the city meetinghouse was razed in 1912, had been mounted on a trailer for transportation to athletic contests. This also facilitated its transportation to Salt Lake City by the fraternity brothers. The bell was later found in Salt Lake City by city police. BYU students retaliated by painting blue enamel “Y”s on fraternity house door posts. In 1967, University of Utah students escalated the pre-game rivalry by splashing red paint on BYU’s bronze cougar and on three buildings, including [p. 296] the Abraham O. Smoot Administration Building. A handful of students were apprehended and fined $100 each in a Provo city court. BYU undergraduates later organized “The Peoples’ Front of Provo,” which orchestrated a blue dye raid on University of Utah fountains. University of Utah students responded by painting “BYU Sucks” on the Smoot Administration Building, the Marriott Center, and on a pedestrian overpass. In the early 1980s, BYU students decided to maximize the effect of a recent football victory over Utah by painting the score of the game (56-28) on the pillars of the University of Utah administration building, as well as on the walls of their Special Events Center. Four of the students were subsequently apprehended and fined a total of $1,400 to pay for the cleaning expense.47

After their first football victory over Utah in 1942, BYU students stormed their opponents’ field and toppled the goal posts. The Salt Lake City fire department was called in to break up the ensuing fracas. After winning a second game against the U of U in 1958, BYU students again brought down the goal posts. The tradition was repeated only a few more times in ensuing years, but the ritual was unexpectedly resurrected in 1983 when BYU beat the University of Utah in the BYU stadium and BYU students attacked and felled their own goal posts. The modern, metal posts fell much harder than the former wooden posts, and two participants were injured. A comparable outburst had occurred in 1981 when the BYU basketball team beat Notre Dame in the NCAA quarter-finals. Approximately 1,000 students marched through the Harold B. Lee Library, demolishing a library sign and leaving a trail of litter and chanting, “BYU, BYU.” The crowd continued to the university president’s house, where they paraded on the brick wall surrounding the yard and climbed onto the balcony. President Holland was not in, but his frightened children, hiding under the beds, compared the gathering to Cincinnati’s (Ohio) ill-fated “Who” concert, where a number of people were trodden to death. The rampaging students then joined some 3,000 more students at the bronze cougar in front of the stadium, where they danced and shouted, “We’re number one, We’re number one;” “Who is Notre Dame?” etc. As more students drove onto campus to celebrate, the road encircling the central buildings became blocked. Students turned off their engines, honked their horns, and danced on the roofs of their cars. The next day, the campus was littered with debris, the landscape trampled.48

In the wake of such incidents, concern over student decorum at athletic events has surfaced among university officials. In the 1973 dedicatory prayer for the Marriott Center, Marion G. Romney, second counselor in the church’s First Presidency, prayed, “Mellow, Heavenly Father, and enlighten the spirits of all those who come here that they may . . . conduct themselves . . . in such a manner as to merit thy divine approval.” Much earlier, BYU students had been accused by other [p. 297] schools of being “an unruly set” that could “not be gotten along with.” On one occasion, students had to promise “not to throw vegetables” before the University of Utah would play basketball with them. More recently, BYU students taunted visitors during a basketball game in the Marriott Center by chanting, “Iowa Sucks,” and by throwing ice cubes onto the playing floor (DU, 10 Dec. 1982). At a football game with the University of Wyoming, BYU fans responded to taunts from Wyoming fans by hurling “refuse and obscenities” (DU, 4 March 1981). During the 1950s and 1960s, students were sometimes guilty of “racial slurs” directed against opponents. One indignant student wrote that if these had been isolated instances they could be dismissed as insignificant, but that “it has happened every time I have witnessed an athletic event where Negroes have participated at BYU” (DU, 16 Feb. 1965). This issue would become extremely sensitive as BYU was later publicly accused of encouraging racial prejudice through institutional policies.49

The Protest Years

When asked in 1983 why there was such an emphasis on athletics at BYU, Director of Intercollegiate Athletics Glen Tuckett replied, “Athletics is one of the most visible ways of getting our message across to the public. Everywhere the teams go, there are prospective members of the church in the stands.” At the height of the 1960s civil rights controversy that turned BYU sports contests into protests against Mormon doctrine, the dean of physical education, Milton Hartvigsen, defended the university’s involvement in sports by saying that “as long as the battle is kept in the field of athletics, we are okay. When we lose our fight here, our enemies will be at the church headquarters next.” In the dean’s mind, “the way to destroy the church is to destroy the fine intercollegiate athletic program at BYU” (Public Relations Coordinating Council). Athletics had obviously become more of a bulwark than a proselyting beacon. The issue raised in the mid-1960s, culminating in sometimes violent protests, centered on the church’s pre-1978 policy of refusing priesthood ordination to blacks and the alleged extension of this policy in admissions policies and attitudes at BYU. According to historians Lester E. Bush and Newell G. Bringhurst, the practice of refusing blacks ecclesiastical positions evolved, in part, out of the church’s nineteenth-century fear of being identified with abolitionists in the volatile pre-Civil War frontier. At least two blacks were ordained to priesthood office with official sanction during the church’s infant years, and it was not until the early 1850s, after the church had resettled in the west under the direction of Brigham Young, that the practice of discouraging blacks from the ministry became institutionalized. In an 1852 address to the territorial [p. 298] legislature, Young encouraged recognition of slavery of both blacks and Indians: “[Blacks] cannot hold the priesthood, and if no other prophet ever spake it before, I will say it now in the name of Jesus Christ.” As territorial governor, he signed two slavery bills into law the following month. Over time, the doctrine emerged in the church that blacks of African descent were, for some unspecified reason, unworthy of priesthood ordination.50

The impact of Brigham Young’s nineteenth-century racism may be seen in the later reluctance of many Utahns to rent apartments or hotel rooms to blacks or to serve blacks in restaurants or barber shops. Such discriminatory practices continued throughout the first half of the twentieth century. To some extent, Utah racial sensitivity affected other minorities, as well. In 1966, a BYU Indian student wrote, “This is where I found out that I was . . . inferior. In Phoenix, where I went to school last year, I didn’t think of myself as an Indian. . . .Here, there is a feeling that if you are an Indian you should keep your place” (DU, 4 April 1966). Due, in part, however, to the church’s efforts in proselyting Indians, Utahns became more accommodating towards them than towards the “descendants of Cain,” as Mormon theology characterized African blacks. (Only after the June 1978 revelation extending the priesthood to all worthy males would blacks be actively proselyted.) The ambiguity of BYU student attitudes towards minorities was evident in a 1968 campus editorial in which Daily Universe reporter Judy Geissler wrote that she was “thankful for being of the white race in a land where the white is supreme,” but also “thankful for having the sense of social responsibility to know it is my job to do everything I can to end the hypocrisy of the racial double standard in America” (DU, 27 Nov. 1968).51

As late as 1969, Brigham Young University administrators discouraged blacks from attending the university. A letter sent to black applicants for admissions advised them that there were few blacks enrolled at the school, and “no families of your race” in the surrounding community. Blacks were informed that “as an institution, [BYU] does not look with favor upon marriages of any individuals outside their own race, whatever that race might be, and hence frowns upon mixed courtships, which might result in such marriages.” The letter explained that this was “not a matter of race prejudice, . . .but [rather] the out-growth of observations relative to such relationships and the difficulties encountered by individuals participating in such courtships and marriages when attempting to adjust differences in family and cultural backgrounds” (in Bush).52

Until the 1970s, less than one black each year had opted to enroll at BYU. Only four had ever graduated. Football coach Tommy Hudspeth echoed the sentiment expressed by administrators in letters to potential black students when he explained that the school [p. 299] “discourage[d] the Negroes because [it was felt] they would not be happy in the social situation here. We have certain rules and regulations which we won’t change; we will not allow inter-racial dating” (Daily Herald, 16 Feb. 1970). One student on the football team added that to recruit blacks to play for BYU would be like “putting a cat in a dog pound. . . .Negroes who do come to BYU become so discontented they quit.” Such statements would have perhaps remained the province of local coverage of athletic booster club addresses and administrators’ appearances before civic groups had a former BYU student not expressed his view of university policies in a 1963 opinion piece published in Look magazine. The Utah chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) immediately planned to demonstrate outside Temple Square in Salt Lake City during the church’s world conference. Second counselor in the First Presidency Hugh B. Brown negotiated with NAACP leaders, agreeing to read a statement in support of civil rights during the conference’s opening session, thus preventing the intended demonstration. But by this time, the position of the church had become the object of national scrutiny. In a few years, as one expression of black protest against the church’s priesthood policy, black athletes at other schools began refusing to participate in contests involving BYU athletes. As one said, “You’ve got to understand how we feel. Those Mormons say we’re the mark of Cain and that we can’t go to heaven because we’re black. Man, I just don’t want to associate with those people in any way” (DU, 25 Nov. 1968).53

