Lucy’s Book
Edited by Lavina Fielding Anderson

Biographical Summaries of Named Individuals

[p.798]Although the amount of information available on individuals whom Lucy names varies greatly, I have attempted to identify each from existing secondary sources. In some frustrating instances, I was unable to find more information than that given in the text; in other cases, rather full data are available. Numerous sources provide contradictory information. I include all variants and list all sources consulted at the end of the biographical summary. Names Lucy lists appear in bold.

Allen. The witness intimidated in Austin King’s Missouri court. Likely candidates are: (1) Charles Allen, born 1806 in Pennsylvania. He was tarred and feathered with Edward Partridge in Independence on 20 July 1833. (2) Elihu M. Allen. George A. Smith wrote “Elihu Allen” on top of the Coray page recounting the intimidation incident, but whether it was in confirmation or in query is not possible to determine. Elihu M. [Jr.] was born 5 October 1835, Dryden, New York, to Elihu M. Allen [Sr.] and Lola Ann Clauson, and reached Utah 8 August 1847. (3) William Allen was taken prisoner at Far West. Cannon and Cook, 245; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 15, 416; Esshom, 714.

Allen, Pelatiah provided a barrel of whiskey to incite the attackers of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon at Hiram, Ohio, 24 March 1832. D. Hill, 146, gives his name as Feletiah Allen.

Ashby/Ashley, Colonel. Don Carlos identifies him as Ashby, Hyrum as Ashley, and both link him with the Haun’s Mill massacre. According to LeSueur, Ashby is correct and there were two: one named Charles and the other Daniel, both involved in the massacre. Charles was a state senator from Livingston County, Missouri, living near the Chariton River, who gave breakfast to Don Carlos Smith and George A. Smith returning from a mission in late fall 1838. Charles Ashby also voted in January 1839 for a legislative investigating committee, believing that it would clear the Missourians of culpability; the proposal stalled in the house. LeSueur, 163-64, 227-29.

Atchison, David Rice, was born in Kentucky in 1807 and moved to Liberty, Clay County, Missouri, in August 1830. He was closely associated with Alexander William Doniphan as both colleague and friend, sharing law offices with him after Doniphan moved to Liberty in 1833, referring legal work to him, and collaborating on cases. During the early 1830s, he formed and captained a militia unit, the Liberty Blues; he was also a major general of the state militia’s third division. Atchison and Doniphan were two of the four attorneys retained by the Mormons in 1833 when they were driven from Jackson County. When legal efforts at redress failed, Atchison, the legislative representative from Clay County, presented Mormon petitions to the legislature. In 1836 he [p.799]served on a committee of Clay County citizens that asked the Mormons to leave the state. In September 1838, he pledged “my life for yours” to assure Joseph Smith’s safety during a hearing about the Adam Black incident and dispelled an unfriendly crowd before the hearing began by fingering his gun and warning, “Hold on, boys.” Governor Lilburn Boggs relieved him of his command in October 1838 before the siege of Far West, possibly for personal reasons; another version is that Atchison resigned when he heard about the extermination order. Atchison “vehemently condemned” Boggs’s extermination order in the next legislative session. Atchison, circuit judge in Platte City, 1841-57, was also a U.S. Senator, 1843-54, wanted to repeal the Missouri Compromise, secretly encouraged proslavery settlements in Kansas, led vigilante raids into Kansas during the 1850s, and was pro-secessionist during the Civil War. See an unexpectedly sympathetic vignette of him in Don Carlos’s account, Appendix. Launius, Alexander, 3, 11-13, 51, 221, 232; LeSueur, 78, 80-81, 157-58, 257-58.

Austin, Seth, was a justice of the peace at Tunbridge, Vermont. He performed the wedding of Lucy Mack and Joseph Smith Sr. on 24 January 1796. Lucy refers to him by his courtesy title of “Colonel.” Bushman, Joseph, 19.

Babbitt, Almon W., was born 1 October 1812 at Cheshire, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, to Ira Babbitt and Nancy Crosier/Crasier. He joined the Mormon church in 1833, served in Zion’s Camp, was ordained a seventy on 28 February 1835, but was charged by the high council in December with breaking the Word of Wisdom and claiming that the Book of Mormon was not essential for salvation. He was rebuked in 1838 for leading a company of Canadian Saints to Missouri against counsel and was disfellowshipped in 1840 for encouraging settlement in Kirtland instead of Nauvoo and for slandering the brethren. After confession, he was called on 19 October 1840 as president of Kirtland Stake, then disfellowshipped for lack of harmony in October 1841, was appointed presiding elder of the Ramus (Illinois) Branch in March 1843, restored to full fellowship in April 1843, called on a mission to France in May 1844 (did not go because of the martyrdom), ran for elective office in Nauvoo, presided as president of the briefly revitalized Kirtland Stake, acted as Brigham Young’s agent in selling Nauvoo property in 1846-48, came to Utah (1848), was elected a delegate to Congress (1848), as territorial secretary (1852), and was killed on 7 September 1856 by Indians in Nebraska. His sister, Julia, was married to Isaac Sheen. Cannon and Cook, 246; Black, Who’s Who, 3-5.

Baldwin, Caleb, was born 2 September 1791, at Nobletown, Orange County, New York. He served as an ensign under Captain Charles Parker in the War of 1812, was baptized on 14 November 1830 by Parley P. Pratt, and moved to Jackson County, Missouri, where he took part in the battle on the Big Blue. In 1833 he was driven out of Jackson County, settled in Caldwell County, and was jailed with Joseph Smith and others at Liberty, Clay County, Missouri, during the winter of 1838-39. Baldwin immigrated to the Salt Lake Valley in 1848 and died in Salt Lake City, 11 June 1849. Jenson 2:589-90.

[p.800]Barden, Jerusha. See Hyrum Smith.

Barnes, Lorenzo Dow, was born 22 March 1812 at Tolland, Hampton County, Massachusetts, the son of Phineas Barnes. He married Isabella Pratt. Thomas Gordon baptized him in Norton, Medina County, Ohio, on 16 June 1833. Sidney Rigdon ordained him an elder on 18 July 1833. He went on Zion’s Camp and served on the Adam-ondi-Ahman Stake High Council. He was ordained a seventy in 1835 and a high priest in June 1838. He overcame a speech impediment through “faith and perseverance” and served missions in western Ohio (1 August 1833 to winter 1833-34), to the southern and eastern states (September 1838-1841—he left with Don Carlos Smith, George A. Smith, and Harrison Sagers); and England from the fall of 1841 to 20 December 1842, when he became the first LDS missionary to die in a foreign land. His body was brought to Salt Lake City for interment in 1852. Cannon and Cook, 247; Black, Membership.

Barr. See Bear.

Beaman/Beman, Alva/Alvah, was born 22 May 1775 at Marlboro, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, to Rufus and Mariam Beaman. He was associated with both Joseph Smith Sr. and Oliver Cowdery’s father in money-digging activities in Vermont, and Joseph Knight called him “a grate Rodsman.” He moved to Livonia, Livingston County, New York, where he farmed, in 1799. Although he was apparently first interested in the Book of Mormon because it represented buried treasure, he quickly became a supporter and helped Joseph Jr. hide the plates under the hearth.

He married Sarah (“Sally”) Burtts, and they had eight children in Livonia. The first five, born between 1797 and 1808, were Isaac, Betsey, Alvah, Sarah, and Margaret. They did not join the church. Mary Adeline was born in 1810, became a Mormon, and married Joseph Bates Noble. Louisa was born 7 February 1815, became Joseph Smith’s first officially recognized plural wife in Nauvoo on 5 April 1841, was married to Brigham Young 19 September 1846, bore five children who did not survive, and died of breast cancer in Salt Lake City in 1850. Artemisia was born in 1819 and married Erastus Snow, who helped found St. George.

Alvah and Sally moved their family to Kirtland in 1836 where Alvah died 15 November 1837 after serving as president of the elders quorum and as a temporary member of the high council in Independence. In July 1838, after Alvah’s death in 1837, Sally and some of her children moved to Missouri. They were driven in the winter of 1838-39 to Illinois where Sally died in Nauvoo on 29 September 1840. Compton, 56-69; Quinn, Early, 39; Vogel 1:340; Black, Membership.

Bear. Lucy describes a Mr. Bear, a man of unusual size and strength, who originally planned to mob William Smith as he spoke in 1830 in New Portage, New York, but instead was converted by him. She also names a Mr. Bar as the glazier/carpenter in Kirtland in 1833 who finished her meeting house. She does not give the first name of either. George A. Smith attacks both stories as false, though not, apparently, challenging the individuals involved. (See chaps. 43, 47.) I have not been able to determine whether two men were involved or one, or whether he/they were named Bear or Barr. John Barr, [p.801]sheriff of Cuyahoga County, reports being near-mesmerized by Sidney Rigdon’s powerful preaching at Mayfield, Ohio, in November 1830; he made a friend lead him away before he succumbed and went forward to be baptized (Van Wagoner, Sidney, 62-63). An Oliver Barr had a published correspondence with Rigdon in Kirtland in 1836 (ibid., 165). On 10 February 1843, the Twelve agreed to send “Brother John Bear” about twenty miles upriver from Nauvoo to preach in Shokoquon, at the invitation of its inhabitants (HC 5:268). No Bear/Barr appears in Profile, Cook and Backman, indices to the Nauvoo Journal, William McLellin’s journals, Black’s Membership, or Joseph Smith’s personal writings.

Beckwith, George, born in 1790 at East Haddam, Connecticut, came to Palmyra about 1811 and became partners with his older brother, Nathaniel H. Beckwith, in a mercantile business. He also owned a carpet store, held stock in the Palmyra Hotel (completed in 1837), and was president of the Wayne County Bank in Palmyra. He married Ruth Maston Clark in 1814. Lucy calls him a deacon in the Western Presbyterian Church, but its records list him as an elder. On 3 March 1830, a committee including Rev. A. E. Campbell and Henry Jessup was appointed to visit the three Smiths “and report at the next meeting.” On 10 March, they reported that they had “received no satisfaction … and that they [the Smiths] did not wish to unite with us any more.” George Beckwith is not mentioned as a member of the committee, although he was an elder like Jessup, and Lucy remembers him as taking the lead in the conversation. Richard Anderson, “Circumstantial,” 391; Vogel 1:408, 2:54.

Bennett, John Cook, was born 3 August 1804 to John Bennett and Abigail Cook Bennett, in Fairhaven, Massachusetts, their first son and second child. His parents moved to Ohio in 1806-7 where Abigail’s mother and sisters were living. At eighteen, Bennett apprenticed as a physician to his maternal uncle, Samuel P. Hildreth, and was licensed to practice in Ohio in 1825. In January 1826, he married Mary Barker and they had two children: Mary (born 1827-28, married a man surnamed Ortho) and Joseph (born and died December 1828). Bennett pursued various occupations: establishing colleges, selling medical diplomas, promoting tomatoes as a healthful food, and preaching. He met Joseph Smith in 1832 through William E. McLellin and moved to Nauvoo in September 1840 where he supervised the legislative passage of the Nauvoo City charter, became an intimate of Joseph Smith’s, and served as mayor, as major-general of the Nauvoo Legion, and as secretary of the Masonic Nauvoo lodge. He withdrew from the church under threat of excommunication (published June 1842) for adultery and falsehood. (His version is that Joseph Smith wrote a note to clerk James Sloan on 17 May 1842 allowing him to “withdraw his name … if he desires to do so, and with the best of feelings.”) He then wrote an exposé and lectured against Mormonism, affiliated for a time with J. J. Strang, and helped create Strang’s Order of the Illuminati before being excommunicated. He divorced Mary in October 1842 and, in March 1843, married Sarah Rider of Plymouth, Massachusetts (no children). He practiced medicine and bred poultry, producing the Plymouth Rock and Brahma breeds. He moved to New [p.802]Hampshire in 1851 and to Iowa in 1852 where he died in August 1867 in Polk City. Sarah died in July 1868. Andrew F. Smith, Saintly Scoundrel, passim; Chronicles, 112.

Bent, Samuel, the son of Joel Bent and Mary/Marcy Mason Bent, was born 19 July 1778, at Barre, Worcester County, Massachusetts, joined the Congregationalist church at age twenty-eight, became a deacon, was a colonel in the Massachusetts militia, lived for a few years in St. Lawrence County, New York, and was a member of the Presbyterian church in Hopkinton. On 3 May/8 February 1805 he married Mary Hilbourne/Kilburn, daughter of the Rev. Joseph Hilbourne; their children were William C., Joseph K., Horatio G., and Mary. At some point, they moved to Pontiac, Oakland County, Michigan. Elmira Scoble, visiting her mother in Pontiac, brought with her a Book of Mormon, which Bent read. During an illness, he had a vision “that the fullness of the gospel would be revealed in connection with that book, and that he would be an instrument in proclaiming the same.” Jared Carter baptized him in January 1833 and ordained him an elder the same day. Bent began his first mission the next day. He founded a branch at Huron, visited Kirtland in the fall of 1833, went to Missouri with Zion’s Camp, moved his family to Kirtland in 1835 where he attended the School of the Prophets and the temple dedication, then moved his family in 1836 to Liberty, On 5 July 1836, a mob tied him to a tree and whipped him. His wife died in Missouri. In Far West in September 1837, he married Lettuce/Lettice Palmer, widow of Ambrose Palmer, and was appointed to the high council on 6 October 1838. In 1838 General Samuel Lucas imprisoned him in Richmond jail for about three weeks. After his release, he was warned in a vision to leave two hours before the mob came seeking him. He went to Illinois where he served as a colonel in the Nauvoo Legion, on the high council, and on the Council of Fifty. In 1844 he served a mission in Illinois, Michigan, and Indiana. He was endowed 11/13 December 1845 in Nauvoo, and was “sealed to spouse” (name not given) on 28 January 1846, also in Nauvoo. Bent was a captain of 100 during the exodus from Nauvoo and was appointed presiding elder at Garden Grove, Iowa, with counselors Daniel Fullmer and Aaron Johnson. Black also lists without marriage dates wives Naomi Harris, Elizabeth Burgess, and Cynthia Noble, along with Phebe Palmer and Maria Thompson (both sealed on 14 January 1846) and Asenath Slafter (28 January 1846), all three married at Garden Grove. Asenath was the mother of three: twins Elijah and Elisha, and Henrietta. Bent died at Garden Grove on 16 August 1846. Jenson 1:367; Cannon and Cook, 249; Profile, 6; Black, Membership.

Bigler, Jacob, was born in 1793 near Shinnston, Harrison County, West Virginia, son of Mark Bigler and Susannah Ogden Bigler. He married Elizabeth (Betsy) Harvey, daughter of Basil Harvey, a Methodist. They had five children: Henry (28 August 1815), Polly (1818), Hannah (1820), Emeline (1824), and Bathsheba (1826, died 1827). He then married Sarah (“Sally”) Cunningham, who bore five children: Adam (1828), Jacob G. (1830), Mark (1832), Andrew (1834), and Mariah (1843). After hearing the preaching of Mormon elders Lorenzo Dow Barnes and Samuel James, Jacob procured and read a Book of Mormon. The family was baptized in the summer of 1837, [p.803]moved to Far West, Missouri, in June 1838, and was forced out in the winter of 1838-39. In Illinois they settled first at Payson, about fifteen miles southwest of Nauvoo, but by 1845 were living at Bear Creek, sixteen miles south of the city. Jacob was a captain of ten in crossing the plains; they settled in Farmington, Utah; Jacob and Sally were sealed in May 1856. Jacob died 22 June 1859. Bishop, Henry, 2-3, 5, 8, 14, 28, 97-98, 117-18.

Bill, Colonel, of Gilsum, New Hampshire. Lucy mentions visiting this family at Gilsum, New Hampshire, as a young woman and names his daughters, Rachel, Mahettable, and Ann. His brother Samuel married Lucy’s sister Lydia in 1786 at Gilsum. See Solomon Mack. Anderson, New England, 21.

Birch, Thomas C., was district attorney in Missouri at the Richmond preliminary hearing of Joseph Smith and other prisoners taken at Far West. He was made judge of the circuit court in Daviess County, enabling Joseph Smith and the other prisoners to receive a change of venue after the grand jury in Gallatin again bound them over for trial in April 1839. LeSueur, 242.

Black, Adam, not a Mormon, was born in Henderson County, Kentucky. He moved to Missouri (1819), was elected sheriff of Ray County (1824), married Mary Morgan (1825), and was one of the earliest settlers in Daviess County on the site of Adam-ondi-Ahman. He sold a farm to Lyman Wight but reportedly later asked the Mormons to leave. He was justice of the peace and/or county judge in Daviess County, Gentry County (where he moved in 1844), and Livingston County (where he moved in 1861). LeSueur, 65; Jessee 2:527.

Blake, Captain, friend of Stephen Mack, who piloted the boat carrying the Waterloo Saints under Lucy Mack Smith’s command to Fairport.

Bogard/Bogart, Captain Samuel, was one of three ministers who led militia companies against the Mormons during the Missouri War of 1838. (The other two were Cornelius Gillum/Gillium and Sashel Woods.) Bogard served as a militia captain under Lyman Wight in Daviess County. When Wight mobilized the militia in the fall of 1838, under General Hiram G. Parks’s authority, Bogart “mutinied,” refused to obey orders, and complained to Governor Boggs that Parks was pro-Mormon. He seems to have regularly exceeded his orders, from October (when instead of policing the Caldwell/Ray County line, he disarmed Mormon settlers and ordered them out of their homes) until late December (when, even though Joseph Smith and others had been taken into custody and bound over for trial, he continued to search for and threaten participants in the battle of Crooked River). In 1839 he moved to Caldwell County west of Kingston, possibly on property formerly belonging to Mormons, was elected as a county judge in November 1839, and, on the day of the election, killed his opponent’s nephew. He escaped to Texas. A Caldwell County grand jury indicted him but he was never arrested. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 658; LeSueur, 130, 133, 231; Baugh, 55.

Boggs, Lilburn W., was born 14 December 1792 in Lexington, Kentucky, to John M. Boggs and Martha Oliver Boggs. He moved to Missouri shortly after the War of 1812, [p.804]married Julia Bent in 1816 in St. Louis, and Panthea Grant Boone (granddaughter of Daniel Boone) in 1823; and was a prominent merchant in Independence by 1831. He was elected state senator (1826-32), lieutenant-governor (1832), and governor (1836). He speculated in western Missouri real estate, which may have let him see the Mormons as economic rivals, and opposed Alexander Doniphan’s legislation in 1836 to organize Caldwell County for the Mormons. He considered them “deluded” and their doctrines “obnoxious.” He issued the extermination order on 27 October 1827 and repeated its terms almost a week later, even after he had clearer reports of the situation. He was criticized for his handling of the Mormon situation and also for his major state project in which the capitol, budgeted at $75,000, was still unfinished in 1840 when $200,000 had been spent. He survived an assassination attempt in May 1842 in which four balls of buckshot entered his neck and head. He signed a complaint against Orrin Porter Rockwell, who was assumed to be acting for Joseph Smith but who was acquitted. Boggs served in the state senate (1842-46) where he ended his career as a Democrat by voting against Thomas Hart Benton. In 1846 he moved to Napa Valley, California, where he was appointed “sole civil authority” north of the Sacramento River until state government was instituted. He grew wealthy as a “supplier of gold seekers,” was appointed alcade of the northern California district, and died of natural causes near Napa Valley on 14 March 1860. Christopher S. Bond, governor of Missouri, rescinded the extermination order on 25 June 1976. Cannon and Cook, 249; Launius, Alexander, 80-81; LeSueur, 95, 230, 258-59, 262; Dictionary, 1:409-10.

Booth, Ezra, born 1792 in Connecticut, was a Methodist minister from Mantua, who accompanied John and Mary Elsa Johnson to meet Joseph Smith in 1831 at Kirtland. He accepted a mission call and spoke to the congregation of Symonds Ryder, a Campbellite minister in Hiram, was ordained a high priest 8 June 1831, and served a mission with Isaac Morley in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois en route to Missouri where he became greatly disillusioned. He immediately wrote a series of nine letters denouncing Mormonism that were published in the Ohio Star and reprinted in Mormonism Unvailed by E. D. Howe. On 6 September 1831, his preaching license was suspended. He participated in tarring Joseph Smith in 1832. He was living on a farm in Mantua, Ohio, in 1860. Black, “Hiram,” 163-64; Black, Who’s Who, 30-31.

Bosley, whose daughters subscribed to help build the meeting house in Kirtland in 1834, was probably Edmund Bosley, born 25 June 1776 at Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, to John P. Bosley and Hannah Bull Bosley. He married Ann Kelley, born 29 October 1779 at Northumberland County, Pennsylvania; they moved to Kirtland in 1833 where he worked on the Kirtland temple (1835), received his anointings (25 January 1837), and invested in the Kirtland Safety Society. In 1838 the parents and at least four children moved to Missouri. They next settled in Nauvoo, where Edmund Bosley was made a high priest and endowed in the Nauvoo temple in December 1845. He died 15 February 1846 at Winter Quarters, Douglas County, Nebraska. Profile, 7-8; Clark, Mormon Redress Petitions, 144; Black, Membership.

Bowley, Gersham. See Gersham Rowley.

[p.805]Boynton, John Farnham, was born 20 September 1811, at Bradford, Essex County, Massachusetts, was baptized in September 1832 by Joseph Smith at Kirtland, and was ordained an elder by Sidney Rigdon. He served a mission with Zebedee Coltrin to Pennsylvania (1832) and to Maine (1833-34). On 15 February 1835, he was ordained an apostle at Kirtland, then accompanied the Twelve on their mission to the eastern states and Canada. He married Susan Lowell, Joseph Smith officiating, on 20 January 1836, and became a merchant with partner Lyman E. Johnson. He was dropped from the Twelve on 3 September 1837, briefly reconciled, then excommunicated. He moved to Syracuse, New York, and visited Utah (1872) where he called on Brigham Young. For twenty years, he traveled and lectured on natural history, geology, and other sciences, was appointed to a government geological surveying expedition (1853 or 1854), was a weapons inventor during the Civil War, and had applied for thirty-six different patents by 1886. After Susan’s death, he married a woman who left him; he then married a third time. He died at Syracuse on 20 October 1890. Jenson 1:91; Launius, Zion’s, 163.

Browning, Orville H., of Quincy, had successfully defended Joseph Smith when he was brought before Stephen A. Douglas on extradition charges to Missouri in 1841. In 1845 he defended those indicted for the Smiths’ murders. He was born about 1806 in Kentucky where he had served a term in the legislature. He had served one term as a state representative and another as a state senator. He was considered “perhaps the ablest speaker in the state.” Devoutly religious, he supported temperance movements and would not take passage on a steamer on a Sunday. He was a powerful spokesman for the Whig Party, helped found the Republican Party in 1856, helped secure the 1860 nomination for Abraham Lincoln, was appointed to fill Douglas’s place in the U.S. Senate temporarily after Douglas’s death, served as Andrew Johnson’s Secretary of the Interior, and was a “leading member of the Illinois bar.” Oaks and Hill, 81, 219.

Bruce, Esther. Lucy describes her as an outstanding young woman in New Hampshire, engaged to marry her brother Jason, but tricked by a rival into believing Jason dead and marrying the rival. She died, reportedly of heartbreak, about 1781.

Brunson, Seymour, was born 18 September 1799, in Virginia, the son of Reuben Brunson and Salley Clark Brunson. A veteran of the War of 1812, he was baptized Mormon in January 1831, by Solomon Hancock at Strongsville, Cayhoga County, Ohio, was ordained an elder by John Whitmer on 21 January 1831, and served missions in Ohio, Virginia, and other states (1832) with companions Daniel Stanton and Luke Johnson. He moved to Bloomfield, Ohio, in 1834, then to Tompkins, Illinois, then to Far West, Missouri, in the spring of 1837. There he was appointed temporarily to the high council and as captain of a company of Mormon militia. After the expulsion of 1838-39, he settled in Quincy, Illinois, then Nauvoo. He served on the Nauvoo High Council (October 1839) and died in Nauvoo on 10 August 1840. Jenson 3:331; Cannon and Cook, 250; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 147.

Butler, John Lowe, was born 8 April 1808 in Simpson County, Kentucky, to James [p.806]Butler and Charity Lowe Butler, the fourth of their ten children: William, Elizabeth, Sarah, John Lowe, Thomas, Vincent, Lucy Ann, four stillbirths, Edmund, James Morgan, and Lorenzo Dow. On 3 February 1831, he married Caroline Farzine Skeen (born 1812), seventh of the ten children of Jesse Skeen and Kiziah Taylor Skeen. They had twelve children: Kenion Taylor (1831), William Alexander (1833), Charity Artemesia (1834), Kiziah Jane (1836), Phoebe Melinda (1837), Caroline Elizabeth (1839), Sarah Adeline (1841), John Lowe Jr. (1844), James (1847), Lucy Ann (1849), Thomas (1851), and Alvaretta Farozine (1854).

John successively joined the Methodists, the Baptists, and the Mormons (9 March 1835). Caroline, John’s mother, three brothers, and sister Lucy and her husband Reuben Allred also joined the Mormon church. They moved to Ray County, Missouri, on 16 June 1836, to Clay County, Caldwell County, and then in 1838 to Daviess County. On 6 August 1838, John fought non-Mormons at Gallatin who tried to prevent the Mormons from voting. He was ordained a priest by Isaac Morley on 1 November 1838 and escaped on 2 November 1838 from Far West to Quincy, Illinois. He was ordained a seventy on 19 May 1839, became a Freemason in July 1842, an officer in the Nauvoo Legion, a bodyguard for Joseph Smith, and one of Hosea Stout’s police officers.

He served missions in Illinois (1839), to the Sioux with James Emmett in Michigan (1840, 1841), and in Iowa with the James Emmett expedition (1844-45). He married seven wives, beginning in December 1844: Charity Skene, Sarah Lancaster and her elderly mother Sarah Briant Lancaster, Ann Hughes Harrow, Ester Ogden, Lovisa Hamilton, and Henrietta Seaton Blythe. John brought his family to Utah in 1851 and eventually settled in Spanish Fork where he was ordained a high priest on 27 May 1856 and served as bishop until his death 10 April 1860. Cannon and Cook, 251-52; Hartley, My Best, passim.

Cahoon, Reynolds, was born 30 April 1790/91, at Cambridge/Cumberland, Washington County, New York, to William Cahoon Jr. and Mehitabel Hodges/Hodge Cahoon. Cahoon was baptized 11 October 1830, ordained a high priest on 3 June 1831, appointed counselor to Bishop Newel K. Whitney 10 February 1832, was a missionary companion to both Samuel and Hyrum Smith, was a high councilor in the Adam-ondi Ahman Stake in 1838, was a member of the Council of Fifty on 11 March 1844, received his patriarchal blessing on 24 January 1845, and was endowed 11 December 1845 in Nauvoo.

Cahoon married Thirza/Theresa Stiles on 11 December 1810; they were sealed at the Nauvoo temple 16 January 1846. She was born 18 October 1789 at Lanesburg, New York/Newport, Herkimer County, New York, to Daniel Olds Stiles and Abigail Farrington Stiles. Reynolds and Thirza/Theresa were the parents of seven children, the first five born in Harpersfield, Ashtabula County, Ohio: William Farrington (7 November 1813), Lerona Eliza (25 October 1817), Pulaski Stephen (20 September 1820), Daniel Stiles (7 April 1822), Andrew (4 August 1824), Julia Amina (24 September 1830 at Kirtland), and Mahonri Moriancumer (25 July 1834 at Kirtland). Thirza/Theresa died 20 November 1867 at South Cottonwood, Salt Lake, Utah. Reynolds married a second wife (name not given) 13 October 1845 at Nauvoo, and fathered three chil-[p.807]dren: Lucina Johnson Reynolds (1843), Rais Bell Casson Reynolds (13 October 1845), and Truman Carlos (18 January 1850 at Salt Lake City). Another marriage is recorded on 16 January 1846 (name not given; no children identified). Cahoon died 29 April 1861 at South Cottonwood, Salt Lake City. Cannon and Cook, 252, Profile, 13; Black, Membership.

Cahoon, William Farrington, a shoemaker, carpenter, and joiner, was born 7 November 1813 at Harpersfield, Ashtabula County, Ohio, the son of Reynolds Cahoon and Thirza/Theresa Stiles Cahoon. Reynolds’s brother, he served missions in Ohio and Pennsylvania (1832-33) and in New York (March 1833) with Amasa M. Lyman, went on Zion’s Camp (1834), and worked on the Kirtland temple. He was a member of the First Quorum of the Seventy (1835), was living in Daviess County in 1838, and was kept under house arrest in Far West during the winter of 1838-39.

He married Nancy Miranda Gibbs (born 27 July 1818) on 17 January 1835 at Kirtland in a ceremony performed by Joseph Smith; she died 5 April 1893 at Salt Lake City. They had ten children: Nancy Ermina (25 February 1837 at Kirtland); Lerona Eliza (17 September 1838 at Kirtland); John Farrington (19 October 1840 at Montrose, Lee County, Iowa); Prudence Sarah (11 April 1843 at Nauvoo); Thirza Vilate (29 September 1845 at Nauvoo); William Marion (8 April 1848 at Winter Quarters, Nebraska); Daniel Coylon (14 September 1850 at Salt Lake City where the last three children were also born); Joseph Mahonri (2 March 1853); Stephen Tiffany (19 May 1858); and Andrew Carlos (5 September 1861). He married a second wife (name not given) 23 September 1845 at Nauvoo; four children were born: James Cordon Casson (9 October 1847 at Winter Quarters); and Samuel Casson (6 April 1859, born at Salt Lake City as were the last two): Mary Ellen Casson (31 May 1853); and George Edward Casson (11 November 1857).

William Cahoon immigrated to Utah in 1849 and died 5 October 1867/4 April 1893/April 1897 at Salt Lake City. Cannon and Cook, 252; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 152-53; Black, Membership.

Carey, William, arrived at Far West, Missouri, in early October 1838. In late October 1838, John Smith and Carey were going to harvest corn near Far West when they were taken prisoner by three men, one of whom hit Carey with the breach of his gun, splitting open his skull. He died forty-four hours later. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 540; LeSueur, 148-49.

Carlin, Thomas, governor of Illinois from 1838 to 1842, was born 18 July 1789 near Frankfort, Kentucky. He married Rebecca Hewitt in 1814, and they became the parents of thirteen children. He saw military service during the War of 1812 and the Black Hawk War. His political experience included two terms in the Illinois House of Representatives, two in the state senate, federal Receiver of Public Monies (1834-38), and Democratic governor of the state (elected 5 August 1838, inaugurated 7 December 1838). The state constitution prohibited a governor from succeeding himself; but Governor Thomas Ford immediately appointed him in 1842 to fill the legislative term of a [p.808]deceased member. He died 14 February 1852 at Carrollton, Illinois. Biographical Dictionary, 1:371-72.

Carroll, James, was born 14 June 1796 at Manchester, Lancashire, England. He was baptized 30 April 1836 and ordained a seventy in 1838. He worked for Oliver Cowdery as a scribe in a printing office at Kirtland, then moved successively in Missouri to Caldwell, Ray, Clay, and Caldwell counties. He helped move the Saints from Missouri (1838-39) and served at least one mission in Iowa. He and his wife Hannah (born October 1802) were members of Nauvoo Second Ward. Both were endowed 31 January 1846 and sealed to each other on 29 February 1848; James was excommunicated (date not given). Cannon and Cook, 252; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 155; Black, Membership.

Carter, Gideon Haden/Hayden, was born in 1798 at Benson, Rutland County, Vermont, to Gideon Carter and Johanna Simms Carter. He was baptized 25 October 1831 by Joseph Smith and confirmed by Sidney Rigdon; ordained a priest the same day by Oliver Cowdery; ordained an elder on 15 January 1832 at Amherst, Lorain County, Ohio. He served several short missions in Ohio (1831), served another mission (April-August 1832) in Pennsylvania with Sylvester Smith, worked on the temple, served on the high council, became a charter member of the Kirtland Safety Society, and moved to Far West, Missouri, in 1838. He was killed at the Battle of Crooked River in Ray County on 25 October 1838. He and his wife, Hilah/Hilda Burwell (married 1822), were the parents of seven children, the first six born in Rutland County, Vermont, and the seventh at Kirtland: Arvin Payette (9 January 1823), Irvin (1826), Matilda (1827), Rosilla (1828), Isaac Philo (11 March 1829), Gideon Hayden (9 August 1831), and Moses Darley (15 September 1832). Gideon and his second wife (name not given, married 31 December 1833), had three children: Hilah Roxanna (8 December 1834 at Florence, Huron County, Ohio), Levi Woods (30 June 1835, same place), and John Sims (16 September 1836 at Kirtland). Black, Who’s Who, 49-50; Black, Membership.

Carter, Jared, was born 14 January 1801, at Benson, Rutland County, Vermont (or Middlesex, Connecticut), to Gideon Carter and Johanna Simms Carter. He and his wife, Lydia Ames, married on 20 September 1825, were the parents of nine: Evaline, Ellen, Orlando, Clark, Lydia, Jared, David, Rosabella, and Joseph. They were living in Chenango, New York, when, in January 1831, he stayed in Broome County, New York, with John Peck, a brother of Hezekiah Peck and Polly Peck Knight. John, though not accepting the Book of Mormon, let Jared read it; he was converted and was baptized by Hyrum Smith about 20 February 1831, ordained an elder that September, and received his patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. on 24 February 1835 at Kirtland. He served missions in Missouri, in Chenango and Warren counties, New York, in Vermont (he organized the first LDS branch in that state, baptizing seventy-nine), and in Michigan (at least January-April 1833). Missionary companions included his brother Simeon, Phineas Young, and Ebenezer Page. He moved with the Colesville Branch from New York to Kirtland with Lucy Mack Smith, baptized his brother William L. Carter in 1832 at Rutland County, Vermont, served on Kirtland’s high council, worked [p.809]on the temple, then moved to Far West where he served on the high council in March 1838 and became a Danite. He was tried for teaching false doctrine on 16 September 1835, was restored, was accused of conspiring with John C. Bennett in 1843, was disfellowshipped in 1844, was restored, but left the Saints and moved to Chicago. He died in 1850 in DeKalb County, Illinois. Black, Membership; Cannon and Cook, 253; Black, Who’s Who, 51-53.

Carter, Simeon Doget/Dagget, was born 7 June 1794 at Killingworth, Middlesex County, Connecticut, to Gideon Carter and Johanna Sims Carter. He was converted by Parley P. Pratt and the Book of Mormon; was baptized 22/14 February 1831, ordained an elder in June 1831 and a high priest on 3 June 1831 by Lyman Wight, received his patriarchal blessing in Kirtland in 1836 from Joseph Smith Sr., and was endowed and sealed to his wife on 15 December 1845 in the Nauvoo temple. He served missions in Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana (1831), in Vermont (1832), and in Great Britain (1846-49); missionary companions included Solomon Hancock, Emer Harris, and Jared Carter. In Jackson County, he presided over Branch No. 9 in September 1833. He participated in Zion’s Camp and served on the Far West high council (1836). He married Lydia Kenyon on 2 December 1818 at Benson, Rutland, Vermont, and they had three children, the first two born at Benson, the third at Amherst, Lorain County, Ohio: Orlando Henry (27 January 1820), Eveline Lydia (24 September 1821), and Lorain (22 May 1823). Simeon next married (name not known) on 19 January 1846 at Nauvoo, and, third, Louise Gibbons on 14 November 1849. They were the parents of three: Simeon (1 December 1850), Louisa Jane (23 August 1852), and Samuel (1 April 1853). He moved to the Salt Lake Valley in 1850 and settled at Brigham City where he died 3 February 1869. Cannon and Cook, 253; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 157; Black, Who’s Who, 57-59; Black, Membership.

Chamberlain, Esq. There are three possible candidates for this individual, who offered Lucy money as she led her group from New York to Ohio: (1) Jacob, born 26 December 1776/1779 at Dudley/Dredley, Massachusetts, to Jacob Chamberlain and Mary Vinton Chamberlain. He lived near “the Kingdom” (by Waterloo), received his patriarchal blessing on 20 June 1836 at Kirtland from Joseph Smith Sr., and was endowed 27 March 1857 in Utah. (2) Orrin lived in the vicinity of “the Kingdom” and was interested in Mormonism during the early 1830s. (3) Solomon was born 30 July 1788 at Old Canaan, Litchfield County, Connecticut, to Joel Chamberlain and Sarah Dean Chamberlain. A cooper from Lyons, New York, and a Methodist, in the fall of 1829, while traveling westward by the Erie Canal, he felt a spiritual urging to leave the boat in Palmyra where he learned about the Book of Mormon. Because an angelic visitation in 1816 had warned him that a book “like unto the Bible” would come forth, he went immediately to the Smith home where he met Joseph, Hyrum Smith, Christian Whitmer, and others. Hyrum gave him proof sheets of four sixteen-page signatures from which he launched a preaching mission in Upper Canada for 800 miles. He was baptized April 1830 at Seneca Lake by Joseph Smith Jr. He moved to Jackson County, then Clay County in 1833, losing two houses, cattle, and his crop, then to Far West as one of its [p.810]settlers. Here he lost three houses to mob action. In Nauvoo he was a member of Second Ward, was ordained a high priest on 8 October 1844, received his patriarchal blessing on 17 June 1845 from John Smith, was endowed 18 December 1845 at the Nauvoo temple, and was rebaptized 8 August 1847. He married Hope Haskin on 23 October 1809 at Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont, and married twice more (names not given) on 15 January 1846 at Nauvoo and in 1848. The third wife bore Sarah Louisa (8 October 1849 at Salt Lake City). He came to Utah in 1847 with Brigham Young. In Utah he lived in Salt Lake City, Parowan, Beaver, Cedar City, Santa Clara, and Washington, where he died 20/26 March 1863/1862. Porter, “The Field,” 80-81, and “A Study,” 315-16; Cannon and Cook, 253; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 160; Profile, 15; Black, Membership.

Chase, Sarah (“Sally”), was the younger sister of Willard Chase of Palmyra, the daughter of Clark (1770-1821) and Phebe Chase. She owned a greenish or bluish seerstone in Palmyra, was well-known for her scrying, frequently directed the treasureseeking efforts of her brother Willard, and joined with those attempting to find the gold plates. She was born 20 October 1800/1808 to Clark and Phebe Chase. The family also included at least three sons: Willard (q.v.), Mason, and Abel D. Her father died in 1821. Sally was a “Serving Mach[ine] Op[erator]” when the 1860 census was enumerated; she did not marry and died before 1881. Quinn, Early, 41; Vogel 1:342-43, 2:97; Marquardt and Walters, 79.

Chase, Willard, was born about 1 February 1798 to Clark (1770-1821) and Phebe Chase. The siblings also included Mason (19 November 1795) and Abel. Willard, a Methodist, met the Smiths in 1820. In 1822 Willard hired Alvin and Joseph Jr. to help him dig a well. Chase found “a singularly appearing stone” about twenty feet below the surface that he showed to Joseph Jr. who put it into his hat and then put “his face into the top of his hat.” He wanted to keep the stone but Chase refused to part with it. However, he loaned it to Joseph for about two years. About June 1827, Joseph Sr. told Chase that Joseph Jr. had discovered gold plates containing a record. Willard married Melissa Saunders, was a Methodist class leader, and died at Palmyra on 10 March 1871. Marquardt and Walters, 65, 77, 140; Vogel 2:64; Quinn, Early, 44-45.

Clark, John B., born 1802 in Kentucky, became a brigadier general in the militia in the Black Hawk War. A leading citizen of Howard County, he was elected major general in 1836. Governor Lilburn Boggs assigned him to enforce the extermination order so that, Clark felt, Boggs could blame a Whig if the campaign turned out badly. He was an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1840 but successfully ran for Congress. He died in 1885. Cannon and Cook, 254; LeSueur, 188.