The first public protest aimed at BYU occurred in the spring of 1968 when seven black track and field athletes at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) announced that they would not compete against BYU because of the church’s “black doctrine.” As a result, UTEP administrators revoked the players’ athletic scholarships, severely jeopardizing the school’s track and field program. Only six months later, for example, one of the protestors, Bob Beamon, would set a world record in the long jump at the Mexico City Olympics. UTEP president Joseph Ray wrote to BYU president Ernest Wilkinson, “Without any suggestion at all of trying to run your business, I think your institution will be a thorn in the side of the [Western Athletic] conference until such time as you recruit at least a token Negro athlete. Until you do, all explanations that the charges [of racism] are not true will not carry the ring of conviction.” In the fall of 1968, seven San Jose State University football players refused to participate against BYU. San Jose State president Robert Clark told the athletes that if they refused to play he would rescind their scholarships but added, “I believe this [school] has a moral commitment to fulfill its financial obligations to any black or white athlete who chooses not to compete in the game. I am personally obtaining funds to provide financial [p. 300] assistance equal to the grants in aid” (DU, 27 Nov. 1968). When the game between San Jose State and BYU was played–San Jose State competing without a full team–it took place before a sparse San Jose audience. Protestors marched outside the stadium gates, their placards reading, “By attending this game you are silently supporting the racial bigotry of Mormonism.” Even in the absence of its black players, San Jose State beat BYU by four points. The following year, during a BYU-San Jose State rematch in Provo, visiting coaches and players wore black arm bands. San Jose State administrators praised this as a “commendable” form of protest.54

There would have been black arm bands on the playing field at BYU a second time in 1969 had the University of Wyoming head football coach not threatened to dismiss any player who demonstrated in that manner. Rather than comply with the coach’s warning, fourteen black players decided not to participate in the 19 October game and were therefore dismissed from the team. Wyoming beat BYU by thirty-three points. Other demonstrations awaited the football team as it traveled to meet opponents. In Tempe, the gates to Arizona State University’s stadium were congested with demonstators carrying signs that read, “ASU Supports Racism.” Demonstrators also greeted the presidents of Western Athletic Conference schools when they met for their November 1969 presidents’ council meeting in Denver. Student senates at the University of Arizona, Arizona State University, University of New Mexico, Colorado State University, University of Wyoming, and other universities and colleges voiced their support of black students protesting BYU policies and recommended severing athletic ties with the Mormon school. Students at the University of Hawaii, in a general student election, and the University of Washington’s faculty senate took the same position. Administrations of at least five colleges and universities accepted such recommendations and refused to schedule further games with BYU. Among these schools were Stanford University, California State University at Hayward, and the University of Washington.55

Before administrators at the University of Washington decided to ban athletic competition with BYU, leaders of the Black Student Union (BSU) organized two large-scale demonstrations in which several buildings were occupied. University personnel were sent home early during these demonstrations when the school found it could no longer guarantee their safety. Similar protests occurred closer to Utah, though on a lesser scale. Students at the University of Arizona staged a week-long sit-in on the front steps of the school’s administration building, demanding that administrators cancel athletic commitments to BYU. When BYU’s basketball team met the University of Arizona in 1970, at Tucson, a group of demonstrators tried to force its way onto the court, resulting in a ten-minute brawl with security police. Before the [p. 301] demonstration was brought under control, several windows were broken and a number of people were injured. Three students, including the University of Arizona student body president, were arrested for “inciting a riot.” At a basketball game with the University of New Mexico, the game was delayed nearly one hour after protestors threw eggs and kerosene-filled balloons onto the playing floor (DU, 2 March 1970). At Colorado State University (CSU), the Y’s basketball team was met by students carrying “Bigot Young University” signs. Protestors hurled eggs, a flaming molotov cocktail, and a piece of angle-iron onto the playing floor. Following the 1970 basketball season, the 14 December 1970 Sports Illustrated observed that BYU was no longer certain whether an opponent would “throw a man-to-man defense, a zone, or a grenade.” Basketball coach Stan Watts complained that the team was unable to concentrate because they had to keep “one eye on the crowd and one eye on the game” (DU, 14 Oct. 1983). The team won eight and lost eighteen games that season.56

The immediate response from BYU officials to the protests was to dismiss them as part of a communist-inspired ploy to undermine the stability of the United States. “These people aren’t after us. They’re after America,” said Coach Watts (DU, 11 March 1970). The BYU Alumnus provided details of the school’s trouble in an article entitled, “Militants, Reds, Attack Y, Church.” The article promised alumni that BYU would continue to “hold the line on principles despite the propaganda.” President Wilkinson saw in the demonstrations a sign of an imminent apocalypse. To the dean of the College of Religious Instruction, Wilkinson wrote, “Do you, or any of your staff, know of any revelations that are specific as to what we might expect by way of disorders in the near future? Anything you can give me will be helpful to me in this time of crisis.” Wilkinson was especially concerned when the presidents’ council of the Western Athletic Conference issued a statement reporting that, while no evidence could be found of racial discrimination on the part of any WAC school, the “very serious and complex problems of controversy arising from the interrelationship of Brigham Young University with the rest of the conference members” was yet to be resolved.57

Because of pressure from the WAC presidents’ council, as well as from demonstrators nearly everywhere BYU competed, school administrators revised their policy on black recruitment and began actively seeking key black athletes. The school’s first black football player, Bennie Smith, enrolled in 1972, followed two years later by the school’s first black basketball player, Gary Batiste. Smith later expressed disappointment in the promise of athletic recruiters that there was little racial prejudice on campus. “After you get here, it’s a whole different story,” Smith claimed. Batiste was suspended from the team before completing his first semester. It was five years before [p. 302] a second black player, Keith Rice, was recruited for the basketball squad. Rice told reporters that he did not consider himself a crusader and that, while at BYU, “I will not forget who raised me and what I was taught” (DU, 23 Jan. 1978). His decision to attend BYU was based on the fact that BYU had offered him the best opportunity to play basketball and to get a good education. Still, Rice’s unique position on a team representing a nearly all-white school proved to be difficult. Spectators at other universities branded him a “honkey lover” and asked if he drove the team bus. Rice admitted that he missed the company of other blacks. A later black football recruit agreed in 1983: “This place is an island. . . . You’re surrounded by mountains and Mormons.”58

Besides recruiting black athletes, BYU began inviting black speakers to campus. A black faculty member was also hired. In 1969, when student government leaders had attempted to sponsor a “Brotherhood Week” featuring black speakers, students were informed that the school had a policy of limiting the number of black speakers to two per year. Actually, BYU had not invited more than a handful of blacks to speak on campus in its entire history. The University Speakers Committee had routinely rejected proposals from faculty and students to invite such black spokespeople as Julian Bond and Alex Haley, or black personalities, including Bill Cosby. In a surprising twist, the university not only invited Alex Haley to speak in 1972, but brought him back to receive an honorary degree five years later. Haley commented that he had received wide criticism for accepting an honorary degree from BYU but had decided to come to Provo “deliberately to be a symbol of the philosophy that people should unite and not divide.” In 1970, BYU’s first black instructor, Wynetta Martin, author of I am a Negro Mormon, was appointed to the nursing faculty “because many of the girls [studying nursing had] never talked with anyone of the black race, and to become good nurses one must know different cultures.” By contrast, Edward Minor of the Florida A & M instructional science department, who had been engaged in 1960 to teach classes at BYU during a summer session, had been reassigned to a consulting position when Wilkinson discovered that Minor was black. Wilkinson feared that “students and others [might] take license from [Minor’s engagement as a guest lecturer] and assume that there [was] nothing improper about mingling with other races” (Wilkinson Journal, 5-6 May 1960).59

One of the most eloquent addresses delivered on campus was the 1978 presentation by U.S. senator Edward W. Brooke (D-Mass.) on American relations with South Africa. Brooke, who is black, described the difficulties of dealing with South African officials because of apartheid policies, then cautiously broached the subject of Mormonism and blacks. He observed that “the relationship between black [p. 303] Americans and Mormons in general is not all it could or should be.” While admitting that “it would be presumptuous and inappropriate for me to insist that the practices of the Mormon church be altered to fit my preferences,” the senator explained that “the temptation is great to let this obstacle be the justification for alienation or indifference.” He suggested that both Mormons and blacks should strive to appreciate “the decent qualities of both groups.”60