Cleminson/Clemenson, John, was born 28 December 1798, chosen Caldwell County clerk at Far West on 5 February 1838, was among those who testified, apparently under duress, in Austin King’s preliminary hearing November 1838 at Richmond that the Danites had a quasi-official character, and also testified in Caldwell County that Joseph Smith had intimidated him into not issuing a certain writ. At the siege of Far West, [p.811]General John B. Clark offered him and his wife Lydia safe conduct out, which they refused. (Lydia was born 11 July 1800.) Although he was excommunicated, he moved with the Saints to Nauvoo where he was apparently reinstated and endowed 31 January 1846. Quinn, Origins, 487; HC 3:210; Van Wagoner, Sidney, 251; Cannon and Cook, 255; Black, Membership.

Coles/Cole, Abner, who pirated parts of the Book of Mormon during the printing in 1829, was born about 1782 and had been an attorney in Palmyra, a justice of the peace (1814-15), a constable (1818), and a road overseer in the same district as the Smith family (#26). He was practicing law in 1827. He owned about fifty acres in Palmyra and about 100 in Manchester. He used the pseudonym of Obediah Dogberry Jr., lived at Winter Green Hill, a mound north of Palmyra, and published a “humorous” paper, The Reflector. Its first number appeared on 2 September 1829 with a sarcastic announcement about the publication of the Book of Mormon; he published portions between 2 and 22 January 1830 (first thirteen paragraphs of 1 Nephi, another section from 1 Nephi, and another from Alma 20) until forced to desist. He used the same pen name to publish the Liberal Advocate in Rochester, New York, from 23 February 1832 through 22 November 1834. Cole died 13 July 1835. Porter, “The Field,” 83-84; Richard Anderson, “Circumstantial,” 390; Vogel 2:223; Marquardt and Walters, 147.

Comstock, Nehemiah, is mentioned as a mobber in Daviess County, Missouri. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 386.

Cook. A man by this name was Bogart/Bogard’s brother-in-law in Missouri, according to Hyrum’s affidavit.

Cooper, Lovisa Mack. See Stephen Mack under Solomon Mack.

Correll/Corrill, John, was born 17 September 1794 at Bone, Worcester County, Massachusetts, and was baptized 10 January 1831 in Ashtabula County, Ohio. He was ordained a high priest and assistant to Bishop Edward Partridge (3 June 1831-37), and moved to Jackson County in the fall of 1831. He served missions in Ohio (1831 with Solomon Hancock), Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. He then moved to Clay County (1833) and to Caldwell County; oversaw the completion of the Kirtland temple and was present for its dedication (March 1836); was appointed a church historian in Far West 6 April 1836; and played a significant role in negotiations between the Mormons and Missourians. He disagreed with church leaders over Danite activities and was considered a traitor for negotiating the surrender of Joseph Smith and others. He signed affidavits and petitioned the legislature on behalf of the Mormons in 1839 but also introduced losing legislation prohibiting anyone from “speaking in the name of the Lord.” He was excommunicated 17 March 1839 at a conference in Quincy, Illinois. He and his wife Margaret had five children: Betsy, Nancy, Whitney, Foster, and Mary. Cannon and Cook, 158, 256; LeSueur, 201, 222, 260; Black, Membership.

Covey, Almira Mack. See Solomon Mack.

Covey, Mr. Lucy has a note to herself at the end of Daniel Mack’s biographical sketch [p.812]saying that she will get more details from a “Mr. Covey,” probably Benjamin Covey, Almira Mack’s second husband. (See Stephen Mack under Solomon Mack.)

Cowdery, Lyman. See William Cowdery.

[p.813]Cowdery, Oliver, was born 3 October 1806 at Wells, Rutland County, Vermont, to William Cowdery Jr. and Rebecca Fuller Cowdery. In about 1825 he went to New York and clerked for his brother Warren (see William Cowdery) until 1828 when Lyman arranged for him to teach the district school at Manchester. There he boarded with the Smith family, learned about the Book of Mormon, and insisted on becoming Joseph’s scribe in Pennsylvania during the translation. He and Joseph baptized each other in May 1829, and Joseph received a revelation commending his “gift of working with the rod.” He was one of the three witnesses to the Book of Mormon, was ordained an elder by Sidney Rigdon (August 1831), and served as Kirtland Stake high councilor, assistant president of the church (5 December 1834), and church recorder (1834). He edited the Messenger and Advocate in Kirtland (1834-37). He assisted in choosing the Twelve (1835) and served missions with Joseph Smith to Colesville, New York (1830), to Kirtland (1830), and to the eastern states.

On 18 December 1832, he married Elizabeth Ann Whitmer, daughter of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman Whitmer. She was born 22 January 1815 at Fayette, Seneca County, New York. She and Oliver had six children: Maria Louise (21 August 1835 at Kirtland; married a man surnamed Johnson; died 11/9 January 1892), Elizabeth Ann, Josephine Rebecca, Oliver Peter, Adeline Fuller, and Julia Olive. Elizabeth Ann was baptized on 18 April 1830 by Oliver.

The family moved to Missouri in October 1837 where he was excommunicated on 12 April 1838 at Far West for apostasy. Although Joseph Smith presided at the high council, he refused to meet with Cowdery before the court. Oliver returned to Kirtland in late 1838 where Warren and Lyman were beginning their legal practice, studied law for a year, moved to Tiffin, Ohio, where he was active in local Democratic politics (county delegate, temporary editor of a Democratic weekly, campaign speaker, and nominee for state senator), served on the Board of School Examiners of Seneca County, served on a committee testing candidates for admission to the bar, and was a charter member of the Methodist Protestant Church. In 1847, suffering from ill health, he moved to Elkhorn, Wisconsin, where his brother Lyman was practicing law; here he co-edited a Democratic newspaper and practiced law. During this time, Phineas Young had maintained “constant correspondence and regular visits” with him, hoping to effect a reconciliation. In 1848 Oliver went to Kanesville, Iowa, with Phineas, was rebaptized on 12 November 1848 by Orson Hyde, and bore his testimony in public meetings. He then moved south to Richmond, Missouri, with Elizabeth and their only surviving child, Maria, where they stayed with Elizabeth’s family. He was bedfast for much of 1849 and died 3 March 1850. Elizabeth died 7 January 1892 at Southwest City, McDonald County, Missouri. Richard Anderson, Investigating, 38-46, 57, 59, 61, 63; Profile, 19; Vogel 2:397, 399; Cannon and Cook, 256; Black, Who’s Who, 74-79; Black, Membership.

Cowdery, William, father of Oliver Cowdery, was born 5 September 1765 at East Haddam, Middlesex County, Connecticut. He married Rebecca Fuller (ca. 1787), moved to Poultney, and then to Wells, Rutland County, Vermont. After Rebecca’s death in 1809, William married Keziah Austin and moved to Williamson, Ontario County, New York, where their daughter Rebecca was born. William, like Joseph Smith Sr. and Jr., was associated with treasure seeking in Vermont. He was baptized in New York and moved to Kirtland where he died 26 February 1847. Children:

1. Warren F. Cowdery was born 5/17 October 1788 at Poultney, Rutland County, Vermont, and married Patience Simonds (Simmons), born 6 April 1794, on 22 September 1814 at Pawlett, Rutland County. Patience died 14 May 1862. Warren was baptized in late 1831 and by 1834 was branch president in Freedom, Cattaraugus County, New York; that year Joseph Smith and Parley P. Pratt passed through in March recruiting for Zion’s Camp. He moved to Kirtland about 1835 where he was rebuked for criticizing the Twelve. He was reconciled, acted as scribe and assistant recorder (1836-37), served on the high council, whose minutes he kept (1837), and edited the Messenger and Advocate (1837). He left the church in 1838 when Oliver was excommunicated in Missouri and died 23 February 1851 at Kirtland. His son Marcellus was born 31 August 1815, testified on Oliver Cowdery’s behalf at Far West, was disfellowshipped on 10 April 1838, and died 26 September 1885.

2. Lyman Cowdery, a lawyer and a judge, was born 12 March 1802 at Wells, Rutland County, Vermont, married Eliza Alexander on 20 April 1825, became a probate judge in Ontario County, New York, and died 22 April 1881 at Elkhorn, Walworth County, Wisconsin.

4. Oliver Cowdery, (q.v.) was born 3 October 1806.

5. Rebecca, daughter of second wife Keziah, was born 18 October 1810.

6. Lucy Pearce Cowdery, a half-sister, married Phineas Howe Young, Brigham Young’s brother, in 1836. Richard Anderson, Investigating, 38-46, 57, 59, 61, 63; Profile, 19; Cannon and Cook, 256; Vogel 1:374, 2:603; Black, Who’s Who, 74-79; Black, Membership.

Cutler, Alpheus, was born 29 February 1784 at Plainfield, Sullivan County, New Hampshire, to Knight Cutler and Elizabeth Boyd Cutler. A veteran of the War of 1812, he was converted when his daughter, who was ill, accepted the testimony of David W. Patten and Reynolds Cahoon about the Book of Mormon and was miraculously healed. Alpheus was baptized on 20 January 1833, moved to Kirtland, worked on the temple, was ordained a high priest (1835), had a vision of Jesus Christ during its dedication, and served on the Kirtland high council. He next moved his family, including an “aged mother,” to Caldwell County and, in September 1838, was living between Adam-ondi-Ahman and Richmond.

In Nauvoo, Cutler served on the high council, the Council of Fifty, and the temple committee. Joseph Smith selected him as the seventh member of his secret Quorum of the Anointed.” He and his wife were endowed on 12 October 1843 and received their second anointings on 14 November. Assigned by Joseph Smith to be a missionary to the Indians, he helped organize the exodus from Nauvoo, then set up [p.814]his mission at Manti, Iowa. Over the next several years, he refused to abandon this mission, developed distinctive teachings, opposed Brigham Young’s authority and plural marriage, and reacted negatively to pressure from Orson Hyde, who was presiding in Iowa. Hyde’s high council excommunicated Cutler on 20 April 1851; on 19 September 1853, Cutler founded the Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite). He died 10 August 1864 at Manti, Mills County, Iowa.

He married Lois Lathrop. Among their children, all sealed to the parents on 31 January 1846, were Lois Huntington Cutler (endowed 17 December 1845 at the Nauvoo temple); Louisa Elizabeth (born 16 May/March 1816 at Lisle, Broome County, New York; married Tunis Rappleye on 17 January 1836; died 9 March 1854); Sally Maria (born 3 September 1818 at Ontario County, New York; married Buckley Burnham Anderson on 31 December 1837; endowed 3 January 1846); and Thaddeus (born 18 June 1809 at Lisle; married Lemira Scott on 16 August 1829; baptized on January 1833; endowed 15 December 1845). Cannon and Cook, 257; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 182, 437; Jorgensen, 25-64; Black, Who’s Who, 79-82; Black, Membership.

Davies/Davis. The deacon at Randolph, Vermont, with whose worldliness Lucy was dissatisfied. The 1790 census identifies two: Nathan and Experience. The 1800 census lists three men surnamed “Device”: Barzillai, Ephraim, and Experience. Which of them is the deacon is not clear. Vogel 1:241.

Denton, Solomon Wilber. Don Carlos Smith consults “Samuel [his brother] and Wilber” at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1838. HC 4:393 identifies this missionary companion as Wilber Denton, with whom Don Carlos served a mission in Pennsylvania and New York in the spring and summer of 1836. His full name was Solomon Wilber Denton; he married Fanny M. Stanley on 30 July 1835 at Kirtland. He moved to Missouri with the Saints and, with Don Carlos, worked at printing in Nauvoo where he belonged to the high priests’ quorum over which Don Carlos presided. Black, Members; Ebenezer Robinson, The Return 1 (July 1889): 104 in LDS Collectors Library, CD-ROM (Orem, UT: Infobase, Inc., 1993).

Dikes, whom Lucy identifies as a suitor of Martin Harris’s oldest daughter, named Lucy for her mother, is apparently Flanders Dyke. Lucy II married him, apparently in the late 1820s in Palmyra, had seven children, and died in 1841. Dyke reportedly died in the Civil War. Vogel 1:352.

Doniphan, Alexander William, was born 9 July 1808 in Mason County, Kentucky, the youngest son of Joseph Doniphan and Anne Smith Doniphan’s ten children. He graduated from Augusta College in Kentucky, became an attorney in 1829 in Kentucky, moved to Lexington, Missouri, in March 1830, moved to Liberty in May 1833, represented the Saints as a lawyer, served three terms in the Missouri legislature (1836-38, 1840-44), successfully introduced the bill in the Missouri legislature creating Daviess County as a “reserve” for the Mormons, was a brigadier general in the state militia and a colonel in the U.S. Army, and earned undying Mormon gratitude when he refused to execute Joseph Smith at Far West in 1838. He and co-counsel Amos Rees re-[p.815]ceived 1,079 acres in Jackson County for their fees, worth nearly $5,000. He led the First Missouri Mounted Volunteers during the Mexican War 1846-47 and became a national hero by capturing Chihuahua. Although positioned for a national political career, he refused to run for governor, and, after his candidacy as a Whig U.S. Senator in 1854 deadlocked the legislature for forty-one ballots, withdrew from public office. A pro-Union moderate, he refused a military commission during the Civil War and instead became a state claims agent for soldiers’ widows and orphans. He married Elizabeth Jane Thorn 27 December 1837; they had two sons, both of whom died in separate accidents as teenagers. He visited Salt Lake City in 1874 where he was received as a hero. Jane died in 1873; Doniphan died in Richmond 8 August 1887. Cannon and Cook, 258; Launius, Alexander, passim.

Dort, David D., was born 6 January 1793/1790 at Surrey/Gilsum, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, to John Dort/Dart and Elishaba Briggs Dart. He married Mary (“Polly”) Mack on 2 June 1813 at Gilsum. Polly, born 4 September 1793, was the daughter of Stephen Mack and Temperance Bond Mack. After Mary’s death, David married her sister Fanny. The family lived at Gilsum until 1820, then moved to Pontiac, Michigan (1822-35). When Lucy Mack Smith visited her nieces at Pontiac, in 1831, she predicted that the Mormons would take the parishioners of the hostile minister, including the deacon (Dort). Dort was converted by Jared Carter, baptized in 1831, participated in Zion’s Camp (1834), and moved his family to Kirtland (1836), where he was a charter member of the Kirtland Safety Society and served on the high council. The family moved next to Far West (1838-39) where he was a member of the high council, then to Nauvoo (1839) where he was also a member of the high council until he died 10 March 1841. Cannon and Cook, 258; Profile, 21; Black, Who’s Who, 86.

Durfy/Durfee, Lemuel, a Quaker, kept a store at Palmyra and was the father of several sons: Isaac, Pardon, Stephen, Lemuel Jr., and Bailey. His account books “show a consistent pattern of the Smiths laboring to pay off debts incurred by purchases.” He bought the Smith farm at Palmyra for $1,135 on Tuesday, 20 December 1825, when they were misrepresented to the land agent, and arranged for them to continue living there until the spring of 1829 in exchange for Samuel’s labor. His will, written on 12 June 1826, “refers to ‘the Everton lot … on which Joseph Smith now lives.’” Later, on 4 December 1833, Lemuel Durfee Jr. was one of fifty-one Palmyra residents who signed an affidavit attesting that Joseph Sr. and Jr., because of their “visionary projects” of money-digging, were “considered entirely destitute of moral character, and addicted to vicious habits.” After Lemuel Sr.’s death on 8 August 1829, Lemuel Jr. sued Joseph Smith Sr. and Abraham Fish for $39.92, to recover a note to his father that they had cosigned. Richard Anderson, “Reliability,” 26; McConkie, 154; Rodger Anderson, 148; italics omitted.

Earl, a Mormon whom Don Carlos Smith describes as living at or near Adam-ondi-Ahman in 1838. There are two reasonable candidates, sons of Joseph I. Earl and Dorcus Tabitha Wixom Earl, although it is not known if they were also in Missouri: (1) Asa C. Earl was born in 1810 in New York, was baptized in 1833 in Illinois with neighbors [p.816]Charles C. Rich and Hosea Stout, and married Rich’s sister Minerva (1835), who died in 1840 after giving birth to two daughters and a son. He next married Nancy Weeks Allred at Nauvoo (Charles C. Rich performed the ceremony) on 26 February 1843 and fathered seven children. According to Rich, he spoke in tongues in 1833. He died at Reno, Washoe County, Nevada, on 1 December 1891. (2) Sylvester Henry Earl was born 15/16 August 1815 at Derby/Scioto County, Ohio, was baptized in 1837, moved to Far West, served a mission in 1838, and guarded the temple in Nauvoo. He and his wife, Lois Caroline Owen, married 28 January 1839, and had ten children. He married twice more: Margaret Emily Jones on 11 November 1855 and Betsey Ann Owen and fathered thirteen children. Earl came to Utah as a member of the 1847 pioneer company. A chairmaker, wheelwright, and farmer, he died 23 July 1873 at St. George, Washington County, Utah. Cannon and Cook, 259; Arrington, Charles, 24; Black, Membership.

Eaton. Lucy says this individual disclosed Joseph H. Jackson’s plot against Joseph Smith’s life. The History of the Church identifies him as M. G. Eaton. He gave an affidavit to that effect before Daniel H. Wells’s court. When Joseph was at Carthage jail, his attorney’s plan to apply for a change of venue included Eaton among the witnesses he planned to call. HC 6:279, 576.

Evertson, Nicholas. Proprietor of the tract of land at Palmyra that included Joseph’s and Lucy’s hundred acres. A New York attorney, he died in 1807. Thirteen years later (June 1820), his executors transferred power of attorney to Dr. Casper W. Eddy, also of New York, to sell this property. Eddy transferred his power of attorney to Zachariah Seymour at Canandaigua, Ontario County, on 14 July 1820. Vogel 1:277n75.

Fielding, Mary. See Hyrum Smith.

Fielding, Mercy. See Robert B. Thompson.

Fitch. Don Carlos Smith mentions a man by this name, not a member of the church, at Wyatt’s Mills in Tennessee during the fall of 1838. He headed a mob of about twelve who threatened missionaries Don Carlos Smith and George A. Smith but apologized after hearing Don Carlos’s patriotic sermon.

Flog/Flagg of Hanover, New Hampshire. No Flog/Flagg appears in Hanover’s census for 1800, 1810, or 1820. The closest match is Ebenezer and Phinehas Fogg in 1810. Vogel 1:272.

Ford, Thomas, governor of Illinois from 1842 to 1846, was born 5 December 1800 in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, to Robert Ford and Elizabeth Logue Ford. He married Frances Hambaught on 12 June 1828, and they had five children. He studied at Transylvania University in Illinois, then entered law practice with George Forquer, his mother’s son by a first marriage, at Edwardsville (1825-29). He was state’s attorney at Galena and Quincy (1829-35), then judge in a circuit court, a municipal court, and the state supreme court (1835-42), until he resigned to run successfully as Democratic candidate for governor. It had taken considerable persuasion for him to seek office: the [p.817]state debt was so large that taxes “could not even pay the interest” on it, and at least some state banks had failed. Rather than repudiating the debt, he arranged a schedule of loans and repayments that allowed the completion of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, thus “sav[ing] the state’s credit, and assur[ing] its integrity and future prosperity.” His wife died a few weeks before his own death from tuberculosis on 3 November 1850. Dictionary, 3:520-21.

Foster, Captain. Friend of Solomon Mack who launched a privateer venture during the Revolutionary War.

Foster, Charles, the brother of Robert D. Foster, who tried to shoot Joseph Smith and joined in the cabal to publish the Nauvoo Expositor and kill Joseph Smith. According to Benjamin F. Johnson, the Foster brothers were Joseph Smith’s “confidential attorneys.” Johnson, 89.