Five months following Brooke’s address, church president Spencer W. Kimball announced an unexpected new policy regarding priesthood ordination, allowing all worthy candidates to be ordained “without regard for race or color.” At the time of the announcement, only four American blacks and a handful of Africans were enrolled at BYU. During the three years following the announcement, the number of blacks rose to eighteen American and twenty-two foreign blacks (BYU Today). As a direct result of the priesthood revision, Stanford University decided in 1979 to remove its ban against athletic competition with BYU. Four years later, BYU invited the national chair of the NAACP to speak in a campus-wide Forum address. Black students at Brigham Young University organized a campus Ebony Club. According to black students, “The way [some students still] glare, or just ignore and look right through you, you’d think there were 500 members of the Ku Klux Klan . . . on campus” (DU, 22 Feb. 1979). On the other hand, according to blacks, students, for the most part, tried to make blacks feel welcome, even becoming “overly friendly,” acknowledging them with forced, but well-intentioned “Hey, brother greetings.” A common error made by some BYU students has been to still assume that most blacks on campus are athletes. While the number of blacks participating on BYU teams has steadily increased, so, too, has the number of blacks enrolled for strictly academic purposes.61

Although the most vocal criticisms of BYU were directed at its athletic program, which school officials had initially expected to be a public relations bonanza, the goal of promoting church and school ideals through athletic success has been gradually realized. In football, for example, following a thirty-year odyssey of gridiron embarrassment, the university emerged with a number one ranking in national football polls and the extraordinary accompanying exposure of BYU’s distinctive qualities. The question of the compatibility of athletics, religion, and academics, and the amount of emphasis that should be given each, remains a complex issue, debated as much in the 1980s as in the late 1800s. What was at first a forbidden activity for Mormon students, then a harmless, extracurricular diversion, currently dominates the lives of many of its participants. The price of success in any field is perhaps sacrifice in other areas–as much in the concert hall or laboratory as on the basketball court. But the challenge facing Brigham Young University, as any school with an aggressive [p. 304] intercollegiate athletics program, is that of providing equal emphasis (including funding) and latitude for students who wish to devote their lives to other areas of the curriculum, without minimizing the potential for success in any field.

Notes:

1. BYU 1:187-88; “Locals,” BYA Student, 28 April 1891; “BYA Baseball Club,” The Normal, 2 Nov. 1891; “Locals,” The Business Journal, 28 March 1893; “Locals,” The Normal, 5 May 1893; “First Intercollegiate Field Day,” Salt Lake Tribune, 19 May 1895; “Athletes to the Front,” WB, 17 March 1905; Catalog, 1909-10, p. 76; Quarterly, 1 May 1931, p. 183; Quarterly, 1932-33, p. 193; Catalog, 1 May 1933, pp. 196-97; Catalog, 1 May 1938, p. 164; Catalog, 1 May 1947, p. 254. The first introductory courses in competitive sports involved tennis, wrestling, boxing, basketball, soccer, and football. (In 1947, one class promised training in “mass combatives and heads-up games.”) For a short time in the 1890s, interested students could receive training after school in marching and rifle shooting from a Lieutenant Johnson of Fort Douglas (“BYA Briefs,” The Business Journal, 15, 29 Jan. 1892). Giles E. Parker, “A History of the Rocky Mountain, Skyline, and Western Athletic Conferences: 1909-76,” Ph.D. diss., BYU, 1976, pp. 83, 547-49.

2. “First Intercollegiate Field Day,” Salt Lake Tribune, 19 May 1895. Track and field events included the 50-yard dash, the 100-yard dash, the hammer throw, shot put, standing high jump, standing kick, and “hop-hop jump.” See also Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” p. 34.

3. Henry D. Sheldon, Student Life and Customs (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1901), pp. 230-233; Clayne Jensen, “History of the College of Physical Education–Brigham Young University, 1875-1972,” BYUA; “Was a Slugging Match,” Salt Lake Tribune, 26 Dec. 1897; Goddard to Woodruff, 27 Dec. 1897, in BYU 1:283. One member of the Board of Trustees, Brigham Young, Jr., termed college yells “an abomination” (BYU 1:283).

4. BYU 1:286; Maeser to Cluff, 6, 13 Nov. 1899, Cluff Papers; “First Football Squad,” YN, 16 Oct. 1925; Calvin B. Lee, The Campus Scene, 1900-70 (New York: David McKay, 1970), p. 7; Marva Hodson Gregory, “The Life and Educational Contributions of Eugene Lusk Roberts,” M.S. thesis, University of Utah, 1952, pp. 36-37; Lee, Campus Scene, p. 7. The ban at Columbia University lasted ten years (“Prodigy,” Time, 25 Sept. 1939). BYU folklore includes an unsubstantiated incident regarding an 1899 football fatality (see “Football–Game for Hogs,” YN, 2 Nov. 1921, and “Gridiron History Review,” DU, 17 Oct. 1950).

5. “The Gymnasium,” WB, 15 Oct. 1901; “Basketball,” WB, 4 Dec. 1902; “Young and Aggie Quints Split Series,” YN, 3 Feb. 1926. See also BYU 1:349-55, 384-85. “Off the Record,” YN, 23 Jan. 1942; T. Earl Pardoe, The Sons of Brigham (Provo, Utah: BYU Alumni Association, 1969), p. 335; Richard Dahl, BYU’s Stan Watts: The Man and His Game (Bountiful, Utah: Horizon Publishers, 1976), pp. 89-90. During the 1940s, intercollegiate games were moved to Springville City High School gymnasium, although practices were still held in the “attic.” See Eugene L. Roberts Papers, UA 562 (cf. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 34-35). For league championships, see WB, 17 March 1905 and 1 April 1906. The state school for the deaf joined the league in 1905 (“Athletics,” WB, 3 Feb. 1905). For the Intercollegiate Athletic Association championship, see WB, 5 March 1908. For state championships, see WB, 11 March 1910 (a tie), 30 May 1911, 5 March 1912, 13 March 1914, and 7 March 1917. See also “Half Century of BYU Basketball,” DU, 10 April 1951, for the 1915 championship. Preston McDonald, a member of BYU’s 1917 team, described the AAU tournament for the rest of the student body in “The Trip to Chicago,” WB, 28 March 1917. According to McDonald, the Second Regiment Armory Building in Chicago, site of the tournament, was a “monster building . . . as large as the Salt Lake tabernacle.” McDonald was aggravated by spectators who filled the hall with cigarette smoke and by referees who were suspected of bias against the Provo team. BYU’s slow, methodical style of basketball is evident from the low scores of the winning games: 52 to 21 against Missouri, 35 to 24 against Oklahoma, and 27 to 16 against the Seward Blues. In the final game against an Illinois team, BYU amassed only 14 points to their opponent’s 27.

6. “U of U vs. BYU,” WB, 25 May 1906; Athletic Hall of Fame (Provo, Utah: BYU Press, 1975), n.p. Richards reported that he learned how to run and jump chasing jack rabbits in the Utah desert. William T. Black, Mormon Athletes, 2 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1980-82), 1:7, 10, 109-10.

7. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 65-66, 81-82, 88. Contests between BYU and members of the Rocky Mountain Conference affected the conference standing of the Rocky Mountain schools before BYU was a member. The same was true for games between BYC and Rocky Mountain Conference schools. “BYU in Rocky Mountain Conference,” WB, 16 Jan. 1918; Gregory, “Eugene Lusk Roberts,” pp. 38-39. “Are Numbers All That Count?” YN, 21 Dec. 1921; Smith, “A History of the Brigham Young University: The Early Years, 1875-1921,” Ph.D. diss., BYU, 1972, pp. 187-88; “Roberts Refuses Schedule,” YN, 13 Dec. 1923. As further evidence of BYU’s meager athletic investment, student athletes generally wore unfitted, tattered uniforms said to have looked like pajamas. See “Ye Gods,” YN, 19 Jan. 1926. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 97-175. For this chapter, the authors used the same formula to calculate Rocky Mountain Conference rankings as used by Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 511, 685.

8. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 97-175. In addition to those mentioned in the text, BYU won three championships and tied for first place twice in wrestling, won four tennis championships, three championships in swimming, and a total of four in track and field. “Neither Wrestling Nor Boxing to be Featured,” YN, 5 April 1922. Since BYU tied for first place in wrestling the next year, it can be assumed that wrestling was re-allowed. For the re-emergence of boxing, see “Athletics,” Banyan, 1944. “Young Has Many National Champions,” YN, 23 March 1928; “Kerplunk! We’ve Hit the Bottom,” YN, 5 May 1926; “Roberts Teaches Class in Swimming,” YN, 21 Dec. 1921. For the Central High School pool, see YN, 18 Jan. 1922 and 19 Dec. 1929. “U of U Swimming Team Defeats BYU,” YN, 29 March 1922; Black, Mormon Athletes, 1:15-16.

9. “Faculty Sumptuously Banquet Football Team,” YN, 7 Dec. 1921. The first conference game was played a year later (YN, 11 Oct. 1922). Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 330-33; “Utes Take Cougar Pelts in Hard Battle of 40-7,” YN, 17 Nov. 1926. It was later noted that BYU had scored against the University of Utah once in 1924. “Farmers Barely Escape Defeat,” YN, 12 Nov. 1924; BYU 2:320; “The Stadium,” YN, 22 Oct. 1924; “A Glimpse Into the Future of Our Stadium,” YN, 25 May 1928; BYU 2:233.

10. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 40, 237-40, 511, 516. BYU won three conference championships in baseball, two in cross country, and one in golf. The University of New Mexico and the University of Montana later joined the Skyline Conference (p. 280).

11. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 818-22; BYU Media Guide, 1983, pp. 52-54 (cf. “Record Shows ‘U’ Dominates in Past Grid Battles,” DU, 5 Oct. 1950); “Finally–An Editorial About the Team,” DU, 22 Nov. 1949; “Cougars Crap Out,” DU, 29 Nov. 1949; “Administration Makes No Move on Grid Policy,” DU, 29 Nov. 1955; “Cougars Smash New Mexico,” DU, 5 Nov. 1956; “Perfect Mark Spoiler,” DU, 18 Nov. 1963; “Moral Victory,” DU, 21 Oct. 1957; “Is Denver Right?” YN, 22 Jan. 1947; “The Other Evening,” YN, 28 Jan. 1943. For a photograph of an early BYU football team, see Banyan, 1941, p. V-9. The orange-and-blue-striped uniforms later changed to white and blue.

12. “Basketball,” WB, 11 March 1913; BYU 3:439-41; Dahl, Stan Watts, pp. 91, 95-99; Calvin O. Knaak, “A Biography of Dr. Edwin R. Kimball,” M.S. thesis, BYU, 1971, pp. 76, 78-79; National Invitational Tournament Program, 1983, n.p. The tournament is currently sponsored by the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association. Black, Mormon Athletes, 2:136-38.

13. “President Wilkinson’s Talk Stirs U.S. Attention,” DU, 22 March 1951; Wilkinson Journal, 22 Nov. 1955, Wilkinson Papers. Kopp later described himself as a “blood and guts, three-yards-and-a-cloud-of-dust-type-of-guy trying to motivate a bunch of skinny Mormons who didn’t want to hit anybody.” He tried to initiate a passing attack by telling the team he had seen a vision in which Joseph Smith extended his arms and Brigham Young raised one arm and thrust it forward. The team interpreted the gestures to be a greeting and a sign to “go forth,” but Kopp told them it meant they should spread out the offensive line and pass the ball. He subsequently acknowledged that he had fabricated the vision (“Tour of Beauty: Playing the Field,” Washington Post, 26 Aug. 1984). Wilkinson, memo of a conference with President McKay on athletics, 12 April 1955, Wilkinson Papers; “Coach Quits,” DU, 7 Dec. 1955. Elder Stephen L. Richards was perhaps the most ardent supporter among the General Authorities of BYU sports. He felt that athletic accomplishment would “make all the young people of this church proud of this university and want to come to it.” For many years, however, his was a lone voice in favor of increased funds for the program. See Richards to the Alumni Association, 1 Oct. 1949, in The Messenger, Oct. 1949; BYU 3:448; McDonald, Oral History, 7 Aug. 1973, p. 20, BYUA; Wilkinson Journal, 2 Feb. 1956. At Wilkinson’s insistence, Watts became a more devout Mormon (Dahl, Stan Watts, p. 113).

14. “Atkinson Gives Win Formula,” DU, 25 Jan. 1956; Gregory, “Eugene Lusk Roberts,” pp. 38-39, 62-68, 87-90; “Change in Athletic Staff Brings Romney,” YN, 27 March 1928; Roberts to Wilkinson, 11 May 1951, Wilkinson Papers; “Constitution and Rules of the Rocky Mountain Faculty Athletic Conference,” Division 1-Article 2-Rule I, in Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” p. 726; “Roberts Organizes Directors’ School,” YN, 15 April 1930.

15. “Constitution of the Mountain States Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, 1937,” Division C, Article 1, Paragraph 3, and “Mountain States Conference Operating Code, 1948,” Section IX, Paragraphs 4c, 4e, and 5, in Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 747, 766-67; “It’s the Old College Game–Proselyting for Athletes,” YN, 18 Dec. 1936; “Official Minutes of Mountain States Athletic Conference, 1937-62,” 4:173-75; BYU 4:541-43.

16. BYU 3:426; Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 776-77; Wilkinson Journal, 21 Jan. 1955; “Mountain States Conference Operating Code, 1948,” Section IX, Paragraph 5; Kimball to Wilkinson, 21 Aug. 1952, Wilkinson Papers; “New BYU Athletic Stand,” DU, 10 Nov. 1953; Kimball to Wayne B. Hales, 11 May 1953, Wilkinson Papers.

17. BYU 3:429-30; “Mountain States Athletic Conference Constitution and By-Laws Operating Code, 1953,” Section III, Introduction and Paragraphs 2a, 2b, and 7a, in Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” p. 785 (cf. “Mountain States Athletic Code,” DU, 12 Nov. 1953); Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, 14 May 1954; Richards, Address to Faculty, 20 Sept. 1955, in Alumnus, Oct. 1955.

18. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 289, 535, 537, 541-57, 561.

19. BYU 4:534; 3:245-46, 255-258; Harold W. Pease, “The History of the Alumni Association and Its Influence on the Development of Brigham Young University,” Ph.D. diss., BYU, 1974, p. 422; Wilkinson Journal, 13 Dec. 1969; Board of Trustees Minutes, 4 Sept. 1968; BYU 3:337-38. BYU administrators forwarded the following five suggested names for the basketball arena to the Board of Trustees: Timpanogos Hall (after nearby Mount Timpanogos), Cosmo Hall (after the school mascot), Cumorah Hall (after the hill in which the Book of Mormon plates were found), Cougar Coliseum (after the school mascot), and the Timp-Olympic Center. After it was decided to move the arena close enough to campus to host Forum addresses as well as basketball games, a more dignified name was thought to be in order. Trustees invited Mormon business entrepreneur J. Willard Marriott to contribute $1 million or more towards the arena’s contruction with the understanding that it would be named after him. Following his donation of a “substantial amount” of Marriott Corporation stock, the arena was christened the Marriott Activities Center. When students began referring to it as the “Big Mac” (in reference to the McDonald hamburger), the title was shortened to “Marriott Center.” See Lorin F. Wheelwright to Wilkinson, 18 April 1969, UA 567; Board of Trustees Minutes, 4 Sept. 1969; BYU 3:255-58.

20. BYU 3:689; “Constitution of the Western Athletic Conference, 1962,” Section 15, Rule 2, in Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” p. 876. BYU also pays for the entertainment of prospective athletes while they are on campus (“Recruit Funds Flaunted,” DU, 25 June 1981). “Constitution of the Western Athletic Conference, 1962,” Section 14, Rules 4, 6, 8, in Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 875-876. If an athlete works while at school, his wages are deducted from the amount of the grant (1983-84 NCAA Manual, pp. 19-20). “Eating Psychological,” DU, 13 April 1981.

21. “Constitution of the Western Athletic Conference, 1962,” Section 13, Rule 4 (cf. Western Athletic Conference Code, 1983-84, p. 20); “Constitution of the Mountain States Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, 1937,” Division 1, Rule 7, in Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” p. 748. This rule was carried over from the Rocky Mountain Conference (“Constitution and Rules of the Rocky Mountain Faculty Athletic Conference, 1917,” Division 1, Article 1, Rule IV, in Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” p. 726). Catalog, 1972-73, p. 19 (see also Catalog, 1947-48, p. 47, and “No Bachelor’s Degree for Below ‘C’ Average,” DU, 14 Nov. 1960); Academic Standards Committee Minutes, 13 June 1972, Attachment I, UA 553. The committee ruled that the new standard should be “attached to the WAC code books, . . . [but] not printed in the General Catalog or other university publications.” Academic Standards Committee Minutes, 28 Nov. 1972, UA 553 (cf. Catalog, 1982-83, p. 339); “Degrees Enhance Future,” DU, 13 Jan. 1981; “Athletes May be Favored,” DU, 16 July 1981; “Y Decides for Trumbo,” DU, 11 Jan. 1982; “Campus Chatter,” SEP, 18 Jan. 1982; “Academics: How ‘Y’ Shapes Up,” DU, 12 Jan. 1981.

22. For a discussion of non-Mormon athletes at BYU, see Wilkinson to Charles Fletcher, 26 Sept. 1968, Wilkinson Papers; Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, 21 Nov. 1968; “Summary of LDS and Non-LDS on BYU Athletic Teams,” 19 April 1970, BYUA; “Brigham Young University Fact Book–Centennial Edition,” April 1976, Printed Material 20; “Interview: Clarence Robison,” DU, 29 March 1971. Half of Robison’s track team was non-LDS. Glen Tuckett, director of Intercollegiate Athletics, authors’ interview, 30 May 1984; Kopp, in BYU 3:448; “Jack’s Batch,” DU, 19 Jan. 1961; “Interview: Tommy Hudspeth,” DU, 20 Oct. 1971; Wilkinson to Joseph T. Bentley, Milton F. Hartvigsen, and Eddie Kimball, 30 June 1962, UA 554b; Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, 16 May 1974 (cf. R. LaVell Edwards, “Prepare for a Mission,” an address to the church’s priesthood holders, Ensign, Nov. 1984, pp. 44-46); LaVell Edwards to Dallin H. Oaks, 4 May 1976, copy in authors’ possession; Black, Mormon Athletes, 1:32-38; BYU 3:437-39; Rollie Bestor, director of Extramural Sports, authors’ interview, 30 May 1984; “Cougars Draw Line on Fiesta Bowl,” BYU Today, May 1977. BYU tied for first place in the conference that year. “Cougars Share WAC Grid Title,” BYU Today, Dec. 1977.

23. “More Gridders Cut,” DU, 15 Nov. 1963; “Players Apologize to Student Body,” DU, 19 Nov. 1963; Chris Apostol, authors’ interview, 31 May 1984; “Star Suspended,” DU, 28 July 1981; authors’ interview with ****** ******, 16 March 1985, and **** ***********, 13 April 1985; Gerald Dye, chair of Academic Standards and former chair of University Standards, authors’ interview, 20 June 1984.

24. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” p. 685; WAC All Sports Record Book (Western Athletic Conference, 1983), p. 13. Information on the 1983-84 school year came from Ralph Zobell, BYU Sports Information. By 1985, BYU had won the following number of conference championships in the sports indicated: wrestling, 16; golf, 14; football, 10 (two of which were ties); basketball, 8 (three were ties); track and field, 6 (one tie); baseball, 5; tennis, 5 (one tie); cross country, 4; indoor track, 3; and swimming, 2. “Intercollegiate Athletics for Men,” Catalog, 1983-84, p. 339. The Knoxville Journal ranked BYU fourth overall in the nation (“Lifeblood of BYU Athletics,” DU, 27 Nov. 1978). BYU 3:467; “Y Putts NCAA Golf Title,” DU, 2 June 1981; “Karl Tucker: BYU’s Champion Golf Coach,” BYU Sports, 30 May 1980; Black, Mormon Athletes, 2:52-55, 251-52; “Former BYU Great,” BYU Sports, 8 Jan. 1980; “BYU’s Fehr Stars at U.S. Open,” Salt Lake Tribune, 18 June 1984; “Cougars in the Pros,” DU, 14 Aug. 1973; “Big Bucks on Golf Circuit,” BYU Sports, 22 Nov. 1980; “Tucker Develops a PGA ‘Farm Club,'” BYU Sports, Spring 1983; BYU Media Guide, 1983-84, n.p.

25. “Watts Erupts Again in New York,” DU, 21 March 1966; WAC All-Sports Record Book, p. 13; “Your Mission, Mr. Witbeck,” DU, 19 Feb. 1973; “Kresimir Serenades BYU,” DU, 2 March 1973; “BYU’s Wild Giraffe,” DU, 2 April 1973; “Case of the Capering Croat,” Sports Illustrated, 13 Dec. 1971; “Cosic Leads Yugos,” BYU Sports, 19 Aug. 1980.

26. BYU 4:170; “Successor Sought,” DU, 12 March 1975; “Speculation Ends: Arnold is Coach,” DU, 14 March 1975; “Frank Arnold,” BYU Sports, Feb. 1982; “BYU Earns More and More Technicals,” SEP, 15 Dec. 1981; “Arnold Resigns,” DU, 16 March 1983; “Resignation a Farce; Who Will Tell the Truth?” DU, 24 March 1983. Arnold was replaced by Ladell Andersen, former head coach at Utah State University, former Utah Stars coach, and USU athletic director for ten years (“LaDell Andersen,” BYU Today, Aug. 1983). 1983 NCAA Basketball (Shawnee Mission, Kansas: NCAA, 1983), n.p., cf. Orson Scott Card, Ainge (Salt Lake City: Orion Books, 1982), p. 93; “Y Dumps Tigers,” DU, 13 March 1981; “Cougars Upset Bruins,” DU, 16 March 1981; “Y Halted by Virginia,” DU, 23 March 1981; “Yes Virginia,” Sports Illustrated, 30 March 1981. Ainge also won the Eastman Kodak Player of the Year Award. During Ainge’s summer vacations at BYU, he played for the Toronto Blue Jays’s farm league baseball team. At the beginning of his senior year, he signed a $500,000 three-year contract with the Blue Jays. When the Blue Jays later announced to Ainge their intention to trade him to an Atlanta team, where he would be traded to a basketball team with a common owner, Ainge successfully sued the Blue Jays to allow the Boston Celtics to buy his contract. In 1984, the Celtic rookie was fined $750.00 for inciting a brawl (“Ainge Named Player of the Year,” DU, 25 March 1981; “Ainge Tug of War,” DU, 28 Sept. 1981; “Ainge Draws $750 Fine,” Salt Lake Tribune, 16 May 1984). “Cougars in the Pros,” DU, 14 Aug. 1973; “Fred ‘Boo’ Roberts Fits In,” DU, 8 March 1984; “Y Stars of Past Making Good Taking on Professional Ranks,” DU, 12 June 1984.

27. Lorraine Taylor to Editor, DU, 8 Dec. 1953; “Apostle Advises Coping With Life,” DU, 22 Jan. 1975; “Jeffrey R. Holland: A Closer Look at the President,” SEP, 28 Sept. 1982; Keele, “Ruminations on a Sacred Cow: A Germanist’s View of Athletics at the University,” SEP, 1 Dec. 1981.

28. Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 822, 911; BYU 3:449; Black, Mormon Athletes, 2:149-51; “Grid Coach Hal Mitchell Discharged,” DU, 18 Dec. 1963; “New Head Football Coach Named,” DU, 6 Jan. 1964.

29. “Cat Goblins Spook Plowboys,” DU, 2 Nov. 1964; “AP, UPI Name Carter Best Back of Week,” DU, 9 Nov. 1966. Carter went on to play for the Chicago Bears; his first year there, he was fined $1,000 for criticizing the coaching staff (“Carter’s Remarks Cost,” DU, 17 Dec. 1969). “Call Out the Marines,” DU, 17 May 1965; “Marine Saga Unfolded,” DU, 4 Nov. 1966; Chris Apostol, authors’ interview, 31 May 1984; 1981 Football Records (Shawnee Mission, Kansas: National Collegiate Athletic Association, 1981), n.p.; “Cougars Slog Over Utes,” DU, 30 Oct. 1967 (cf. “Phil Odle,” BYU Sports, 1 Dec. 1979). Odle was drafted by the Detroit Lions (“Pro Football Draft Nabs Odle,” DU, 1 Feb. 1968).