Foster, Robert D., was born 14 March 1811 at Braunston, Northampton County, England, to John and Jane Foster. He was baptized in 1839 and received his patriarchal blessing on 20 July 1840 at Nauvoo from Joseph Smith Sr. He went with Joseph Smith and others to Washington, D.C., to seek redress for the wrongs suffered in Missouri. He served a mission in New York with Jonathan Allen, was a regent for the University of Nauvoo, belonged to the city’s Agricultural and Manufacturing Association, was a county magistrate, and served the Nauvoo Legion as a surgeon. A member of Nauvoo Third Ward and a land speculator, he was rebuked for financial dealings in January 1841, accused of slandering Joseph Smith in April 1844, fined for gambling that month, and excommunicated for immorality and apostasy on 18 April 1844 in addition to being court-martialed and tried civilly for refusing to aid Marshal John P. Greene. He joined with William and Wilson Law in organizing another church, helped publish the Nauvoo Expositor, and joined in the conspiracy to kill Joseph Smith. Mary Fielding Smith, Leonora Taylor, and seven other women ordered him out of Nauvoo after the deaths of Joseph and Hyrum Smith and he left that night. He was charged with but acquitted of conspiracy to murder. Black, Who’s Who, 89-92; Black, Membership.

Foster, Sister. Don Carlos Smith describes her as a wealthy widow at Wyatt’s Mills, Tennessee, who hosted Don Carlos and George A. Smith in the fall of 1838, despite threats from a mob headed by Fitch.

Fox, a non-Mormon who lived between Chariton and Far West, Missouri, was, according to Don Carlos Smith, “one of the bitterest of mobocrats.” He gave Don Carlos and George A. Smith shelter one night when they were returning from a mission in late fall or early winter of 1838.

Fuller, Amos Botsford, was born 26 March 1810 at Stockholm, St. Lawrence County, New York, to Luther Fuller and Lorena Mitchell Fuller. He wed Esther Smith on 8 March 1832. Esther, born 20 September 1810 at Stockholm, was the child of Joseph Smith Sr.’s brother Asael Smith Sr. and Betsy Schellinger Smith and thus Joseph Jr.’s [p.818]first cousin. Esther died 31 October 1856 at Salt Lake City; Amos died 29 March 1853 at Des Moines, Iowa. Profile, 26.

Gates, Daniel, was the father-in-law of Solomon Mack and grandfather of Lucy Mack Smith. Lucy quotes her father, who mistakenly gives his father-in-law’s name as Nathan. (Nathan was Daniel’s son.) A tanner, Daniel Gates was a deacon and a selectman in the First Congregational Church of East Haddam (now Millington), Connecticut. He was born 5 February 1706, married Lydia Fuller, and died 5 October 1775. Although citing a complete birth date for Daniel, Richard Anderson gives his birth year as 1707, not 1706, in a genealogical chart but does not explain the discrepancy. Their daughter, Lydia Gates (Mack), was born in 1732 in East Haddam. Richard Anderson, New England, 4, 177-78.

Gates, Lydia. See Solomon Mack.

Gates, Nathan. See Daniel Gates.

Gause/Gauze, Jesse, was born about 1784 in East Marlborough, Chester County, Pennsylvania, to William Goss (Gause) and Mary Beverly Gause. He married Martha Johnson in 1815, and they had four children; he next married a woman named Minerva (surname not known) in 1828. They had one child before ceasing cohabitation in 1829 when they became Shakers; they separated in 1832. Gause was a schoolteacher, had been a private in the Delaware militia (1814-15), was a Quaker (1806-29), then a Shaker at North Union, Ohio, was baptized Mormon on 22 October 1831, became Joseph Smith’s first counselor on 8 March 1832, served a mission (1832), participated in the literary firm and the United Firm of Kirtland, was excommunicated on 3 December 1832, and died about 1836 in Montgomery or Chester County, Pennsylvania. Quinn, Origins, 546.

Gilbert, Algernon Sidney, was born 28 December 1789 at New Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut, to Eli Gilbert and Lydia Hemingway Gilbert, and was living at Painesville, Ohio, by 1817 where he owned a store. For the next decade, he developed entrepreneurial and commercial interests. By 1827 he was partners in a store at Kirtland with Newel K. Whitney. Sidney and his wife, Elizabeth Van Benthusen, were baptized in 1830. Gilbert was ordained an elder on 16 June 1831 and accompanied Joseph Smith to Jackson County, Missouri, that same month where he opened the church’s store. He died of cholera in Clay County 29 June 1834, during the epidemic that attacked Zion’s Camp. Cannon and Cook, 263, 293; Black, Who’s Who, 102-3.

Gilliam/Gillum/Gillium, Cornelius (“Neil”), was one of three ministers who led militia companies against the Mormons during the Missouri War of 1838. (The others were Samuel Bogard/Bogart and Sashel/Sashiel Woods.) Gilliam was born in 1798 in Florida and settled in five different Missouri counties, each time moving closer to the frontier. A skilled hunter, he tracked runaway slaves as a teenager, was a part-time Baptist minister in Clinton County, served a term as sheriff of Clay County, then served three terms as a state senator (1838-44). He was a “savage” Indian fighter and was locally [p.819]known for chasing a bear that had raided his pigs for several miles, armed only with an axe and wearing only his underwear, until he caught and killed it. According to his daughter, he “believed the Bible, particularly where it said smite the Philistines, and he figured the Philistines was a misprint for the Mormons … He was a great hand to practice what he preached so he helped exterminate quite a considerable few of them.” During October 1838, as senator-elect, he organized the Clinton County militia with 200 volunteers who painted themselves Indian style. His unit belonged to Doniphan’s brigade, but Doniphan stayed home, leaving Gilliam to act without orders. In January 1839 as state senator representing Clay and Platte counties, Gilliam urged a legislative investigation, confident that it would condemn the Mormons. Daniel Ashby, who had participated in the attack at Haun’s Mill and was also a state senator, voted in support. The House opposed it and no investigation occurred. Gilliam served three terms in the Missouri Senate, led a wagon train of 500 to Oregon, held a number of positions in local government there, led a successful campaign against the Cayuse Indians who attacked the Marcus Whitman mission, and died in a shooting accident in 1848. Gilliam County, Oregon, is named in his honor. Cannon and Cook, 263; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 669; LeSueur, 22-23, 129, 227-29, 247, 258.

Goodson, John, a non-Mormon who lived between Adam-ondi-Ahman and Richmond, Missouri, in the winter of 1838-39, was inhospitable to Don Carlos Smith and George A. Smith as they passed through on a mission.

Graham, General, a Missouri gentile.

Grandin, Egbert Bratt, was born 30 March 1806, the youngest of ten children, and became an apprentice printer at the office of Palmyra’s Wayne Sentinel, which he bought on 13 April 1827, from John Henry Gilbert, who stayed on as his employee and set type for the Book of Mormon in 1829. Grandin, the brother-in-law of Pomeroy Tucker, married Harriet Rogers in 1828 and fathered six children. Their oldest son, Carlton, died at age five in 1829 of “typhus fever.” Grandin had an interest in religion and attended Presbyterian, Baptist, Episcopal, Shaker, and Methodist meetings. He had left the publishing business by 1833 and died in April 1845 at Palmyra. Vogel 1:90; “Historic,” 48-50.

Grant. Hyrum Smith’s affidavit identifies an intimidated witness at the Richmond court in Clay County as a brother of Caroline Grant Smith, William Smith’s wife. The History of the Church version identifies him as Jedediah Morgan Grant. He was the fifth of the eight sons of Joshua Grant (1778-1865) and Athalia Howard Grant, born 21 February 1816 at Windsor. He was baptized on 21 March 1833 by John F. Boynton and ordained an elder and a seventy by Joseph Smith at Kirtland on 28 February 1835. He served missions in New York, North Carolina, and Philadelphia. He was endowed at Nauvoo on 12 December 1845 and reached Utah in 1847. He married Caroline Van Dyke on 2/3 July 1844 at Nauvoo; Susan Fairchild Noble on 11 February 1849 at Salt Lake City; Rosetta Robinson; Sarah Ann Thurson on 15 December 1853; Louise Maria Golay on 17 February 1854; and Rachel Ridgeway Ivins. He fathered nine children, [p.820]including Heber J. Grant, who became seventh president of the LDS church, and adopted the son of one wife by her first marriage.

In Utah he was the first mayor of Salt Lake City, speaker of the house of the Territorial Legislature (1852-55), and superintendent of public works. He served as one of the Seven Presidents of the Seventy, was called as Brigham Young’s second counselor on 7 April 1854, headed the Mormon Reformation beginning in 1855, and died 1 December 1856. Black, Membership; Cannon and Cook, 264.

Graves. Lucy’s family occupied a house owned by this individual with several other refugee families in Quincy in early 1839.

Greene, John Portineus, was born 3 September 1793 in Herkimer County, New York, to John Coddington Greene and Anne Chapman Greene. A shoemaker, he was an exhorter for the Methodist Episcopal church; and in 1828 with about twenty or twenty-five others, he formed the Methodist Protestant church and was a traveling preacher at Mendon, New York. He married Rhoda Young, sister of Brigham and Phineas, on 11 February 1813. Rhoda was born 10 September 1789 at Platauva District, New York. Rhoda was the first in the family to accept Samuel H. Smith’s testimony and the Book of Mormon. They had seven children: Evan Melbourne (22 December 1814 at Aurelius, Cayuga County, New York), Abby Ann (17 April 1817 in Wayne County, New York), Addison (12 June 1819 at Brownsville, New York), Fanny Eliza (17 January 1821/1822 at Watertown, Jefferson County, New York), Rhoda (2 October 1824 at Watertown), John Young (21 September 1826 at Mentz, New York), and Nancy Zerviah (17 September 1829 at Corneus, New York). He also married Mary Elizabeth Nelson on 6 December 1841.

Rhoda and John were baptized (13 April 1832) at Mendon, Monroe County, New York, then moved to Kirtland, where John served on the high council and was ordained a high priest (16 September 1833). He served missions in New York (1832), New York and Canada (1833, 1834), New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine (1835), and Ohio (1836), and Canada with William Marks (1838). They moved to Far West (1838). John presided over the New York City branch (1839). At Nauvoo, John served on the city council (1841), became marshal (1843), supervised the destruction of the Nauvoo Expositor (June 1844), and died 10 September 1844. Rhoda died 18 January 1841 at Nauvoo. Cannon and Cook, 264; Jessee 2:549; Black, Membership.

Greenwood, Dr., “of the next village” to Palmyra was blamed for Alvin’s death for prescribing calomel against the patient’s wishes. Vogel (1:300) suggests that Lucy confused his name with that of their new land agent, John Greenwood, since there are no Greenwoods in the Ontario/Wayne County census for 1820 or 1830.

Grenolds/Granolds, Mrs. A midwife or nurse at Kirtland who attended Jerusha Barden Smith during the birth of her sixth child, Sarah, on 2 October 1837. Jerusha died on 13 October. Mrs. Grenolds was evidently a member of the LDS church because she was in Missouri in 1838-39 and, in March 1839, was living with Joseph Sr. and Lucy to [p.821]care for Hyrum’s children (presumably Jerusha’s four surviving children) at Quincy, Illinois, while Hyrum was still in prison and Mary Fielding Smith, his second wife, was slowly recuperating from the birth of Joseph F. Smith the autumn before. Don Carlos, who provides this piece of information, spells her name Grinold (HC 3:273). Esplin, without citation, calls her “Aunty Hannah Grinnals” (35).

Gun, Captain Asahel, of Montague, New Hampshire, had a family whose members Lucy remembered as Thankful (born 1754), Unice (Eunice) (born 1762), Abel (born 1766), and Martin (born 1769). The father’s military rank appears on his tombstone. Richard Anderson, New England, 65.

Hale, Alva, Emma’s brother. See Isaac Hale.

Hale, Isaac, and Elizabeth Lewis Hale, the parents of Emma Hale Smith, married in 1790 when they moved from Vermont with Elizabeth’s brother Nathaniel and his wife, Sarah Cole Lewis, to become the first settlers at Harmony (now Oakland), Pennsylvania, where all of their children were born. Isaac had been born 1763 at Waterbury, Connecticut, to Reuben Hale and Diantha Ward Hale (born 1741) and served in the Revolutionary War. Elizabeth was born in 1767 at Wells/Litchfield, Vermont, the daughter of Nathaniel Lewis (born 1740) and Esther Tuttle Lewis (born 1747). Isaac and Elizabeth belonged to the Methodist Episcopal church. They had nine children, all born at Harmony:

1. Jesse was born 24 February 1792, married Mary McKine (1799-1864) in 1815, was a tax collector in Harmony, served as a school trustee, and fathered twelve children. By 1843 he had moved to Dixon, Lee County, Illinois. He died in 1874.

2. David was born 6 March 1794, was a tax collector in Harmony and a pilot on the Susquehanna River, married Rhoda Jane Skinner (1823), a midwife who helped Emma deliver her first child, a stillborn and deformed son named Alvin. David and Rhoda had at least two daughters. By 1843 David and his family had settled near Amboy, Lee County, Illinois. Visiting in the 1860s, Joseph III mentions a daughter, Betsey.

3. Alva was born 29 November 1795. In 1828 he came with a team and wagon to bring Emma and Joseph back to Harmony where he reportedly served briefly as Joseph’s scribe. By 1843 Alva and his family had settled near Sublette, Lee County, Illinois. Joseph III, who visited him in the 1860s with Emma, mentions three children: Eunice, Jesse, and William.

4. Phoebe was born 1 May 1798.

5. Elizabeth was born 14 February 1800, married Benjamin Wasson (Joseph III spells it “Wassen”), and lived near Colesville where they had six children: Lorenzo (he became a Mormon; married Marietta Crocker on 9 July 1843 at Nauvoo; also married Aurelia H. Gaylord; served a mission in Pennsylvania; and died in July 1857), Harmon, Clara, Rocksy (Roxie), Caroline, and Warren.

Between at least 1818 and 1842, Elizabeth and Benjamin lived at Amboy, Lee County, Illinois. Benjamin Wasson died en route to the California gold fields. Daughter Clara later married Mormon William Backenstos, brother of Jacob Backenstos, the non-Mormon sheriff of Hancock County who endeavored to protect the Mormons. [p.822]Elizabeth and her youngest daughter, Caroline, were members of the Church of England.

6. Isaac Ward was born in 1902 and had moved to Amboy, Lee County, with his family by 1843.

7. Emma was born 10 July 1804. See Joseph Smith Jr.

8. Tryal/Trial was born 21 November 1806; she married Michael Bartlett Morse (he taught a Methodist class at Harmony), and moved to Chemung County, New York, briefly before settling in Amboy, Lee County, Illinois, in 1859. They had twelve children. Joseph III recalls, as children, Lorenzo, Bartlett, and “a number of daughters.” Tryal and an eighteen-year-old daughter were killed by a tornado on 3 June 1860.

9. Reuben was born 18 September 1810.

Elizabeth took in boarders (and/or ran an inn) and taught her children to read and write. Isaac Hale was briefly interested in Josiah Stowell’s money-digging project (October 1825). He died 11 January 1839, leaving his farm and the responsibility for Elizabeth to Alva. Elizabeth died 16 February 1842 at Harmony. Newell and Avery, 3, 102, 147-48; JS III, 36-37, 76; Vogel 1:68, 372, 582-83; Black, Membership.

Hamilton, Artois, owned the Hamilton Tavern or Hamilton House in Carthage, Illinois, the most important guest house in the city of 22,559 (1845). Joseph and Hyrum Smith and their party lodged here overnight on 24-25 June before giving themselves up the next day. (Governor Thomas Ford was also there.) Samuel H. Smith, who was trying to reach his brothers, sent a fourteen-year-old boy with a wagon to the Hamilton House. After the murders, Hamilton had pine boxes made for the bodies and, with two of his sons, joined Samuel and Willard Richards in escorting the bodies back to Nauvoo. Joseph’s body was in Samuel’s wagon, while Hyrum’s was in Hamilton’s. Hamilton also sheltered John Taylor while he was recovering from his wounds. Artois’s son William R., a youthful member of the Carthage Greys who was stationed on the courthouse roof to keep a lookout for approaching groups, wrote disgustedly in 1902 that he thought “the officers and some privates were working for delay” in failing to respond quickly to the attack. Canfield Hamilton had a tavern at Warsaw, but his relation to Artois is not specified. Flanders, 156-57, 167; Norman, 1-2; Hallwas and Launius, 219, 228-30; Oaks and Hill, 1, 17, 122.

Harmon family of Gilsum, New Hampshire. Lucy remembers three of the children as schoolmates: Martha (“Patty”), Toriah, and John.

Harris, Emer, the older brother of Martin Harris, was born 29 May 1791 in Cambridge, Washington County, New York, to Nathan Harris and Rhoda Lapham Harris. He moved with his parents to Palmyra, New York, where he began farming on land bought from his father in 1806-7, then moved to Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, where he became part-owner of a sawmill. Martin reportedly gave him the first bound copy of the Book of Mormon that Martin himself received. After reading it, Emer was baptized on 10 February 1831 by Hyrum Smith, became an elder and moved to Kirtland (1831), was ordained a high priest on 25 October 1831 by Joseph Smith, and worked for a time as Joseph’s scribe. He served a mission in New York and Pennsylvania (1832-33) with [p.823]Simeon Carter and Martin Harris, worked on the Kirtland temple, moved to Missouri in October 1838, and moved to Nauvoo in 1839 where he worked on the Nauvoo temple. He received his patriarchal blessing in 1848 from John Smith, reached Utah in 1850, settled first in Ogden, and then in Provo (1855), where he served as a patriarch, moved to southern Utah (1862), and returned to Logan (1867) where he died 28 November 1869.

He married Roxana/Roxanna Peas on 22 July 1802, and they had six children: Selina (10 October 1803), Elathan (7 October 1805), Alvira (7 August 1807), Sephrona (17 August 1809), Nathan (26 September 1811), and Ruth (7 September 1813). Emer married Deborah Lott on 16 June 1819, and they had four children: Emer Jr. (November 1819), Martin Henderson (29 September 1820), Harriet Fox (26 December 1822), and Dennison Lott (17 January 1825). Emer married his third wife Parna Chapell on 29 March 1826 (born 12 November 1792 at Berkshire, Berkshire County, Massachusetts), and they had four children: Fannie Melvina (21 January 1827), Joseph Mormon (19 July 1830), Alma (6 January 1832), and Charles (2 July 1834). Two additional marriages but without details are recorded for Emer on 11 January 1846 and 10 September 1850/1855. Cannon and Cook, 266; Profile, 33; Black, Who’s Who, 119-21; Black, Membership.

Harris, Lucy. Martin Harris’s wife and daughter. See Martin Harris and Flanders Dikes respectively.

Harris, Martin, was born 18 May 1783 at East Town, Saratoga County, New York, the second of Nathan Harris’s and Rhoda Lapham Harris’s eight children. (Nathan and Rhoda apparently joined the Mormons and moved with them to Ohio where they died at Mentor.) The family moved to the Palmyra area in 1794 when he was ten.

In March 1808, Martin married his first cousin, fifteen-year-old Lucy (“Dolly”) Harris (daughter of Rufus and Lucy Harris, born 1792, probably at Palmyra) and became a farmer on part of his father’s land. They had three children: Duty L. (1812-15), George W. (ca. 1814-64), and Lucy (1816-41).

By 1827 Martin owned almost 120 acres of land. He joined the local agricultural society and “produced linen, cotton, and woolen ticking, blankets, and worsted and flannel fabrics” for which he won thirteen fair prizes between 1822 and 1824. He also raised wheat, sheep, and hogs. He served with the militia “on several occasions” during the War of 1812, served on a fund-raising committee for Greek war relief, served on another appointed by the county’s anti-Masonic convention, was road overseer eight years, was grand juror, and was a witness in three criminal trials. His religious history before 1830 reportedly included Quaker, Universalist, Restorationism, Baptist, Presbyterian, and possibly Methodist (although Richard Lloyd Anderson challenges all of these designations except Methodism and Universalism, and Dan Vogel challenges all but Universalist and Restorationist).

According to Martin’s own account, he first learned about the gold plates from his brother Preserved. According to Lucy, Martin was Joseph Smith Sr.’s first confidant about the Book of Mormon outside of the Smith family (they participated in treasure-[p.824]seeking together) and was very supportive. He gave Joseph Smith Jr. money, took the transcribed characters from the plates to Professor Charles Anthon and Dr. Mitchell in New York City, inscribed (and lost) the first 116 pages of the manuscript, became one of Three Witnesses, and mortgaged his farm to pay for the Book of Mormon. He had the reputation of being credulous and superstitious. Mrs. Harris also complained that he beat her and turned her out of the house repeatedly and had an affair with a Mrs. Haggart.

Martin defaulted on the mortgage, separated permanently from Lucy in April 1831, moved to Kirtland in May 1831, and continued on the next month to Missouri. He was ordained a priest before 9 June 1830, ordained a high priest at Kirtland and served on the high council. Martin served a mission with his brother Emer (1832), participated in Zion’s Camp, helped choose the Twelve, and served on the Kirtland high council (1835).

Lucy Harris died in the summer of 1836, and Martin married Carolyn/Caroline Young in 1837. She was born 17 May 1816 at Hector, Schuyler County, New York, to John Young and Theodocia Kimball Young. They became the parents of six children born between 1838 and 1856. Alienated when the Kirtland Bank failed, Martin was excommunicated in late December 1837, but was rebaptized both in 1840 and in November 1842.

Caroline took the children to Utah, but Martin remained in Kirtland, affiliating himself with eight different religious movements, all of them connected with Mormonism except for the Shakers (from which he had disaffiliated by 1855). These groups, as identified by Richard Anderson, are the Parrish-Boynton party, rebaptism in 1842 by an LDS missionary, an 1846 mission to England with a Strangite missionary, participation in 1847-48 with McLellin’s group, approval of Gladden Bishop’s “program for further revelations” based on the Book of Mormon, and association with “William Smith and others.” When a reconciliation was effected, Martin, age eighty-six, was rebaptized on 17 September 1870, came to Utah, and gave numerous testimonies of the Book of Mormon. He lived briefly in Salt Lake City with Irinda Crandall McEwan, his grandniece, in Smithfield with Martin Harris Jr., his oldest son by Caroline, and in Clarkston (1874) where he died 10 July 1875. Caroline died 19 January 1888 at Lewisville, Jefferson County, Idaho. Richard Anderson, Investigating, 99-100, 110-11, 114-15, 165, 168-69, 177; Cannon and Cook, 266; Vogel 1:72; Vogel 2:29, 35-36, 257-58, 321; Black, Who’s Who, 124-27. See also Oaks, who argues: “[Martin Harris] deserves better than to be remembered solely as the man who unrighteously obtained and then lost the initial manuscript pages of the Book of Mormon” (36).

Harris, Preserved, was born 8 May 1785 at Palmyra, Wayne County, New York, to Nathan Harris and Rhoda Lapham Harris, joined the Mormon church in New York, and died 18 March 1867 at Mentor, Lake County, Ohio. Before 1811, he married Nancy Warren, the daughter of Samuel Warren, born 31 December 1792 at Ontario County, New York. She died 19 April 1872 at Mentor. According to Lucy, Joseph and Emma Smith and their party, en route to Kirtland in late January 1831, stayed with Preserved. Joseph Jr. preached Nathan Harris’s funeral sermon on 18 November 1835 at [p.825]Preserved’s home in Kirtland. The Kirtland high council disfellowshipped Harris on 16 June 1836 with another man when Joseph Smith charged them with “a want of benevolence to the poor, and charity to the Church.” Profile, 33; Jessee 2:351; HC 2:317, 445.

Harvy. Lucy mentions a family by this name at Montague, Massachusetts, where she lived between ages about four to thirteen. Two Harvey families “had children who were likely [Lucy’s] playmates,” Richard L. Anderson, New England, 65.

Havens, Captain, was the master of a privateer during the Revolutionary War, mentioned in Solomon Mack’s autobiography.

Henry. A militia captain in whose troop Solomon Mack, during the French and Indian War, served in the regiment of Colonel Whiting; they saw action at Half-Way Brook and Fort Edwards in New York, in 1755.

Higbee brothers. See Elias Higbee.

Higbee, Elias, was born 23 October 1795 at Galloway, Gloucester County, New Jersey, to Isaac Higbee Sr. and Sophia Somers Higbee. They encountered the gospel through missionary Lyman Wight at Clermont County, Ohio; Wight would fish (their profession) with them through the day and preach at night. Most of the family were baptized in early May 1832. (Also baptized at the same time were John Higbee, Isaac Higbee Jr., his wife, Keziah String Higbee, Keziah’s sister Margaret, and her husband, John T. Kerr.) The extended family moved to Jackson County in April 1833 and took up about eighty acres in Lyman Wight’s settlement. During the mobbings, they turned this property over to Bishop Edward Partridge to help Joseph Smith pay his debts. They moved to Clay County in November 1833.

On 10 September 1818, Elias married Sarah Elizabeth Ward, born in 1801/1800, in Clermont County, Ohio; they had eight children, the first two of whom were later involved in plots against Joseph Smith:

1. Francis Marion was born in 1820 at Tate, Clermont County, Ohio. He was arrested during the fall of Far West (1838) and arraigned at the Richmond hearing. In Nauvoo he was elected a colonel in the Nauvoo Legion (1841). He was excommunicated on 18 May 1844 for apostasy and threats against Joseph Smith. Willard Richards identifies him among those at the jail when Joseph and Hyrum were killed. When the 1850 census was taken, he was still living in Hancock County. He died in New York, date unknown.

2. Chauncey Lawson was born 7 September 1821, also at Tate. At Nauvoo, he was excommunicated for adultery and opposition to Joseph Smith on 24 May 1842. The next day the Nauvoo high council ordered the publication of affidavits in the Nauvoo Neighbor claiming that Chauncey had seduced various women. Willard Richards identifies him among those at the jail when Joseph and Hyrum were killed. Chauncey married Julia M. White (1854), practiced law, was elected to the Illinois general assembly from Pike County (1855-56, 1859-60), and to the state senate (1861-62), and was appointed circuit judge (1861), and a member of the appellate court (1877). He died 7 December 1884 at Pittsfield.

Mack, Almira, Daniel, Jason, Lovina, Lovisa, Lydia I, Lydia II, Stephen, and Solomon Jr. See Solomon Mack.

[p.826]The other six children of Elias and Sarah were Andrew Jackson (3 September 1825), William W., De Witt Clinton (November 1827), Elizabeth, Sarah, and Elias Keryle (6 April 1839). Elias served a mission to Missouri before his baptism, was ordained an elder on 20 February 1833 by his brother Isaac, moved to Jackson County in March 1833, was driven to Clay County that fall, ordained a high priest by Amasa M. Lyman, and served a mission in Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio (1835). He worked on the Kirtland temple, returned to Missouri in the spring of 1836, moved his family to Caldwell County where he helped found Far West, served on its high council, was appointed county judge, and was called as a church historian (6 April 1838). He also served on the high council in Clay County. After the expulsions, he accompanied Joseph Smith to Washington, D.C., where he took the lead in presenting the Mormon case to Congress. Elias died at Nauvoo of cholera on 8 June 1843. Joseph Smith preached his funeral sermon on 13 August 1843. Sarah died 1 April 1874 at Clarence, Shelby County, Missouri. HC 5:18, 420, 529, 6:398, 7:146; Black, Membership; Cannon and Cook, 158, 267; Black, Who’s Who, 134-36; Cook, Law, 108; Jessee 2:552-53; Flanders, 143.

Hinkle, George M., was born 13 November 1801 in Jefferson County, Kentucky, joined the Mormon church in 1832, and received his patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. at Kirtland on 26 September 1835. He served missions in Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, and Missouri. He moved to Missouri where he operated a store in Far West and served on its high council. With fellow high councilor John Murdock, he established De Witt in Carroll County. They purchased half the town plat from Henry Root on 23 June 1838 for $500, with Bishop Edward Partridge cosigning the note. In June 1838 Hinckle sold his house to Bishop Partridge for Joseph Smith; between July and October 1838, seventy Mormon families settled there. Hinckle held a commission, signed by the governor, as colonel in the state militia. After the Mormons were forced out of De Witt in October 1838, Hinkle and Murdock sold their interest in the town plat in February 1839. Lucy, like other Mormons of the time, believed that he and other negotiators betrayed Joseph Smith to the Missouri militia at the fall of Far West. Hinckle did not consider himself a traitor and, although he testified against Joseph Smith at Austin King’s preliminary hearing in Richmond, reminded his critics that he was there under subpoena. Lucas’s reports make it clear that he considered Hinkle to be the “chief” Mormon representative, not Joseph Smith. Hinkle was excommunicated on 17 March 1839 at Quincy, Illinois and, in June 1840, organized the Church of Jesus Christ, the Bride, the Lamb’s Wife. He had a medical practice, a farm, and a drugstore in later years, and died in 1861 in Iowa. Some of his descendants affiliated with the RLDS Church. Cannon and Cook, 197, 268; LeSueur, 56, 112, 175; Porter, “Odyssey,” 329-30; Jessee 2:553; HC 6:398.

Hoit, Hiram. Lucy identifies a Hyran [Hyrum?] Holt (possibly Hoit) as one of the families with whom they shared a house as refugees in Quincy. Hiram Holt was one of ten children born to James Hoyt and Beulah Sabin Hoyt, all of them in Oneida County, New York, between 1808 and 1830. Most of these siblings can be located in Nauvoo [p.827]during the 1840s, though not, with the data available to me, by 1839. Hiram would have been twenty-six, old enough to be married with children, by that year. Quinn, Early.

Hooper. Lucy warmly commemorates the kindly welcome she and her family received from this family at Waterloo, New York, in the early months of 1831 while they waited to go to Kirtland. According to Porter (“A Study,” 272), Pontius Hooper kept a tavern in “the Kingdom” near Waterloo.

Howard. Two cousins by this name at Norwich, Vermont, who were also moving to Palmyra, New York, were involved with the Smiths. One (name unknown) traveled with Joseph Sr.; the second proved to be an unsatisfactory escort to Lucy and her children in January 1817. Joseph Jr., in a memoir dictated in 1838-39, recalls the name of this second teamster as Caleb Howard, a drinker, gambler, and womanizer. Durham, 481.

Howe, George Augustus, was born about 1724, the third Vicount Howe, not to be confused with his two brothers, Richard and William, who succeeded in turn to the title and both fought in the Revolutionary War, Richard in the British Navy and William in the British Army. George Augustus was the son of Emanuel Scrope Howe, governor of Barbados (1732-35). He was commissioned an ensign in the Grenadier Guards in March 1745 and was, by May 1749, a lieutenant colonel. Early in 1757 he was appointed colonel of the Third Battalion of Royal Americans in New York, was promoted to brigadier general in December 1857, energetically studied woodcraft and warfare, and was widely admired and respected. He was killed by a French skirmishing party on 6 July 1758 and buried at Albany, New York. Dictionary, 5:287-88.

Howe, Harriet, who joined the Mormon church in Painesville, Ohio, in 1832, was a witness against Wesley Hurlburt, with others, that he had denied the faith on 2 January 1834. He was excommunicated. (Philastus Hurlburt had been excommunicated for sexual misconduct the previous June, but the women who testified are not identified.) She was the sister of Eber D. Howe, publisher of the Painesville Telegraph. Her sister-inlaw, Sophia Hull Howe (1800-66), also joined the Mormon church in Kirtland. Harriet helped with the Kirtland temple, making clothing for the workmen and helping with the veil. In December 1835 she was living in Painesville, where Emma called on her while Joseph was transacting business in town. Harriet called on the Smiths a few days later. HC 2:2, 324, 331; Jessee 2:555; Vogel 2:284.

Hull, William, whom Lucy mentions slightingly in her biographical sketch of her brother Stephen Mack, was born in 1753 at Derby, Connecticut, and fought in many Revolutionary War battles, including engagements at Princeton, Stony Point, and Trenton. In 1812, when his attempt to capture Ontario failed, his troops retreated to Detroit where the British surrounded the town, demanding his surrender. Hull sent to Fort Dearborn in Illinois Territory for reinforcements, but Indians had captured the fort and killed most of the troops. Hull surrendered and was convicted by an 1814 court-martial of cowardice and neglect of duty. U.S. president James Madison, who had [p.828]ordered the Ontario attack, cancelled the sentence of death pronounced by the courtmartial. Fowler, 376.

Humphrey/Humphery, Solomon, was born 23 September 1775 at Canton, Hartford County, Connecticut, to Solon Humphrey Sr. and Lucy Case Humphrey. He married Ursula Andrews and had two known sons: Smith Humphrey, born 1 November 1805, and Luther Humphrey, born at Glover, Vermont, in 1808. A Baptist exhorter, Solomon Humphrey was converted by Don Carlos Smith, when Don Carlos was visiting his grandfather Asael Smith in Potsdam, New York, in 1831. Solomon was ordained an elder and called on a mission with Noah Packard (7 June 1831). Among those he baptized were John Smith (brother of Joseph Smith Sr.) and George A. Smith. He moved to Kirtland in Lucy Mack Smith’s company in 1831. Although Lucy makes much of his age as the oldest elder in the church, she was actually two months older. He helped lay the cornerstone of the Kirtland temple (1833), participated in Zion’s Camp (1834), where he refused to kill a rattlesnake lying within a foot of his head when he woke after a nap (27 May), and volunteered for a mission (August 1834) with Solomon Wixom. He died in Clay County, Missouri, in September 1834. Cannon and Cook, 269; Black, Who’s Who, 136-38; Jessee 2:555; Black, Membership.

Huzzy/Hussy, William T., a hatter at Palmyra, headed a would-be mob to waylay Joseph Jr. en route to sign the contract with Grandin but was disarmed by Joseph’s pleasant greeting. He arrived in Palmyra about 1812 and joined the Mount Moriah Lodge of the Masons. Vogel 1:397.

Hyde, Orson, was born 8 January 1805 at Oxford, New Haven County, Connecticut, one of the eleven children of Nathan Hyde, a veteran of the Revolutionary War and War of 1812, and Sarah (“Sally”) Thorpe Hyde. Sally died when Orson was seven, and he was raised by Nathan Wheeler, who moved from Derby, Connecticut, to Kirtland when Orson was fourteen. There Orson worked in an iron foundry, carded wool, and clerked at the Gilbert & Whitney Store in Kirtland. Sidney Rigdon converted him from Methodist to Campbellite, and he was appointed pastor of several branches in Lorain and Huron counties, Ohio (early 1830). Sidney Rigdon baptized him Mormon on 2/9 October 1830 and ordained him “to the high priesthood” on 25 October 1831, both at Kirtland. Hyde received his patriarchal blessing 29 December 1835, was an apostle from 1835-38, briefly apostatized in October 1838, was reinstated, and served as president of the Twelve (1847-75).

He married Nancy Marinda Johnson on 4 September 1834, Geauga County, Ohio. She was born 28 June 1815 to John Johnson Sr. and Mary Elsa Johnson and was baptized in April 1831. They had ten children. He married two plural wives: Martha Browett in 1843 and Mary Ann Price in April 1843. He was endowed 10 December 1845 in the Nauvoo temple and sealed to Nancy on 11 January 1846. He later married five additional wives.

In 1838 they moved to Missouri where Hyde, disillusioned with Joseph Smith, signed a critical affidavit with Thomas Marsh. He reconciled with the leaders in 1839, then moved to Nauvoo. He was presiding elder at Winter Quarters until 1852 when [p.829]they came to Utah. In 1868 Nancy became president of the Seventeenth Ward Relief Society, a position she held until her death on 24 March 1886. A dedicated temple worker, she served on the board of the Deseret Hospital. After several years’ separation, Nancy and Orson divorced in 1870.

Hyde served repeated missions: to Ohio (1831) with Hyrum Smith, in New York with Samuel H. Smith (1832); to Massachusetts, Maine, and Rhode Island; to Pennsylvania and Ohio with Hyrum Smith (1833); to Pennsylvania and New York with Orson Pratt (1834); Zion’s Camp (1834); to New England (1835), to New York and Canada (1836), and to England (1837-38). He moved to Far West (1838), then to Nauvoo, and served a mission to Palestine (1840-December 1842). Joseph Smith asked Nancy to become his plural wife during this last absence. Hyde published the Frontier Guardian in Kanesville, Iowa. After moving to Utah in 1852, he presided over the British Mission, and served as an associate judge of the Supreme Court, in the territorial legislature, as senate president (1870), and as regent of the University of Deseret. He helped settle Carson City, Nevada (1856), and Sanpete Valley (1858-77). Brigham Young readjusted the quorum’s seniority system in 1875, replacing Hyde with John Taylor as senior apostle. Orson died 28 November 1878 at Spring City, Sanpete County, Utah. Compton, 228-53; Black, Who’s Who, 142-44; Black, Membership.

Jacaway/Jackway/Jackways, David. Lucy identifies him as a Palmyra neighbor who joined with others to attempt to take the plates away from Joseph Jr. David Strong Jackways and his father, William, were hatters. They moved to Palmyra in 1787 where they owned 500 acres. David is listed in the 1820 census and apparently belonged to the Western Presbyterian Church of Palmyra. He threatened legal action against Joseph Sr. in the spring of 1831. A “D. S. Jackways,” on 4 December 1833, was one of fifty-one Palmyra residents who signed an affidavit attesting that Joseph Sr. and Jr., because of their “visionary projects” of money-digging were “considered entirely destitute of moral character, and addicted to vicious habits.” Joseph Jr. in a letter from Kirtland warned Hyrum that “David Jackways has threatened to take father with a supreme writ in the spring” of 1831 and urged haste in moving from Palmyra to Waterloo. Rodger Anderson, 148; Vogel 1:397-98; Marquardt and Walters, 137; italics omitted.

Jackson, Joseph H. Lucy describes him as a suitor for her granddaughter, Lovisa, rejected by Lovisa’s father Hyrum because he was not a Mormon. He had apparently been in a trusted position in Nauvoo since the spring of 1843. (See contextual note, chap. 54.) Joseph Smith broke with him during the winter of 1843-44, according to Oakley, but as late as 29 December 1843, the History of the Church 6:149 reports a conversation between Jackson and Bernhisel, which, Jackson said, “almost persuaded” him “to be one with me,” a sentiment to which Joseph apparently responded warmly. Jackson published an exposé in Warsaw, A Narrative of the Adventures and Experiences of Joseph H. Jackson in Nauvoo: Disclosing the Depths of Mormon Villainy Practiced in Nauvoo in 1844. He reportedly confessed his role in the murders to Emma and a warrant was issued for his arrest but never served. HC 6:149; Oaks and Hill, 38, 45n37.

Jessup, Henry, was an apparently pious deacon in Palmyra who, Joseph Smith Jr. [p.830]warned, was capable of taking a poor widow’s only cow. Richard L. Anderson, “Circumstantial,” 391, 390n52, comments that the Wayne Sentinel, 7 April 1826, refers to him “in a manner that suggests some of the materialistic values attributed to him.” When the Western Presbyterian Church of Palmyra was incorporated on 18 March 1817, Jessup was named as one of the original trustees. He ran a tannery in Palmyra (1814-28) with George Palmer, investigated and reported negatively on the inactivity of Lucy, Hyrum, and Samuel in March 1830, gave Martin Harris a letter of recommendation to a New York City banker when Martin was trying to secure another loan rather than sell his farm in early 1831, and signed a group affidavit on 4 December 1833 declaring the Smith family “entirely destitute of moral character, and addicted to vicious habits.” Marquardt and Walters, 16; Vogel 1:308; italics omitted.

Johnson, Benjamin Franklin, was born in 1818 at Pomfret, Chataqua County, New York, to Ezekiel Johnson and Julia Hills Johnson. His large family of sixteen siblings was much interested in religion and he frequently attended Presbyterian meetings and revivals. After his brothers joined the Mormon church in Kirtland, he also moved to Kirtland with his family (1833) where he was baptized (1835). He moved to Far West (1838), then, after the expulsion, tried to build up Kirtland again. He moved to Ramus, Illinois (1842), where he operated an inn and worked in the church (a stake for part of the time), and was a member of the Council of Fifty. After the deaths of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, he managed the Mansion House.