30. “Cellar Dwellers Shoot for Title,” DU, 22 Nov. 1965; “Hudspeth Ready to Field Team,” DU, 13 May 1965; Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 822, 911-14; “Finally! Cougars Triumphant,” DU, 8 Nov. 1965; “Champs! Cougars Emerge as WAC Power,” DU, 29 Nov. 1965; “Hudspeth New Grid Head at UTEP,” DU, 25 Oct. 1972. Hudspeth reportedly had an ill-controlled temper and was thought by many to be a “poor loser.” Few regretted his departure, despite his generally successful performance. He later became coordinator of personnel and scouting for the Detroit Lions (“The Gunner,” DU, 2 Feb. 1972; “BYU Officials View Hudspeth,” DU, 7 Oct. 1976). 1981 Football Records, n.p. In 1960, BYU’s Bruce Samples set the season’s kick-off return yardage record. “Golden Richards,” BYU Sports, 24 Jan. 1980. Richards was drafted by the Dallas Cowboys and played in two National Football League superbowls.

31. “Edwards Takes Over BYU Football,” DU, 2 Feb. 1972; LaVell Edwards and Lee Nelson, LaVell Edwards: Building a Winning Football Tradition at Brigham Young University (Provo, Utah: Council Press, 1980), pp. 29-31; “BYU Breaking With Tradition,” BYU Today, Dec. 1980. Edwards held a bachelor’s degree from Utah State University, a master’s degree from the University of Utah, and received a Ph.D. from BYU in 1978. Scovil left BYU in 1980 to become head football coach at San Diego State University. See “Edwards Pursues Goal,” DU, 21 Aug. 1978; “Scovil Jumps Ship,” BYU Sports, 16 Dec. 1980. “Plater, Davis–‘Bomb Squad,'” BYU Sports, 6 Dec. 1980; “When the Latter-day Saints Go Marching In,” Sports Illustrated, 8 Dec. 1980; Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” p. 688; BYU Media Guide, 1983-84, n.p.; 1981 Football Records, n.p. The game was played against Utah State University in October 1980; BYU was assessed 217 yards in penalties. This was the same game in which BYU’s Pulusila Filiaga slugged umpire John Birleffi (“Attack Upon Umpire Discussed,” DU, 20 Oct. 1980). The in-state rivalry no doubt contributed to the hostilities. A 1974 game between BYU and USU had erupted into a “fist and helmet swinging melee,” while a 1961 basketball game between the two schools had ended in what the Universe called a “riot,” when “fans and students from both sides poured onto the floor, and the battle raged despite the futile attempts of the police” to prevent it (“Aggies Slip by Cats,” DU, 23 Sept. 1974; “It Had to Happen,” DU, 13 Feb. 1961). Nevertheless, freshmen prep coach Claud Bassett has explained that BYU goes into each football game planning to be assessed one hundred yards in penalties because of “the realities” of establishing pass-block protection (authors’ interview, 25 May 1984). “Use of Steroids Questioned,” DU, 22 Sept. 1983; Marc Udall, BYU football team physician, authors’ interview, 1 June 1984; Sue Walker, head nurse at the office of Brent Pratley, team orthopedic surgeon, authors’ interview, 2 May 1984; Glen Tuckett, director of Intercollegiate Athletics, authors’ interview, 30 May 1984. Tuckett explained that “we are determined to find out more about the physiological and psychological effect of steroids before we make a concrete policy of behavior” but that, towards the beginning of 1984, he had “personally requested that Doctors Udall and Pratley refrain from prescribing steroids under any circumstances.”

32. 1981 Football Records, n.p.; BYU Media Guide, 1983-84, n.p.; “Jay Miller,” BYU Sports, 8 Feb. 1980. Miller went on to coach football at Brown University (Edwards and Nelson, LaVell Edwards, pp. 60-62). “BYU in Fiesta Bowl,” DU, 3 Dec. 1974; “BYU Loses Sheide and Game,” DU, 6 Jan.1975; Black, Mormon Athletes, 1:32-38; “Tangarine Bowl,” BYU Today, Feb. 1977; “Wilson Pass Record Angers Ute Coaches,” DU, 7 Nov. 1977. The score of Wilson’s first BYU game, played against Colorado State, was 63-17. “BYU’s Season to Savor,” Salt Lake Tribune, 17 Dec. 1984.

33. “Midshipmen Sink Cougars,” DU, 4 Jan. 1979; “Cougars Rip Aztecs,” DU, 27 Nov. 1979; Black, Mormon Athletes, 1:121-29; “Frazier Still Sticks Neck Out,” DU, 2 June 1983; “Hoosiers’ Grid Ego Hits,” DU, 6 Dec. 1979; “Indiana Upsets Y,” DU, 8 Jan. 1980; “Marc Wilson,” BYU Sports, 29 Dec. 1979.

34. “McMahon Stirs Up Press,” DU, 23 Sept. 1980; “Edwards’s Epitaph: Hard Work Precedes the Miracle,” BYU Today, March 1981; “A Game to Remember,” DU, 8 Jan. 1981; “2,200 Tour New Stadium Expansion,” DU, 3 Aug. 1982. The stadium expansion included a “three-story press box, running the full length of the west stands.” A president’s box currently accommodates 120 people. There are forty-two $100,000, twelve-seat loges with cushioned, swivel chairs, heating, carpeting, tv and telephone jacks, refrigerators, and sinks (“Cougar Stadium: Catering to the Rich,” SEP, 22 July 1982). At the first game, played before the stadium was completely finished, a large, metal gate fell on one of the student ticket-takers, fracturing his pelvis (“Condition Still Critical,” DU, 28 Sept. 1982; “Stadium Accident Details Covered Up,” SEP, 12 Oct. 1982). “BYU Downs Washington State,” DU, 7 Jan. 1982; “Cougar Holiday Spoiled by Buckeyes,” BYU Today, March 1983.

35. “NCAA Report Praises McMahon’s Record,” BYU Sports, Sept. 1981; 1981 Football Records, n.p.; “Cougar Players,” BYU Sports, Oct. 1982. In 1969, Joe Liljenquist set a collegiate record for most field goals kicked in the first game of a student’s career. “Sportlight: Bears Sign McMahon,” Salt Lake Tribune, 1 June 1984; “More Records to Fall,” BYU Sports, Sept. 1983; “Playboy Honors BYU Tight End,” Sunstone Review, June 1983, p. 2; “Cougars Finish Number Seven,” DU, 10 Jan. 1984; “BYU Does It Once Again,” Salt Lake Tribune, 24 Dec. 1983; “Young Wins Another Honor,” DU, 30 Jan. 1984; David Schulthess, director of BYU Sports Information, authors’ interview, 29 May 1984; BYU Media Guide, 1983-84, n.p.; “John Mooney,” Salt Lake Tribune, 7 March 1984; “Y President Questions Athletes’ Salaries Over Teachers’,” Salt Lake Tribune, 19 June 1984; “BYU Wins National Championship,” Salt Lake Tribune, 3 Jan. 1985; “Doug Flutie Wins the Heisman,” DU, 3 Dec. 1984; “Bosco, Y Rally to Holiday Victory,” Salt Lake Tribune, 22 Dec. 1984; “Raiders Or Skins?” Salt Lake Tribune, 22 Jan. 1984; “Cougar Greats,” BYU Sports, Oct. 1983. For professional players, see DU, 14 Aug. 1973, 12, 13 June 1984; BYU Sports, April, June 1980, Jan., May 1983; BYU 3:450-53.

36. BYU Media Guide, 1983-84, n.p.; BYU 3:464; Black, Mormon Athletes, 2:110-12; “Tito Steiner,” BYU Sports, June 1983.

37. “New NCAA Ruling May Block Recruiting,” DU, 19 Jan. 1971; “Trackster Looks Back,” DU, 20 Feb. 1975; “Pihl on to Competition,” DU, 12 June 1975; “Y Sports Program Unique,” DU, 30 Jan. 1975; “Foreign Invasion,” Sports Illustrated, 24 June 1974; “BYU [vs] UCLA,” DU, 2 Oct. 1974; BYU Media Guide, 1983-84, n.p.; “Rule Change Hurts BYU,” BYU Sports, 12 Aug. 1980.

38. BYU Media Guide, 1983-84, n.p.; “Eyestone Wins NCAA 10K,” DU, 5 June 1984; Black, Mormon Athletes, 1:56-61, 84, 87, 113-17; Black, Mormon Athletes, 2:19-24, 173-74; “Mann, Silvester Win Silver,” DU, 6 Sept. 1972.