He married Melissa Bloomfield LeBaron (1842) and two other wives before reaching Utah, four afterwards, by whom he fathered a total of forty-five children plus adopting one. His sister Almira became Joseph Smith’s plural wife. He reached Utah in 1848, served in the legislature, helped settle Santaquin (1851), served a mission to Hawaii (1852-55), served a penitentiary term for unlawful cohabitation, moved often among settlements including in Mexico and Mesa, Arizona, and died in Gila Bend, Arizona, in 1905. Cannon and Cook, 271; Johnson, My Life’s, passim.

Johnson, John, Sr., was born 11 April 1778 at Chesterfield, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, to Israel Johnson and Abigail Higgins Johnson. At one point (1803-18), he lived at Pomfret, Vermont, only a few miles from the Smith family. He and his wife, Mary Alice/Elsa Musselman Johnson, moved to Hiram, Ohio, in 1818, where, by 1830, they owned 300 acres and a new farmhouse. They had fifteen children, many of whom joined the Mormon church in 1830-31. These children include: Alice (Elsa) (1800 at Chesterfield), Robert (1802, same place), seven born at Pomfret: Fanny (1803), John Jr. (1805), Luke Samuel (1807, q.v.), Olmstead G. (1809), Lyman Eugene (1811), Emily H. (1813), Marinda Nancy (28 June 1815; see Orson Hyde), Mary (1818), Justin Jacob (1820), twins Edwin and Charlotte (1821), Albert G. (1823), and Joseph (1827).

John and Mary came from Hiram to Kirtland, thirty miles away, with Ezra Booth to meet Joseph Smith, who cured Mary’s arm of limited range of motion because of “rheumatism” in the shoulder. The Johnsons offered Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon their hospitality (12 September 1831) where the two worked on the new Bible translation. Here they were beaten and tarred by a mob on the night of 24-25 March 1832. [p.831]John Johnson’s collar bone was broken when he attempted to defend them but was healed by David Whitmer. Johnson then moved to Kirtland where he opened an inn near the Whitney store, was ordained an elder (17 February 1833) and a high priest (4 June 1833). He served on the Kirtland high council, worked on the temple, and became disillusioned during the Kirtland Safety Society difficulties. Although a trial for his membership began (1837), it was not completed, and the status of his membership is not clear. However, he remained in Kirtland, alienated from the church, until his death on 30 July 1843. Perkins, “The Prophet,” 97-98; Black, “Hiram,” 163-64; Black, Who’s Who, 152-53; Black, Membership.

Johnson, Luke Samuel, was born 3 November 1808 to John Johnson Sr. and Mary Elsa Jacobs Johnson at Pomfret, Windsor County, Vermont. He married Susan Armelda/Arminda Poteet/Pottet on 1/29 November 1833/1832. They had six children: Elsa Mary, Fanny, Eliza, Vashata, James, and Solomon. Joseph Smith Jr. baptized Luke on 10 May 1831 and ordained him a high priest on 25 October 1831. Luke was the constable who arrested, then engineered the escape of, Joseph Smith Sr. in Kirtland. Both Luke and his younger brother Lyman were ordained apostles in Kirtland on 14 February 1835. Luke served on the Kirtland high council (ordained 17 February 1834). Both were ardent missionaries. Luke served missions in Ohio with Robert Rathburn (1831), in Virginia and Kentucky (1832-33), Zion’s Camp (1834), and the eastern states in 1835 with Seymour Brunson and Hazen Aldrich. The financial difficulties caused by the Kirtland Safety Society were disillusioning to both brothers. Luke and Lyman were disfellowshipped 3 September 1837, briefly reconciled, then were excommunicated on 13 April 1838 at Far West. Lyman regretted his loss of faith but did not reconcile with church leaders before his accidental drowning in 1856. Luke taught school in Virginia for one year, then became a physician. He was rebaptized by his brother-in-law Orson Hyde on 8 March 1846 at Nauvoo and went to the Salt Lake Valley with the pioneer camp of 1847.

He married America Clark in March 1847. Their children are: Susan Marinda (9 August 1848, Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie County, Iowa, where the next four children were also born), Orson Albert (14 February 1850), Mark Anthony (10 November 1851), Charlotte Elizabeth (13 January 1853), John Joseph (11 January 1855), Lovinia Ann (8 November 1856 at Clover, Tooele County, Utah), Phebe W. (3 May 1858 at Erda, Tooele County), and Luke Jr. (10 April 1861, at Clover). He served as bishop of St. John, Tooele County. He died 9 December 1861 at Salt Lake City at the home of his sister, Nancy Marinda Johnson Hyde. Cannon and Cook, 272; Black, Who’s Who, 154-59; Black, Membership.

Kellog. During the Smith family’s brief stay near Waterloo, New York, while waiting to move to Kirtland, they lived in a house owned by this individual in “the Kingdom,” an area between Waterloo and Seneca Falls. A Fuller Kellog appears in the 1830 Seneca Falls census. Porter, “A Study,” 272.

Kimball, Heber C., was born 14 June 1801 at Sheldon, Vermont, to Solomon F. Kimball and Anna Spaulding Kimball. A potter, he began investigating Mormonism in [p.832]1830 with his friend Brigham Young; they were baptized (1832) and moved to Kirtland (1833). Both participated in Zion’s Camp (1834), were ordained apostles (1835), and served missions to Great Britain (1837-38 and 1839-41). He moved to Missouri (1838) and helped the rest of the Twelve move the Mormons out of the state (1838-39).

Heber married Vilate Murray 22 November 1822, the daughter of Roswell Murray and Susannah Fitch Murray. (Vilate died 22 October 1867 at Salt Lake City.) They were the parents of ten children, including daughter Helen Mar who became Joseph Smith’s plural wife at age fourteen. Heber married forty-two more women and fathered a total of sixty-five children. After the murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Kimball assisted Brigham Young as senior apostle in organizing the exodus across the plains, directing the settlements in Utah, and reconstituting the First Presidency in December 1847 at Kanesville, Iowa, where Kimball became Brigham Young’s first counselor. In Utah he engaged in farming, saw-milling, ranching, and freighting, and served in several civic offices, including chief justice and lieutenant governor. Inexplicably estranged from Brigham Young during his later years, he died 22 June 1868 after a wagon accident. Cannon and Cook, 272; E. Kimball, 781-84; Black, Who’s Who, 160-62; Stanley Kimball, Heber, passim; Compton, 487.

King, Austin A., was born in 1803 and served two terms in the legislature as the Boone County, Missouri, representative, then moved to Ray County in 1836. He had the reputation of being a “very serious, religious man … respected for his legal knowledge and conduct of the court.” After his brother-in-law was killed during the Mormon troubles in Jackson County in 1833, he became convinced that the Mormons were the cause of the turmoil in Missouri. In November 1838, as judge of the circuit court of Ray County, he conducted the preliminary hearing in Richmond, Ray County, to determine if there was enough evidence to bind over Joseph Smith and more than sixty Mormon prisoners for trial in three areas: theft and arson for illegal raids on non-Mormons in Daviess County, murder and treason for their participation in the battle of Crooked River, and treason (trying to establish a political kingdom of God separate from the American government). Hyrum Smith’s affidavit paints a picture of rank impropriety, intimidation, and injustice; but Launius asserts that “King performed well in keeping order and preventing a gross obstruction of justice.” King chaired a public meeting in Richmond on 26 December 1838 in which local citizens passed resolutions insisting that the Mormons leave; he stated that the Mormon practice of “gathering” assured hostility against them. Launius, Alexander, 67; LeSueur, 81-82, 233-34.

Kingsbury, Joseph Corroden, was born 2 May 1812, at Enfield, Hartford County, Connecticut, to Solomon Kingsbury and Amanda A. Pease Kingsbury. The family moved to Painesville, Ohio, in 1812. Joseph was clerking in Newel K. Whitney’s store when he heard Mormonism preached by the Missouri-bound missionaries: Oliver Cowdery, Ziba Peterson, Parley P. Pratt, and Peter Whitmer. He was baptized 15 January 1832. As Lucy Mack Smith mentions, he drove her to Kirtland in his carriage when the party she was leading landed at Fairport, Ohio. He received his patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr., served a mission to New York, was a high councilor at Kirtland, [p.833]and married Caroline Whitney, Newel K. Whitney’s younger sister, in 1836. Two years later, they moved to Far West in the fall of 1838, then moved to Montrose, Iowa (1839), and Nauvoo (1841) where he clerked in Joseph Smith Jr.’s store.

On 29 April 1843, he collaborated in a sham marriage with his niece performed by Joseph Smith: (“I according to President Joseph Smith Council and others agreed to stand by Sarah Ann Whitney [daughter of Newel K. and Elizabeth Ann Whitney] as supposed to be her husband and had a pretended marriage for the purpose of bringing about the purpose of God in these last days.”) He served a mission to New England (1843-44) and was still absent when Joseph and Hyrum Smith were murdered. He received a second patriarchal blessing from John Smith and, in the Nauvoo temple, was sealed to his deceased wife, Caroline (1845), married Dorcas More at the same time, and a few months later married Loenza Pond as a plural wife (January 1846). Sarah Ann was married to Heber C. Kimball “for time.” Kingsbury reached the Salt Lake Valley 29 September 1847, settled first in Weber Valley, then farmed in Salt Lake Valley, and then worked in the tithing store in Salt Lake City. He served as bishop of Salt Lake Second Ward (1851-54). He died 15 October 1898 at Salt Lake City. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 475-76; Black, Membership.

Knight, Joseph, Sr., was born 3 November 1772 at Okham, Worcester County, Massachusetts, to Benjamin and Hannah Knight. They lived at Bainbridge, New York (1808-10), then Colesville, New York (1810-29), where he farmed and operated a gristmill. A Universalist by belief, he was engaged with Joseph Smith Sr. in treasure-digging activities and actively supported Joseph Smith Jr. during the translation of the Book of Mormon, giving the struggling young couple money and supplies. After a revelation to Joseph Jr., Knight was baptized on 28 June 1830 by Oliver Cowdery and moved his family to Thompson, Ohio, then to Jackson County (1831) where they suffered from poverty. After the expulsion, they settled in Nauvoo (1839). He died 2 February 1847 at Mount Pisgah.

In 1795 Joseph married Polly Peck, born in 1774 in Vermont, the sixth of the thirteen children of Joseph Peck and Elizabeth Read Peck. They were the parents of seven children: Naham (1796), Esther (1798), Newel (1800, q.v.), Anna (1804), Joseph Jr. (1808), Polly (1811), and Elizabeth (1817). Joseph married Phoebe Crosby Peck in 1800, who had five children by her first marriage, and bore him two more. Black, Who’s Who, 166-68; Cannon and Cook, 255, 273; Vogel 1:126; Hartley, They, passim.

Knight, Newel, was born 1800 at Marlborough, Vermont, moved with the family to Colesville where he had a gristmill and a carding machine, was baptized in May 1830, served as president of the branch at Thompson, Ohio, and led the Colesville Branch to Jackson County, Missouri (1831), where he served as counselor to Bishop Isaac Morley. He married Sally Coburn in 1825 and they had two sons. (Sally was born in 1804 at Guildford, Chenango County, New York.) Sally’s sister Emily witnessed the baptism of the Colesville Saints in New York on 28 June 1830 and wrote a skeptical book, Mormonism: Or Life among the Mormons (Madison, WI: J. Canwell, Book and Job Printers, 1882). After Sally died at Turnham’s Landing, Clay County (September 1834), Newel [p.834]married Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey at Kirtland (May 1835), with Joseph Smith Sr. officiating; she bore seven children. He participated in the Kirtland temple dedication, then moved to Far West. He died 11 January 1847 in Nebraska. Black, Who’s Who, 166-68; Cannon and Cook, 255, 273; Vogel 1:126; Hartley, They, passim.

Knowlton family. Lucy Mack Smith visited this family on Bear Creek, Illinois, during the winter of 1839-40. Sidney Algernon Knowlton, born at Ashford, Connecticut, on 24 May 1792, was the oldest of six children born to Ephraim Knowlton and Jemima Farnham Knowlton. In 1802 the family sold its Connecticut property. Sidney married Harriet Burnham on 30 June 1816. She was born 7 March 1797 at Dunbarton, Merrimack County, New Hampshire, the daughter of John Burnham and Sarah Andrew Burnham, both of Massachusetts. Sidney and Harriet were the parents of ten children (three died in infancy), born in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois: Ruhamah B. (6 September 1817), Harriet Virginia (30 March 1820), Martha Jane (3 June 1822; see biographical sketch in “The Textual History”), Julian (17 August 1824), Ephraim (22 March 1827), Mary Ann (11 September 1829), George Washington (4 July 1832), John Quincy (9 July 1835), Benjamin Franklin (30 January 1838), and Marcia Eliza (19 December 1841). Converted by John E. Page, the parents and older children were baptized in January 1840. Sidney served a six-month mission in 1842 with Howard Coray, who by then had married Martha Jane. The family moved to Utah in 1849 and settled in Salt Lake City. Sidney married five plural wives and died 20 April 1863. Harriet died 10 September 1881. Knowlton, 1-13.

Lackey/Lakey, Abner F. According to Lucy, this individual befriended her when Joseph Sr. was arrested for debt at Palmyra about 7 October 1830. In the 1820s, he built “a cabinet shop and a fine brick house” at Palmyra, married twice, and fathered six children. Vogel 1:431.

Lamoreaux, Andrew Losey, was born 17 October 1812/1813 at Pickering, York County, Ontario, Canada, to John Lamoreaux and Abigail Ann Losey Lamoreaux. He married Isabell Wilson on 12 October 1833 at Markham, York County, Ontario. They had seven children: Ann (8 April 1834 at Scarborough, York County, Ontario), Abigail (1835, also Scarborough), Caroline (1841 in Ohio), Elizabeth (1842 in Ohio), Andrew (1843 in Ohio), William George (21 August 1845 at Nauvoo), and John Henry (1848 in Utah). Ordained a high priest, he was endowed 23 December 1845 in the Nauvoo temple. From Utah, he was called to preside over the French Mission (15 September 1852) where he translated several works with Louis Alphonzo Bertrand. Returning with a company of seventy-four converts, he died of “Asiatic cholera” at St. Louis, 18 June 1855. Black, Membership.

Laurence. See Samuel Lawrence.

Law, William, was born 8 September 1809 in Tyrone County, North Ireland, to Richard Law and Mary Wilson Law. A Presbyterian, he was converted by John Taylor and Almon Babbitt in Upper Canada, where he was baptized in 1836. He served many missions, including one with Hyrum Smith. He and his wife, Jane Silverthorne (1815-[p.835]1882), had eight children: Richard, Rebecca, Thomas, Helen, William, John, Wilson, and Cys. In November 1839, he moved to Nauvoo, where he was a member of the Fourth Ward, became Joseph Smith’s second counselor 24 January 1841, and was endowed 26 May 1843. Already troubled by the increasing consolidation of power in Joseph Smith’s hands, he was shocked when Hyrum Smith first read him the revelation on polygamy and even more shocked when Joseph affirmed that it was a true revelation. He and Jane were excommunicated with his brother Wilson and Robert D. Foster on 18 April 1844 in a trial which he was not invited to attend and whose minutes he was not allowed to see. On 21 April 1844, dissenters meeting at Wilson Law’s declared Joseph a “fallen prophet,” announced the formation of the Reformed Mormon Church, and appointed William president with Austin Cowles and Wilson Law as counselors, Robert D. Foster and Francis M. Higbee as apostles, and Charles Ivins as bishop. The Warsaw Signal reported on 15 May 1844 that “about three hundred” had attended the previous Sunday’s meeting. In early June, this group published the Nauvoo Expositor. After the murders of Joseph and Hyrum, William moved to Hampton, Illinois, in the fall of 1844. A warrant was issued for his arrest in connection with the Smith murders, but no action was taken. From Hampton, he moved to Galena and Apple River where he was a merchant for a decade and a physician; he then moved to Shullsburg, Wisconsin. In letters to W. Wyl [Wilhem Ritter von Wymetal] in 1887, he averred, “The great mistake of my life was my having anything to do with Mormonism,” said he had never read any books about Mormonism, including John Cook Bennett’s, and kept no papers from that period. His wife had, with his approval, long ago burned the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants. “We have lived down in a great measure the disgrace following our unfortunate association with the Mormons. We committed a great error, but no crime. This is my consolation, that we only erred in judgement.” He died 19/12 January 1892 at Shullsburg. Black, Membership; Black, Who’s Who, 175-77; Cook, Law, 2, 104, 106, 128; HC 4:20; 6:341; Flanders, 142-44; Hallwas and Launius, 163; Launius and Hallwas, 168-69.

Law, Wilson, William’s older brother, was born in 1807, married Elizabeth Sikes on 25 December 1842 at Nauvoo with Joseph Smith officiating, and died in 1877. At Nauvoo he was a major general in the Nauvoo Legion, a member of Fourth Ward, and a member of the city council. He was involved in the dissidents’ Reformed Mormon Church, is traditionally assigned the authorship of two poems by “Buckeye” revealing quite accurate information about Joseph Smith’s polygamous activities, was excommunicated on the same day as William and Jane (like them without being informed that the trial was being held), and helped publish the Expositor. A warrant was issued for his arrest after the murders of Joseph and Hyrum Smith but not pursued. With Francis and Chauncey Higbee, William Law, and Robert and Charles Foster, he brought a civil damages action for the destruction of the Expositor press against Edward Hunter, Orson Spencer, John Greene, and Stephen Markham, but it was dismissed for want of prosecution. In 1850 he was living at Delaware, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. He died in 1877. HC 6:31; Black, Membership; Oaks and Hill, 80; Jessee 2:565; Flanders, 143-44; Hallwas and Launius, 132-34

[p.836]Lawrence, Margaret, is the “Sister Lawrence” whom Lucy visited near Lima, Illinois, in 1839. Margaret was born in Toronto ca. 1801. She married Edward Lawrence, a prosperous farmer, ca. 1822 and they settled at Pickering Township (near Toronto), Ontario, Canada, where six of their seven children were born: Maria (18 December 1823), James (ca. 1824), Sarah (13 May 1826), Nelson (not known), Henry (ca. 1835), Julia Ann (ca. 1837), and Margaret E. (ca. 1840). They first heard the gospel in the spring of 1836 from Parley P. Pratt but were reportedly converted when Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Thomas B. Marsh, and John Taylor arrived in August 1837. The family formed the nucleus of a little branch. They moved toward Missouri in 1838 but, probably because of the Mormon War there, stopped at Lima, Illinois, halfway between Quincy and the future site of Nauvoo. Edward died about March 1840; either late that year or early the next, the family moved to Nauvoo. A male guardian was legally required to safeguard the children’s considerable inheritance; Joseph Smith was appointed to that position in June 1841, with William Law and Hyrum Smith as bondsmen. Late in 1841 or in 1842, Margaret married widower Josiah Butterfield, a convert during the Kirtland period, who was a president of the first Quorum of the Seventy (1837) and a high councilor. She bore him two sons: Don Carlos and Edward. Apparently Joseph Smith did not account satisfactorily for the estate and did not transfer the guardianship back to Margaret and Josiah, creating considerable hostility between the two men. Margaret was sealed to Edward for eternity on 21 November 1843 with William Clayton (not Butterfield) as proxy and Hyrum Smith as officiator. Josiah was sent on a mission to Maine in April 1844, excommunicated for unknown reasons in October, but rebaptized within the year. Margaret and Josiah were endowed on 20 January 1846. They separated in 1850, and Margaret brought her children to Utah that summer. She died before 1853.

Margaret’s two elder daughters, Maria and Sarah, who were living with Joseph and Emma, became Joseph’s plural wives in the late spring of 1843, with Emma’s reluctant permission. After Joseph’s death, Maria was endowed on 7 January 1846, sealed to Joseph (Almon Babbitt stood as proxy), and apparently married Brigham Young for time (Benjamin F. Johnson says not). Maria died giving birth to Babbitt’s child in 1847 at Nauvoo. Sarah was endowed 6 January 1846 in the Nauvoo temple, sealed to Joseph by proxy on 26 January, and sealed for time to Heber C. Kimball. She divorced him on 18 June 1851, and married Joseph Mount, a widower, in 1853. Compton, 473-85.

Lawrence, Samuel T./F. This Palmyra neighbor hosted Willard Chase and the “conjurer” (possibly Luman Walter/Walters) during the time of intense curiosity about the gold plates during 1829. Quinn identifies two Samuel Lawrences. The first, born between 1775 and 1784 at Andover, Windsor County, Vermont, was both a contemporary of Joseph Smith Sr. and affiliated with him in folk magic and in affiliation with Nathaniel Wood of the “Wood Scrape” at Middletown, Vermont, in the 1790s. A second Samuel Lawrence (Joseph Jr.’s associate in Palmyra) was born between 1780 and 1790. According to Lorenzo Saunders, Lawrence had been involved with the Smiths in various money-digging adventures and had, at Joseph Jr.’s request, first introduced him to Emma Hale. According to Willard Chase, Joseph first showed Lawrence the location [p.837]where the plates had been deposited. Joseph Capron made an affidavit on 8 November 1833 describing a money-digging scene in which Lawrence “with a drawn sword in his hand marched around to guard [against] any assault which his Satanic majesty might be disposed to make.” On 17 April 1833, “Samuel T. Lawrence” was indicted in Wayne County for “fraudulent secreting property” but may have left the area before a trial. Rodger Anderson, 47, 58, 118; Quinn, Early, 123-24; Vogel 1:331-32; see also Quinn, Early, 122-33, for pre-1830 occult and genealogical linkages among early Mormon families.

Lightner, Adam, was born 14 April 1810 at Liberty, Clay County, Missouri, to Adam Lightner [Sr.] and Mary Trout Lightner. A store owner at Far West, he married Mary Elizabeth Rollins on 11 August 1835 at Liberty. She was born 9 April 1818 at Lima, Livingston County, New York, the third child of John Porter Rollins and Keziah Keturah Van Benthuysen Rollins. (Keziah was the sister of Algernon Sidney Gilbert’s wife Elizabeth.) Mary Elizabeth was baptized with most of her family in November 1830 by Parley P. Pratt, and moved to Missouri with her extended family in the fall of 1831.

Adam and Mary Elizabeth married on 11 August 1835 and had seven children: Miles Henry (born at Far West, Caldwell County, Missouri), Caroline Keziah (18 October 1840 at Half Breed Tract, Caldwell County), George Algerman (22 March 1842 at Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois), Florentine M. (3 May 1843 at Pontoosuc, Hancock County), John Horace G. (9 February 1847 at Galena, Daviess County, Illinois), Elizabeth (3 April 1849 at Hudson, St. Croix County, Wisconsin), and Mary Rollins (9 April 1851 at Willow River, Waushara County, Wisconsin). They refused to accept General John Clark’s safe passage out of Far West, but, after the arrests, went to Louisville, Kentucky, for six months. They moved to Nauvoo when the Mormons began to build the city but experienced many financial difficulties. In response to a revelation, Mary Elizabeth was sealed polyandrously to Joseph Smith in late February 1842 and to Brigham Young in May 1845. Adam did not join the LDS church, and the family was too poor to go west until 1863. They settled in Minersville where Adam died, still unbaptized, on 19 August 1887. He was baptized by proxy 14 April 1891 and endowed the next day. Six of Mary Elizabeth’s children died before her own decease on 17 December 1913. Compton, 205-27; Black, Membership.

Lucas, Samuel D., was a Presbyterian deacon and brigadier general in the Missouri state militia. He had moved to Jackson County by 1826, participated in the Mormon expulsion (1833), and brought Jackson County militia to the Mormon engagement at Far West (1838). He and Doniphan were both technically under the command of General John B. Clark during the siege of Far West; however, Lucas acted before Clark arrived in taking prisoner Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Parley P. Pratt, George W. Robinson, and Amasa Lyman, presiding over an illegal court-martial (it had no jurisdiction over civilians), and ordering Doniphan to execute the prisoners the next morning. His behavior seems to have been wildly inconsistent. When Doniphan refused, Lucas took no action to carry out the execution himself. He obeyed Clark when ordered to take the prisoners to Jackson County, then hustled them [p.838]across the county line when Clark sent a message to return them, giving the Smith brothers to understand that he was protecting them. In a letter to Boggs ten days later, Lucas denied holding the court-martial. He exhibited the prisoners throughout Independence but also let them walk freely about the streets and lodged them at a good hotel. He enforced the winter 1838-39 exodus from Missouri. Cannon and Cook, 275; Launius, Alexander, 58, 62-65; LeSueur, 186.

Lumoreaux. See Lamoreaux, Andrew.

Lyman, Amasa Mason, was born 30 March 1813 at Lyman, Grafton County, New Hampshire, to Roswell/Boswell and Martha Lyman, was baptized in 1831, and was ordained a high priest in 1833. He participated in Zion’s Camp, moved to and was expelled from Missouri in 1838, and was ordained an apostle in 1842.

He married Maria Louisa Tanner on 10 June 1835 at Kirtland who bore eight children: Matilda (14 November 1836 at Kirtland), Francis Marion (12 January 1840 at Goodhope, Hancock County, Illinois), Ruth Adelia (1 August 1843 at Shokokon, Hancock County), Amasa Mason Jr. (22 February 1846 at Nauvoo), Maria Louisa (8 May 1849 at Little Cottonwood, Salt Lake County, Utah), and, at San Bernardino, California, Lelia Deseret (21 January 1852), Love Josephine (25 April 1854), and Agnew/Agnes Hila (5 December 1857). Amasa also married Caroline Ely Partridge on 6 September 1844 at Nauvoo. Their first three children were born at Salt Lake City, their last two at Fillmore, Millard County, Utah: Martha Lydia (1 April 1853), Fredrick Rich (12 October 1856), Annie (2 July 1860), Walter Clisbee (1 October 1863), and Harriet Jane (17 August 1866). Amasa and his third wife, Eliza Maria Partridge, married 28 September 1845/1844 at Nauvoo, had five children: Don Carlos (14 July 1846 at Florence, Missouri), Platte DeAlton (20 August 1848 at Goshen, Wyoming), and, at Salt Lake City, Carlie Eliza (1 August 1851), Joseph Alvin (13 December 1856), and Lucy Zina (26 August 1860). He apparently married a total of nine times, but names and dates have not been recorded for the wives. The eighth marriage apparently occurred on 14 November 1844 at Nauvoo (children: Lorenzo Snow born 6 November 1851 and Henry Elias born 4 July 1854). He was excommunicated in 1870 for doctrinal unorthodoxy and died in 1877 at Fillmore. Cannon and Cook, 275; Black, Membership.

Lyman, George, of Huntsville, Missouri, was the nephew of John Smith’s wife, Clarissa, and the cousin of George A. Smith. He was born in 1825 at Colton, St. Lawrence County, New York, to Asa Lyman (Clarissa’s brother) and Sarah R. Davis Lyman. He is listed among Nauvoo members and was living in Quincy in 1840. He married Rhoda Gifford in 1847 and they had a daughter, Sarah Elizabeth (13 January 1848), before his death in 1848. Vogel 1:570-71; Black, Membership.

Mack, Solomon, Lucy’s father, was born 15 September 1732, according to the vital records of Lyme, Connecticut, not 26 September 1735, as he himself states. He was the son of Ebenezer Mack (1697-1777) and Hannah Huntley Mack (1708-96). He had [p.839]at least two brothers, Elisha and Samuel, with whom he constructed dams across the Connecticut River about 1790. He and Elisha also collaborated on a grist and sawmill at Gilsum, New Hampshire. During the French and Indian War, he enlisted, first, under Captain James Harris, from 10 September to 24 November 1755, then reenlisted the same day at Fort Edward under Captain Israel Putnam, serving until 29 May 1756. He served in Major Joseph Spencer’s company from 5 June to 18 November 1858.

Solomon married Lydia Gates, born 3 September 1732 at East Haddam (now Millington), Connecticut. She was the daughter of Daniel (not Nathan) Gates (5 February 1706-5 October 1775) and Lydia Fuller Gates (1709-78). Nathan Gates was a son, Lydia’s brother. Daniel Gates was a deacon and a selectman in the First Congregational Church of East Haddam. Lydia was baptized in this church on 29 October 1732 and remained a communicant as an adult.

Solomon and Lydia moved to Marlow, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, where they remained until 1773. They then moved to Gilsum, New Hampshire, to Montague, Massachusetts (ca. 1779-83), then to Tunbridge, Vermont. In 1804 they had a farm near the line between the towns of Sharon and Royalton that Solomon rented to his son-in-law Joseph Smith Sr.; here Joseph Jr. was born in 1805. By March 1807, Solomon and Lydia were again living on this farm and stayed there until the spring of 1811. Afflicted with ill health and guided by Lydia’s faith, Solomon began studying the Bible during the winter of 1810-11, had a number of spiritual manifestations that convinced him of the love of Jesus, and, although crippled, devoted the remainder of his life to religious activities. He wrote his autobiography, sold his remaining interest in the farm in May 1811, and began traveling about by horseback selling his autobiography as a spiritual tract. He and Lydia lived with their son Daniel at Royalton during this period. Lydia died about 1818, and Solomon Sr. made his home with Solomon Jr. at Gilsum, New Hampshire, where he died 23 August 1820.

Solomon and Lydia had eight children:

1. Jason was born about 1760. He had a foster son named William who lived with Lucy and Joseph for half a year. A sketchy note with Lucy’s rough draft mentions a daughter. (See “Miscellaneous Papers.”) Though disappointed in love, Jason was diligent in Christian service and had the gift of healing.

2. Lovisa was born about 1761 and married Joseph Tuttle (1756-1816) at Montague, Massachusetts, on 31 January 1780. They moved to Hadley (1790), South Hadley (1792 and 1794), and Sunderland (1793). They were childless, but Joseph’s oldest son by his second marriage, Joseph II (1796-1884), records that they were married fourteen years before her death. Richard L. Anderson hypothesizes that Lucy confused Lovisa’s marriage (when she was four) with Lydia’s (when she was ten) and thus fails to account for seven of Lovisa’s fourteen years of marriage. Joseph Tuttle Sr. was the son of John Tuttle, a wheelwright, carpenter, stone mason, and veteran of the French and Indian War. He lived in Sunderland, Massachusetts.

3. Lovina was born about 1762, nursed her just-older sister Lovisa during the early stages of consumption, which lasted approximately two years (ca. 1789-91) until her [p.840]miraculous healing, then became ill and died an exemplary death after approximately a three-year illness (1791-94).

4. Lydia was born about 1764. She married Samuel Bill, a prosperous resident of Gilsum, on 26 January 1786, and had six children. Samuel kept a tavern at Gilsum (1803), was town selectman for ten years, and was on the school committee (1805). Lydia died 8 January 1826.

5. Stephen was born 15 June 1766 and died in 1826. He married Temperance Bond, born in 1771 at Gilsum, Cheshire County, New Hampshire. Temperance came to Utah and died in Salt Lake City in 1856. Stephen lived in Gilsum, Vermont, from at least 1789 to 1793, then moved to Tunbridge, Vermont. Land records show him as engaging in a dozen real estate transactions, with another dozen undertaken in conjunction with his partner, John Mudget. According to his obituary, published 14 November 1826, he was known by the military title of colonel, had lived in the Detroit region for “nearly twenty years,” and was elected to the first territorial legislature. Speaking at the dedication of the Detroit, Michigan, temple on 23-24 October 1999, LDS church president Gordon B. Hinckley noted that Stephen “‘surveyed the first road through what became Detroit’”—identified by members as Woodward Avenue, running in front of the temple (actually built in Bloomfield Hills), while Thomas C. Bithell, president of the Bloomfield Hills Michigan Stake, said it “would seem likely” that Joseph Sr., Hyrum, and Joseph Jr. passed the temple site when visiting relatives in the area in 1834. Stephen and Temperance had twelve children including these seven:

a. Mary (“Polly”), was born 4 September 1793 in New Hampshire, married David Dort (q.v.) on 2 June 1813, and first heard the gospel from Lucy Mack Smith, at Pontiac, Michigan.

b. Lovisa married a man named Cooper.

c. “Hariett” married a man named Whittemore.

d. Ruth married a man surnamed Stanley, who may have been related to Horace Stanly, the Pontiac friend of Stephen Mack with whom Lucy corresponded.

e. Fanny married her brother-in-law, David Dort, after the death of her sister Polly.

f. Almira and Almon, twins, were the youngest children, born in 1805 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont. Almira came to Manchester in June 1830, was baptized probably in September 1830 by David Whitmer, and was confirmed by Joseph Jr. Almira married William Scobey of Fayette on 7 August 1831. After his death (4 December 1833) at Pontiac, Michigan, she lived with the Curtis family in Liberty, Clay County, Missouri (Joseph Jr. wrote to her there on 3 December 1835), then married Benjamin Covey at Kirtland in 1836. She reached the Salt Lake Valley in 1848 and died in Salt Lake City in 1886.

6. Daniel was born ca. 1770 at Marlow, Cheshire County, New Hampshire. He lived at Montague, Massachusetts, before his marriage on 27 January 1799 to Sally Ball at Tunbridge, Vermont. In 1810 he was living at Sharon, Windsor County, Vermont. In 1830 he was living at Marlow. Joseph Sr. and John Smith visited him there in 1836. [p.841]His parents lived with him at least some of the time in their advanced years; mother Lydia lived with him for the two years before her death in about 1818. Samuel H. Smith was baptized for him at Nauvoo in 1841.

7. Solomon Jr. was born 28 January 1773 and was a prosperous farmer at Gilsum all his life. He married, first, Esther Hayward (1797), second, Mrs. Huldah Hayward Whipple, and third, on 4 June 1845, Mrs. Betsey Way Alexander. Solomon died 12 October 1851. He was the father of nine children: Calvin (28 November 1797), Orlando (23 September 1799), Chilon (26 July 1802), Solomon III (23 May 1805), Amos (1 May 1807), Dennis (18 October 1809), Merrill (14 September 1812), Esther (2 April 1815), and Rizpah (5 June 1818).

8. Lucy Mack (Smith) was born 8 July 1775 (not 1776 as she states). See Joseph Smith Sr. Anderson, New England, 19-25, 64-70, 162, 178-80, 184-85; HC 2:324; Vogel 1:231, 648; Jessee 2:537, 567; G. Hill, “A Temple.”

Mann. This non-Mormon family kindly took in the Smiths as they left the state of Missouri. Mann had been a county representative to the state House of Representatives.

Markham, Stephen, was born 9 February 1800 at Hartford, Ontario County/Avon, Livingston County, New York, to David Markham and Dinah Merry Markham. He was baptized in July 1837/1838 at Chester, Geauga County, Ohio, by Abel Lamb and led a company of sixty at his expense to Far West. At Nauvoo, he was ordained a high priest on 8 October 1844, was a colonel in the Nauvoo Legion, a member of Third Ward, often Joseph Smith’s private courier, and was endowed 16 December 1845 in the Nauvoo temple. He came to Utah in the 1847 pioneer company and settled at Bear River (1850) and Spanish Fork (1860) where he farmed and worked as a carpenter.

He married Hannah Hogaboon(m) on 6 October 1848 and they had three children: Warren, Whiting, and David. After reaching Utah, she took the three sons and went to California where they lived for the rest of their lives. In Utah he married twice more and fathered fourteen more children. He died 10 March 1878 at Spanish Fork, Utah County, Utah, where he was bishop. Black, Membership.

Marks, William, was born 15 November 1792 at Rutland, Vermont, to Cornwall/Cornell Marks and Sarah Goodrich Marks. He was baptized about 1835 at Portage, Allegany County, New York, ordained a priest (1835) and an elder (3 June 1836), and was endowed at Nauvoo (4 May 1842 and 22 October 1843). He moved to Kirtland (1837) and published the Messenger and Advocate. He also served on the Kirtland high council (3 September 1837), was an “agent” to Bishop Newel K. Whitney, and was president of Kirtland Stake (1838). In Nauvoo the family lived in Fourth Ward. William became president of the stake (1839-44), an alderman (1841), a regent of Nauvoo’s university (1841), an incorporator of the Nauvoo Agricultural and Manufacturing Association, associate justice of the municipal court, a Mason (20 April 1842), and a member of the Council of Fifty (1844). He married Rosannah Robinson on 2 May 1813, and they were the parents of five children: Ephraim (died 7 April 1842), Goodrich, Sophia, William Jr., and Llewellen. After the death of Joseph Smith, he expressed support for Sidney Rigdon and was not sustained as stake president on 7 October 1844. He became a [p.842]counselor to J. J. Strang (1847-50), then briefly joined with Charles A. Thompson in organizing another church (1852-53), affiliated briefly with John E. Page (1855), helped found the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (1859-60), and served as counselor to Joseph Smith III from 1863 until his death on 22 May 1872 at Plano, Kendall County, Illinois. Jessee 2:568; Cannon and Cook, 276; Black, Membership.

Marsh, Thomas Baldwin, one of the original Twelve, was born 1 November 1799/1800 at Acton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, to James Marsh and Mary (“Molly”) Law Marsh. Marsh worked on a farm at Westmoreland, New Hampshire, until 1813, ran away, and held various jobs (farm worker, hotel waiter, groom, grocer) at Albany and New York City and at a Boston type foundry (1822-29). He married Elizabeth Godkin, 1 November 1820. A dissatisfied Methodist, he learned about Mormonism in 1829, met Martin Harris and Oliver Cowdery, received some proof sheets of the Book of Mormon, then being printed, and took them home where his wife also believed them. He was baptized 3 September 1830 at Palmyra, Wayne County, New York, by David Whitmer and ordained an elder that same month by Oliver Cowdery. On 6 June 1831, he was ordained a high priest at Kirtland by Lyman Wight. He served missions to Missouri (1831-32) with Selah Griffin; in New York (July 1832), in Kentucky with Elisha Hurd Groves (May 1835); in Tennessee (September 1836); and in Canada with Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon (July-August 1837).

He led a group of Colesville Saints to Missouri (1832), where he settled successively in Jackson, Lafayette, and Clay counties. In the last, he served on the high council (1834). On 26 April 1835 in Kirtland, he was ordained an apostle by Oliver Cowdery, as president of the Twelve on 22 January 1836, and a high priest on 3 June 1831. He became disillusioned after August 1838 and moved from Far West into Clay County and then to Richmond in Ray County. He was excommunicated at Quincy, Illinois, on 17 March 1839 with George M. Hinckle and others. He was rebaptized 16 July 1857 at Florence, Douglas County, Nebraska, came to Utah that same year, and was teaching school at Spanish Fork during the 1860 census. He was endowed 1 November 1862 in the Endowment House and married the same day to Hannah Adams. He reportedly “accepted the Reorganization [RLDS church] prior to his death” but died impoverished in January 1866 in Ogden, Weber County, Utah. Porter, “The Field,” 80; Jessee 2:568; Black, Membership.

Martin. A “captain” with a non-Mormon Missouri unit in 1838 who guarded Joseph and Hyrum Smith, earning Lucy Mack Smith’s gratitude.

McCleary, Sophronia Smith Stoddard, was the fourth child and first surviving daughter of Joseph and Lucy Smith’s eleven children. Born 17 May 1803 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont, she married Calvin W. Stoddard on 2/30 December 1827 at Palmyra, Wayne County, New York.

Calvin was born 7 September 1801 to Silas and Bathsheba Stoddard. Although Calvin is, by some, reputed to be the carpenter on the Smiths’ new home, and, hence, the man who defrauded them of the farm by misrepresenting them to the land agent, [p.843]John Greenwood, this identification is by no means clear. A “Squire Stoddard” had bought land from the same company (Evertson, q.v.) south of the Smith farm on 2 November 1825. George W. Stoddard was listed as a sixty-two-year-old farmer in the 1850 census of Arcadia, Wayne County. He or another George Stoddard was baptized in 1820 into Palmyra’s First Baptist Church, disfellowshipped in 1823 for swearing, and reinstated in 1825.