39. BYU Media Guide, 1983-84, n.p.; “The Stopper,” BYU Sports, May 1983; “Y Baseball Team Defends Conference Title,” DU, 16 May 1984; “Tigers Lead, Morris Stops Padres,” Salt Lake Tribune, 14 Oct. 1984; “Cougars in the Pros,” DU, 14 Aug. 1973; BYU 3:439. See also BYU Sports, March, April 1980, May, June 1983. Rollie Bestor, director of Extramural Sports, authors’ interview, 30 May 1984; “Campus Chatter,” SEP, 14 March 1982; “Young Carries Away National Title,” BYU Today, May 1975; Jay Silvester, authors’ interview, 3 July 1984.

40. Kathryn Lewis, “A History of the Women’s Intercollegiate Program at BYU,” 1974, n.p.; Ellen Larsen, “Women’s Sports,” Today, April 1984; Gloria Jacquelyn Nettles, “A History of Physical Education for Women at the Brigham Young University,” M.S. thesis, BYU, 1957, pp. 20-21. See also Algie E. Ballif, Oral History, 24 March 1974, BYUA; “Women’s Athletics,” Banyan, 1926, p. 226; Banyan, 1935, p. 195; Banyan, 1941, p. V-33; Lu Wallace, director of Women’s Intercollegiate Athletics, “Summary of All Athletic Events, 1969-84,” June 1984; “Intercollegiate Athletics for Women,” Catalog, 1983-84, p. 339; “Y Not Far Off,” DU, 11 Dec. 1979; “BYU’s Brazilian Import,” BYU Sports, 30 May 1980; Lu Wallace, director of Women’s Intercollegiate Athletics, authors’ interview, 14 June 1984.

41. Wallace, “Athletic Events, 1969-84;” “Y Women Quit AIAW for NCAA,” DU, 10 June 1982; “Malloy and May,” BYU Sports, Spring 1983; “Women’s Golf,” 1983-1984, p. 2.

42. “Locals,” The Normal, 20 Dec. 1892; “Athletics,” WB, 26 Feb. 1904; “Basketball,” WB, Feb. 1913; “The Mormon College Girl: The Coed, Her Ideas and Ways, in a University of the Faith,” Collier’s, 30 July 1910; “College Cheers,” YN, 17 Oct. 1921. See also “Kick and Show Your Colors,” YN, 31 Jan. 1928, cf. “Young Men Yells,” ca. 1960s, BYUA; Peter Knecht and Darrell Edwards to Editor, DU, 27 Sept. 1967.

43. Banyan, 1917, n.p.; “Popular Song to Be Published,” YN, 21 Oct. 1930; “Cougar Song,” Athletic Hall of Fame (Provo, Utah: BYU Press, 1975), n.p.

44. “Brigham’s Brawlers,” DU, 5 Dec. 1962. In 1956, the student Gadianton Band, named after the Book of Mormon’s Gadianton Robbers, dressed as renaissance libertines and were led by a conductor holding a plumber’s friend in place of a baton (DU, 28 Feb. 1956). Lee Anderson to Editor, DU, 20 Jan. 1964. Young Men declined in popularity when a few of them broke into a stadium concession while they were supposed to be guarding the stadium from attacks from University of Utah students (“IOC Penalizes Young Men,” DU, 4 Jan. 1966; “Young Men Suspension Reduced,” DU, 21 Feb. 1966). “When the Latter-day Saints Go Marching In,” Sports Illustrated, 8 Dec. 1980; “From This Mess on My Desk,” DU, 18 Nov. 1965; “Young Men Yells,” BYUA; Board of Trustees Minutes, 2 March 1966.

45. BYU 4:518; Board of Trustees Minutes, 14 Jan., 2 Sept. 1959, 1 Nov. 1961; Wilkinson Journal, 2 Sept. 1959. In early 1972, the Daily Universe asked for ideas for a new nickname for the school’s athletic teams. Suggestions included “Destroying Angels,” “Cricket Stompers,” “Salt Suckers,” “Hustlers,” “Prayer Boys,” “Mormons,” and “Prairie Schooners.” The newpaper staff’s favorite was “Cricket Stompers,” though most students still preferred “Cougars.” See DU, 23-29 Feb. 1972. “Little Jaws and Big Claws,” YN, 1 Oct. 1929; “Cougar Mascot Attacked,” YN, 21 Oct. 1930; “Male Cougar Mascot Found Dead,” YN, 22 Oct. 1930; “Cougar Trails,” YN, 19 Feb. 1932; “Long Sought Mascot Found,” YN, 16 Jan. 1947; “Hail Bubinga,” DU, 11 Nov. 1948; BYU 3:306; Wilkinson Journal, 27 Feb. 1960.

46. “Y Pepster Promises to be Great,” YN, 26 Sept. 1923; “Old ‘Y’ Spirit Dominates in Rally,” YN, 3 Oct. 1923; “Cremation Bonfire Set,” DU, 4 Oct. 1956; “Cougar Days Heighten BYU Spirit,” DU, 15 Oct. 1962; “Fans Fired Up Over Game,” DU, 6 Oct. 1978; “UTEP Effigy Burned,” DU, 28 Sept. 1979; “Y Unveiled at Bonfire,” DU, 15 Oct. 1982; Golden H. Brimhall, Oral History, 1 Oct. 1980, BYUA; “Automatic Scoreboard Purchased,” YN, 30 Sept. 1925.

47. “The Cougar’s Claw,” YN, 20 Oct. 1939; “Utes Smear Y Campus With Crimson,” YN, 20 Oct. 1939; “Girls Outnumber Boys,” YN, 31 Oct. 1941; BYU 3:306; “Precautions Dissuade Red Painters,” DU, 8 Oct. 1956; “Salt Laker Returns Y-Bell,” DU, 21 Jan. 1957. See also Mills Crenshaw to Editor, DU, 28 Feb. 1958. “Bell Boasts Tradition,” DU, 25 Feb. 1958. The bell was later moved to a tower overlooking the Stephen L Richards Physical Education Building. In 1967, BYU Security arrested a group of University of Utah students trying to remove the bell from the tower using a block and tackle, metal cutters, a mattress, a sweatshirt to quiet the clapper, and walkie-talkies. The bell currently hangs in a tower in front of the Marriott Center. See “Ute Yeggs Accosted,” DU, 9 Oct. 1967, and “Historic Y Victory Bell Moved,” DU, 12 Sept. 1978. “Blue Y’s Appear at U of U,” DU, 5 Feb. 1957; “Vandals Storm Y Campus,” DU, 25 Oct. 1967; “Court Fines Vandals,” DU, 30 Oct. 1967; “Their Veins Run a Deep Cougar Blue,” BYU Sports, 21 Feb. 1981; “Utes Apply Red War Paint,” DU, 21 Nov. 1980; “U Hit Worse in Rivalry,” DU, 24 Nov. 1981; “Four Y Students Confess to Prank,” DU, 15 Jan. 1982.

48. Banyan, 1943, p. 21. BYU also toppled the goal posts in 1941, though not without a struggle. At least one undergraduate–BYU’s student body president–went home in his underwear (Paul E. Felt to Monroe McKay, 13 Oct. 1956, ASBYU Student Body History, 1956-57, BYUA). “Cats Beat Indians–Sixteen-Year Bondage Ends,” DU, 29 Sept. 1958; “Victory Marred as Posts Go Down,” DU, 21 Nov. 1983; “Provo Shares Y Victory,” DU, 20 March 1981; “Post-Game Damages,” DU, 24 March 1981; “Y’s First Lady Describes Job,” DU, 27 Sept. 1982.

49. “Largest Complex Dedicated,” DU, 5 Feb. 1973; “The University Question,” WB, 26 March 1903; “Administration Worried About Sportsmanship,” DU, 10 Dec. 1982; “Sportsmanship Urged,” DU, 4 March 1981. See also “Oaks Urges Students to Use High Level of Sportsmanship,” DU, 30 Nov. 1977, and Steve Benson cartoon, DU, 2 Dec. 1977; David L. Hutchinson to Editor, DU, 6 Dec. 1972; Allan Weinstock to Editor, DU, 16 Feb. 1965.

50. “Prigging Out,” Rolling Stone, 14 April 1983, p. 95; Public Relations Coordinating Council Minutes, 20 Feb. 1970, UA 553; Lester E. Bush, Jr., “Mormonism’s Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview,” Dialogue, Spring 1973, pp. 14, 16-17, 21-22, 24-26, 28; Newell G. Bringhurst, “An Ambiguous Decision: The Implementation of Mormon Priesthood Denial for the Black Man,” Utah Historical Quarterly, Winter 1978, pp. 46-47, 56-57, 64. Bringhurst quotes Brigham Young as calling blacks “uncouth, uncomely, disagreeable in their habits, wild, and seemingly deprived of nearly all the blessings of intelligence that [are normally] bestowed upon mankind.” Bringhurst also suggests that Mormon insecurity over their social status on the American frontier may have been one underlying cause of racial prejudice in Utah.

51. Virginia B. Smith to Editor, DU, 14 Oct. 1948. See also ASBYU Legislative and Executive Council to Editor, DU, 3 March 1949; “America–All Races and Religions,” DU, 23 March 1960; Ron Simpson to Editor, DU, 13 Dec. 1968; “Students Give Mixed Reaction to Indian Program,” DU, 4 April 1966; Bush, “Mormonism’s Negro Doctrine,” pp. 39-42; and Armand L. Mauss, “The Fading of the Pharaoh’s Curse: The Decline and Fall of the Priesthood Ban Against Blacks,” Dialogue, Autumn 1981, p. 12. “The Way It Is,” DU, 27 Nov. 1968. One student responded to Geissler’s editorial: “A tribute to Judy Geissler of the supreme white race from a non-white student. Oink. Oink. Your inferior, Michael Hu” (Michael Hu to Editor, DU, 13 Dec. 1968).

52. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1 Feb. 1961; Lester E. Bush, Jr., “A Compilation on the Negro,” p. 302. In 10 November 1960, Wilkinson recorded in his journal that he had

reported to the executive committee about a colored boy on the campus having been a candidate for the vice presidency of a class and receiving a very large vote. They were very much concerned. Brother Harold B. Lee looked at me and said in substance, “If a granddaughter of mine should ever go to the BYU and become engaged to a colored boy there I would hold you responsible.” I replied in substance that he ought to hold himself responsible because he was one of the members of the Board of Trustees that permitted the present policy; that if it was not right he ought to change it. I was directed to bring it up before the entire board. The three members present were in favor of banning colored students from the BYU. This is a very serious problem on which, of course, there are obviously arguments on both sides. But surely we will have to face it squarely and resolve it.

Five years later, Eugene England and Clifford Gledhill contributed a scholarship fund for Nigerian students but Harold B. Lee “protested vigorously over our having given a scholarship at the BYU to a negro student from Africa” and the fund was discontinued (Wilkinson Journal, 3 March 1965; Board of Trustees Minutes, 31 March 1965).

53. “Honest Discussion of BYU–Negro Athlete Recruitment Essential,” DU, 19 Dec. 1968; “Memo from a Mormon,” Look, 22 Oct. 1963, p. 74; (cf. “An Answer for a ‘Troubled Young Man,'” DU, 8 Oct. 1963, and Jeff Nye to Editor, DU, 20 Nov. 1963); “Protest Waves Roll: Mormons Under Fire,” DU, 3 Nov. 1969; Mauss, “Pharoah’s Curse,” p. 15; “San Jose State Blacks May Boycott Y Game,” DU, 25 Nov. 1968.

54. “Negro Athletes May Boycott BYU Games,” DU, 12 April 1968; “Wyoming’s Impact on Sports,” Salt Lake Tribune, 11 Nov. 1969 (cf. “Pride and Precosity,” Time, 25 Oct. 1968, p. 62); Ray to Wilkinson, 22 April 1968, Wilkinson Papers; “SJS Blacks May Boycott Y Game,” DU, 25 Nov. 1968; “Threats Fizzle,” DU, 2 Dec. 1968; “SJS Demands Cancellation,” DU, 27 Nov. 1968; “President Approves Protest,” DH, 9 Nov. 1969; “Wilkinson Airs Race Policy,” DU, 26 Nov. 1969.

55. “Coach Eaton Has Last Word,” DU, 20 Oct. 1969; “Pokes Dismiss Fourteen Black Players,” DH, 19 Oct. 1969; “Pokes Forgotten–UTEP Next,” DU, 20 Oct. 1969; “ASU Demonstration Charges Racism,” DU, 6 Oct. 1969; “ASU Report Given,” DU, 7 Oct. 1969; “WAC Embroiled in Racial Study,” DU, 5 Nov. 1969; “BSA Demonstration Cancels WAC Meeting,” DU, 6 Nov. 1969; Board of Trustees Minutes, 16 April, 3 June, 4 Nov. 1970; “Lobo Student Senate Votes to Sever BYU Athletic Relations,” Daily Herald, 21 March 1969; “WAC vs. BYU,” DU, 31 Oct. 1969; “Seattle U. Student Officers Urge Termination of Relations With BYU,” Daily Herald, 24 April 1970; Wilkinson Journal, 13 March 1970. Wilkinson recorded that the University of Washington’s faculty senate voted 38 to 29 in favor of severing ties with BYU. “Stanford Bars Competition With Mormons,” DU, 15 Dec. 1969. Wilkinson termed this “religious discrimination” (“Wilkinson Blasts Stanford Policy,” DU, 6 Jan. 1970). BYU 3:473; “University Leader Reports Washington Break With BYU,” DU, 10 March 1970.

56. “University Leader Reports Washington Break With BYU,” DU, 10 March 1970; “Thirty Remain at Sit-In Against Y,” Salt Lake Tribune, 14 Feb. 1970; “Huskies to Seek Review of Relations With BYU,” Salt Lake Tribune, 4 Feb. 1970. This news story related a demonstration at a gymnastics event; other incidents occurred at baseball games and wrestling matches. “UA Students Arrested on Riot Charges,” Daily Herald, 11 Jan. 1970; “Cougars Lose Again,” DU, 2 March 1970; “Violent Demonstration Marks BYU-Colorado Game,” DU, 6 Feb. 1970; “Demonstration Line Forms Before Game,” DU, 9 Feb. 1970; “Mob Gathers As Marchers Walk on Floor,” DU, 9 Feb. 1970; “The Other Side of the Y,” Sports Illustrated, 26 Jan. 1970. One of BYU’s non-Mormon players said he wanted to “grab hold of somebody [at the games] and yell, ‘I’m Catholic, I’m Catholic'”; “A Very Nice Place to Visit,” Sports Illustrated, 14 Dec. 1970; “Stan Watts Years Still Remembered,” DU, 14 Oct. 1983; Dahl, Stan Watts, pp. 168, 170-71.

57. “Protest Not Against Y, Says Watts,” DU, 11 March 1970; “Militants, Reds, Attack Y, Church,” Alumnus, Feb. 1970; Wilkinson to Daniel H. Ludlow, 11 Feb. 1970, UA 584; Parker, “Athletic Conferences,” pp. 590-591.

58. “Black Athletes Discuss BYU Racial Attitudes,” DU, 2 Feb. 1972. Though Smith was critical of the racial environment, he eventually converted to Mormonism. “Y’s Batiste Suspended,” DU, 13 Dec. 1974; “Varsity Team Will [Have] Frosh Recruits,” DU, 21 Nov. 1977; “Black Athlete Takes Criticisms,” DU, 23 Jan. 1978; “Black Athletes in Utah,” Denver Post, 19 Dec. 1983, cf. “The Denver Post in Utah,” DU, 23 Jan. 1984.

59. “Brotherhood Week Begins,” DU, 5 May 1969; University Speakers Committee Minutes, 21 Jan. 1969, UA 584; “Black is Beautiful,” DU, 30 March 1972; “Haley Gets Honorary Y Degree,” DU, 1 Sept. 1977; “Wynetta Martin Joins BYU Faculty,” DU, 4 Dec. 1970; Wynetta Willis Martin, Black Mormon Tells Her Story (Salt Lake City: Hawkes Publications, 1972), pp. 68-70; Wilkinson Journal, 5-6 May 1960.

60. “Senator Edward W. Brooke at BYU,” an address to BYU students, 12 Jan. 1978, in Dialogue, Summer 1978, pp. 119-120.

61. “Blacks Get Priesthood,” Extra, DU, 9 June 1978; “President Kimball Says Black Change ‘Gradual,'” DU, 1 Aug. 1978; “From Protest to Promise,” BYU Today, Nov. 1981; Robert M. Rosenzweig, Public Affairs, Stanford University, to Keith Petty, 28 June 1979, copy in authors’ possession; “NAACP Leader Discusses Racism,” DU, 16 Nov. 1983; “Black Mormon Student,” DU, 22 Feb. 1979; “Prejudiced Attitudes Changing,” DU, 27 Oct. 1982.