Both Calvin and Sophronia were probably baptized Mormon in April or June 1830. Calvin was ordained an elder 25 October 1831 and helped construct the Kirtland temple. His patriarchal blessing by Joseph Smith Sr. on 9 December 1834 mentions that he had been excommunicated, rebaptized, and was at that time excommunicated. Sophronia also received her patriarchal blessing from her father on 8 December 1834 in Kirtland. Joseph Smith linked Calvin with William Smith on 1 January 1836 as being attacked by “the devil” and causing “a division in the family.” The Kirtland Elders’ Quorum minutes record that he made a “confession” on 7 March 1836 and was allowed to retain his license on 29 October 1836 (no details).

Sophronia and Calvin had two daughters:

1. Eunice was born 22 March 1830 at Palmyra and died in infancy.

2. Maria was born 12 April 1832 at Kirtland, was baptized by Joseph Smith Jr. (date not given), was endowed 27 January 1846, and married Barnett Woolley/Woollery on 6 June 1852 at Webster, Hancock County, Illinois. Their only child, Flora, died in giving birth to her first child, who also died.

Calvin died 7 September 1836 at Kirtland. On 11 February 1838, Sophronia married William McCleary/McLeary/M’Lerry, a wagon-maker, at Kirtland. He was born 9 October 1793 at Rupert, Bennington County, Vermont. Joseph Smith Sr. gave him his patriarchal blessing on 2 October 1837 at Kirtland. William was ordained an elder on 26 February 1838, moved to Missouri with the rest of the family in May 1838 and to Illinois in February 1839, was endowed with Sophronia on 23 December 1845 at the Nauvoo temple, and was sealed to Sophronia on 27 January 1846. He was at least once faced with ecclesiastical charges of unbelief. Don Carlos mentions that “McLerry,” Sophronia, and “Clarinda,” whom he does not otherwise identify, were all sick on 25 July 1839. (See Appendix.) William built wagons for the Nauvoo exodus and died shortly afterwards. In 1850 Sophronia and daughter Maria were living with Sophronia’s sister Lucy. When Maria married, Sophronia lived with her. The 1860 census shows Sophronia living near Colchester, Illinois. She was a Presbyterian. She died 28 August 1876, and a relative wrote: “She was ever ready to bear her testimony to the truth of the work, and she fell asleep in Christ without a struggle, with full hope of being raised in the first resurrection.” Ancestral File; Newell and Avery, 19; Johansen, 23; McGavin, 90-91; Cook and Backman, 10, 19, 40; Marquardt and Walters, 121; Nibley, 336; Vogel 1:427-28; Jessee 2:570; Backman, Heavens, 146; JS III, 219; Black, Early RLDS, 5:636-37; Vogel 1:427-28; Black, Membership; Richard Anderson, “I Have,” 44.

McClellin,/M’Lellin/McLellin, William E., was born 18 January 1806 in Smith County, Tennessee, to Charles McLellin (mother’s name not known), in a family of at least four brothers and at least one sister. He taught school, clerked, practiced medi-[p.844]cine, and edited newspapers. He married Cinthia Ann (surname not known) on 30 July 1829 at Charleston, Clark (later Coles) County, Illinois, and, after her death giving birth to their first child, who also did not survive, married Emeline Miller (niece of John and Mary Johnson) on 26 April 1832 at Ravenna, Portage County, Ohio. They had six known children: Charles William (14 April 1834 at Liberty, Missouri); Sarah Emiline (5 January 1836 at Kirtland); James Martin (22 February 1838, probably at Far West); Helen Rebecca (11 February 1843 at Hampton, Illinois); Albert Ugene (2 June 1845 in Scott County, Iowa); and Marcus Nelson (9 February 1848 at Kirtland).

McLellin heard the gospel from Samuel Harrison Smith and Reynolds Cahoon in July 1831 (according to his journal, also from Harvey Whitlock and David Whitmer), was baptized 20 August 1831 at Independence, Jackson County, Missouri, by Hyrum Smith, was ordained an elder 24 August 1831, and was ordained an apostle 15 February 1835 at Kirtland by Oliver Cowdery. He served a series of missions in the early 1830s; among his companions were Parley P. Pratt and Samuel H. Smith. He served on the Clay County high council (called 7 July 1834), was disfellowshipped in the summer of 1835, attended the dedication of the Kirtland temple (1836) but was disappointed in the endowment, began finding fault with Joseph Smith, was reconciled briefly in 1837, was excommunicated for apostasy on 11 May 1838, and took an active part in plundering Joseph Smith’s house in Far West in 1838. He moved his family to Iowa and was associated successively with George Hinkle, Sidney Rigdon, the Strangites, and David Whitmer. After 1850 he did not affiliate with any branch of Mormonism, although he corresponded with Joseph Smith III and the Hedrickites. He died 24 April 1883 at Independence, Jackson County, Missouri. Porter, “Odyssey,” 291-378.

McIntyre/Mackentire/M’Intyre/McIntire, Alexander, the Smith family doctor in Palmyra, “president of the County medical association and a community leader.” At least twice he defended the family against persecution. His wife was the daughter of Dr. Gain Robinson, another community leader, and, according to Vogel, McIntyre’s uncle. Robinson performed the autopsy on Alvin with McIntire assisting. McIntire was a Freemason (Mount Moriah Lodge) and at least once took legal action against Hyrum for a debt. Richard Anderson, “Reliability,” 19; Marquardt and Walters, 119; Vogel 1:22, 301.

M’Clentic [McLintock?], the son of a Campbellite minister who was involved in the tarring and feathering of Joseph Smith on 24-25 March 1832 at Hiram, Ohio.

Messer. Lucy remembers this Quincy family as being very kind to her during her illness in early 1839.

Middleton, Julia Murdock Smith. See Joseph Smith Jr.

Miller, George, was born 25 November 1794 at Stanardville, Orange County, Virginia, to John Miller and Margaret Pfeiffer Miller. He moved to Kentucky, Louisiana, and Virginia before becoming a property owner in McComb Township, McDonough County, Illinois, in 1831 where, a carpenter, he built an eight-room house and owned 300 acres. A Presbyterian, he offered the Smith family land and shelter in early 1839 af-[p.845]ter their exodus from Missouri, then became a Mormon (10 August 1839). At Nauvoo he became a bishop (1840), president of the high priests (1841), a brigadier general in the Nauvoo Legion (1842), regent of the University of Nauvoo, director of the logging project at the pineries in Wisconsin (1842-44), and a member of the Council of Fifty (1844) and of the city council (1845). He resigned from the church in March 1847 over Brigham Young’s leadership, was excommunicated (1848), affiliated with Lyman Wight in Texas and J. J. Strang in Michigan (1847-56), and died in 1856 at Marengo, McHenry County, Illinois. Jessee 2:571; Black, Who’s Who, 195-97.

Millikin, Arthur. See Lucy Smith Millikin.

Millikin, Lucy Smith, the eleventh child and third daughter of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith, was born 18 July 1821 at Palmyra, Ontario County, New York. She received her patriarchal blessing at Kirtland on 9 December 1834 from her father, and married Arthur Millikin (Lucy spells his name “Milikan,” Joseph III “Milliken”) on 4 June 1840 at Nauvoo with Joseph Smith Jr. performing the ceremony. Arthur was born 9 May 1817 at Saco, York County, Maine, to Edward Millikin and Hannah Andrew Millikin. He joined the Mormon church in 1836. As the drummer boy at the Battle of Crooked River, he was shot through both legs above the knee. In Nauvoo he had a harness business on the corner of Parley and Durfee streets and belonged to Nauvoo Fourth Ward. Lucy and Arthur lived briefly in Maine where their first child was born, then returned to Nauvoo. Lucy in 1840 was baptized by proxy for her deceased aunt, Lovina Mack. After the deaths of Joseph and Hyrum, she and Arthur took Mother Lucy and moved to Colchester, McDonough County, Illinois, near Katharine, Sophronia, and (temporarily) William. Arthur worked in the railroad office and in the mining business. The entire family eventually affiliated with the RLDS church.

Arthur and Lucy had four sons and five daughters; Joseph Smith III names seven of them: Florence, Julia, Clara, George, Charles, Sarah, and Don Carlos. Information is available on two:

1. Don Carlos, the oldest son, was born 13 October 1843 at Saco, York County, Maine, and married three wives consecutively: Sophia Gridley, Mary Elvie Durfee (1886), and Emma Smith (September 1900). He lived at Colchester from 1856 to 1873. During the Civil War, he served in Company H of the 15th Illinois Volunteer Infantry, was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic of Hamilton, was baptized RLDS on 21 June 1873 at Colchester by Joseph Smith III, and was a member of Odd Fellows, Monticello Lodge No. 697. Don Carlos died 26 November 1932 at Hamilton County, Illinois.

2. George W. D. was born 4 March 1848 at Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois, moved to Colchester in 1856, was baptized RLDS on 19 December 1889 by A. H. Smith, and attended Pilot Grove Branch. He died 16 January 1913 at Colchester.

Arthur Millikin died of pneumonia/“rheumatism of the brain” on 23 April 1882 at Colchester, McDonough County, Illinois. Lucy died 9 December 1882 of consumption, contracted by nursing Don Carlos’s wife through her final illness of that disease, near Colchester, Illinois. Joseph Smith III characterized Arthur as “my favorite uncle, … [p.846]the soul of honor” while Lucy “was one of the most pleasant-mannered women I have known.” Ancestral File; McGavin, 108-10; JS III, 21, 54; Jessee 2:572; Black, Early RLDS, 4:442-43; Black, Membership; Richard Anderson, “I Have,” 43.

Moredock. This individual was apparently Constant Murdock, elected a grand juror in Norwich, Vermont, in March 1816. Joseph Smith Sr. rented a farm from him (1813-16) during the three years of failed crops that sent the family to Palmyra, New York, in 1816.

Morey, George, was born 15 November 1803 at Pittstown, Monroe County, New York, and received his patriarchal blessing on 29 December 1835 at Kirtland from Joseph Smith Sr. He married Sylvia Butterfield. In Missouri he served on the Far West high council (1837-38) and is identified as a militia captain. At Nauvoo he was appointed constable (March 1841) and was ordained a high priest the same year. He disaffiliated from the LDS church and moved, first to Brown County, Illinois, then to Hamilton, Decatur County, Iowa (1852), where he joined the RLDS church and presided over the Hamilton branch. He died there on 15 December 1875. Jessee 2:573; Black, Membership; Black, Early.

Morgan, William, was the sheriff of Daviess County. On 8 August 1838, Mormons visited him and asked him to sign a statement expressing lack of support for mob activity. He was responsible for transporting Joseph and Hyrum Smith and others to Boone County for trial in April 1839 after they had spent the winter of 1838-39 in Liberty Jail. They escaped, through the purposeful drunkenness of the guards. The angry citizens of Gallatin rode Morgan through the town on an iron rod and he died soon afterwards, apparently from injuries. Launius, Alexander, 70-71; LeSueur, 66.

Morin, Judge. According to Hyrum Smith’s affidavit, Morin lived four or five miles from Adam-Ondi-Ahman in 1839.

Morley, Isaac, born 11 March 1786 at Montague, Franklin County, Massachusetts to Thomas E. Morley and Edetha Marsh Morley, reached the rank of captain in the War of 1812. He was baptized 15 November 1830 at Kirtland by Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt, was ordained an elder in October 1830, ordained a high priest on 3 June 1831 by Lyman Wight, was set apart as counselor to Bishop Edward Partridge (3 June 1831-40), and received his patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. on 4 May 1835. He served missions to Missouri (1831) with Ezra Booth and to the eastern states (1835) with Edward Partridge. He led a colony of Mormons to settle Far West, Missouri, where Joseph Smith Jr. ordained him a patriarch. He moved to Clay County on 11 November 1834 and to Far West in Caldwell County in April 1837, where he continued to serve as a patriarch.

He married Lucy Gunn on 20 June 1812 (died at Winter Quarters). Their seven children were all born at Kirtland: Philena (2 March 1813), Lucy Diantha (4 October 1815), Editha Ann (25 January 1818), Calista (11 May 1820), Cordelia Calista (28 November 1823), Theresa Arathusa (18 July 1826), and Isaac Jr. (2 May 1829). His second wife was Hannah Blakesley/Blaixley Finch, widow of Edwin Parker Merriam Finch [p.847](married in 1844 at Nauvoo). They had three children: Joseph Lamoni (15 July 1845), Simeon Thomas (12 June 1846), and Mary Leonora (26 March 1852). His third wife was Abigail Leonora Snow (married in 1844 at Nauvoo). He was endowed 23 December 1843/11 December 1845 in the Nauvoo temple and was sealed to his first two wives on 14 January 1846. He was Lima Stake president in Illinois (22 October 1840), where he founded the town of Yelrome (e-Morley spelled backwards) and owned a coopering shop.

He reached Utah in 1847 and was called as Salt Lake Stake high councilor (15 February 1849). In October 1849 at age sixty-three, he led a company of 225 to settle Manti, the first settlement in Sanpete County, where he plowed the first furrow, built the first home, and made the first table. By allowing Chief Walker to take his infant son, Simeon Thomas Morley, overnight, he reportedly won the Indians’ trust, ended the Walker War, and baptized Walker. He served in the Utah Territorial Legislature (1851-57) and as a stake patriarch. He died 21 June/July 1864 in Fairview, Utah, and was buried at Manti. Wiggins, 219-21; Black, Membership; Cannon and Cook, 277; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 291-92, 499-500.

Moses, Julian, a fellow missionary whose path crossed that of Don Carlos Smith in October 1838 in Tennessee, was born 11 April 1810 at Norfolk/Canaan, Litchfield County, Connecticut, to Jesse Moses and Esther Brown Moses. He was baptized 1 September 1834 and received his patriarchal blessing in 1835/1836 at Kirtland from Joseph Smith Sr. He married Barbara Neff on 25 March 1845 and Ruth Ridge on 12 February 1857 at Salt Lake City where their four children were born: Julian Neff (29 December 1857), Barbara Matilda (3 December 1859), Sarah Elizabeth (18 March 1863), and Esther Brown (5 August 1875). He served four missions in Tennessee between 11 December 1839 and 6 April 1841. He was ordained a Seventy on 14 March 1846 by Joseph Young, sealed to Ruth on 12 February 1857, and endowed 19 March 1857 at Salt Lake City’s Endowment House. He died in Utah 12 February 1892. Black, Membership.

Mudget, John. Stephen Mack’s partner in the mercantile business had a number of land transactions in Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont, where he is listed in the 1800 census. Porter, “A Study,” 11.

Mulholland, James, was born in 1804 in Ireland and came with his family to Halton County, Ontario, Canada. He married Sarah Scott. They had at least one child, a daughter Sarah, whose marriage to Alexander Mullinder on 25 October 1843 at Nauvoo was performed by John Taylor. Mulholland was a clerk for Joseph Smith (1838-39), was in Missouri, and in Nauvoo was a member of Fourth Ward, subtreasurer, and clerk for land contracts. Jessee 2:574; Black, Membership.

Murdock, John, was born in 1792 at Kortwright, Delaware County, New York, the fourth of seven children born to John Murdock Sr. and Eleanor Riggs Murdock, who died in childbirth when John Jr. was four. Two other children predeceased her. John Sr.’s second wife was harsh to John and his three brothers; from the age of ten he lived [p.848]with an aunt and uncle who saw to his education and religious training. John moved to Orange, Cuyoga County, Ohio. He had been a Dutch Lutheran, Presbyterian Seceder, and Free Baptist before becoming first a Campbellite at Kirtland, then a Mormon. Parley P. Pratt baptized him in November/5 December 1830. Oliver Cowdery ordained him an elder a few days later and he immediately began preaching the Mormon gospel.

He married Julia Clapp (14 December 1823); their children were Orrice Clapp (24 December 1824), John Riggs (13 December 1826), Phebe (10 March 1828), and twins Joseph and Julia (30 April 1831). When his wife died six hours after childbirth, the twins were given to Joseph and Emma Smith, and John married Amoranda Turner on 4 February 1836 (no children; she died of fever in Missouri, 16 August 1837), and Electa Allen on 3 May 1838 at Far West, Caldwell County, Missouri. They had Gideon Allen (1 August 1840 at Lima, Adams County, Illinois), Rachel (1 February 1843 at Nauvoo), and Hyrum Smith (8 January 1844 at Nauvoo). Electa, Rachel, and Hyrum died at Nauvoo. On 13 March 1846, John married Sarah Zufelt Weire, adopted her son George and fathered another, Brigham.

John received his patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. in February 1835; Joseph Smith Jr. ordained him a high priest 6 June 1831. He served as a bishop twice: of Nauvoo Fifth Ward (ordained 21 August 1842) and Salt Lake City Fourteenth Ward (14 February 1849), and was ordained a patriarch in February 1835 (reordained by Heber C. Kimball on 9 April 1854). In Missouri he served on Far West’s high council and settled De Witt (1838) with George M. Hinckle. He was endowed 15 December 1845 in the Nauvoo temple. He served missions in Ohio; to Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri (1831-32 with Parley P. Pratt and Hyrum Smith); to Ohio and Pennsylvania with David W. Patten (1832), to New York (April-December 1833), to Indiana with Orson Pratt (1834), Zion’s Camp (1834), to Maryland (1841), to New York (1844-45), and to Australia with Charles W. Wandell (arrived at Sydney 30 October 1851-2 June 1852).

He moved to Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1846. Two of his sons, Orrice and John R., were in the Mormon Battalion. He reached Salt Lake City on 24 September 1847, served in the territorial House of Representatives, and settled near his sons by his first marriage in Lehi where he farmed and had an unsuccessful plural marriage to Majorie McEwan, a widow who refused to live with him. He died 23/24 December 1871 at Beaver, Beaver County, Utah. Cannon and Cook, 278; Newton, 177-93; Black, Who’s Who, 201-3; Black, Membership.

Murdock, Julia. See Joseph Smith Jr.

Murksley. Lucy identifies him as a Methodist exhorter who visited her at Randolph, Vermont, about 1801-2 when she was recovering from both physical and spiritual malaise. Vogel (1:238) suggests that he may be John Maxley, who appears on Randolph’s 1800 census.

Norton, A. O. Lucy associates him with Augustine Spencer in preferring the charges of treason against Joseph Smith. The History of the Church corroborates “Norton” but does not give his first name; however, a Henry O. Norton (Henry C., according to [p.849]B. H. Roberts) testified before Daniel H. Wells’s court on 17 June 1844 that the destruction of the Expositor press was carried out in an orderly way. Henry O. Norton swore a charge of treason against Hyrum Smith on 24 June, was at Hamilton’s Hotel on the day of the murders, and, according to Willard Richards, was part of the mob at Carthage. HC 6:344, 354-55, 488, 560, 7:85, 146; CHC 2:319-20; Flanders, 138.

Osgood. Lucy commemorates him as a hospitable neighbor during their brief stay at Waterloo, New York, during the winter of 1830-31, before they moved to Kirtland. The 1830 Seneca Falls census lists a Leonard W. Osgood. Porter, “A Study,” 272.

Page, Hiram, was born in 1800 and married Catherine Whitmer on 10 November 1825. She was born 22 April 1807 at Fayette, Seneca County, New York, to Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman Whitmer. They had nine children: John, Elizabeth, Philander, Mary, Peter, Nancy, Hiram, Oliver, and Kate. Hiram was one of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon (1829); he and Catherine were baptized 11 April 1830 at Seneca Lake, Seneca County, New York, by Oliver Cowdery, and Hiram was ordained a teacher on 9 June 1830. They moved to Jackson County (1832), Clay County (1836), Far West (where he owned 120 acres of land), and Ray County. He was severely beaten by a mob in Missouri (see Appendix), but the judge refused to issue a warrant for his assailants. He moved next to Clay County, then to Far West where he left the LDS church after the excommunications of David and John Whitmer (1838). He died on his farm 12 August 1852 near Excelsior Springs, Ray County, Missouri, affirming the truthfulness of the Book of Mormon. Catherine was living at Richmond, Ray County, during the 1880 census. Richard Anderson, Investigating, 126, 127, 129; Vogel 1:99; Cannon and Cook, 279; Black, Who’s Who, 207-10; Black, Membership.

Page, John Edward, was born 25 February 1799 in Trenton, Oneida County, New York, to Ebenezer and Rachel Page and was baptized 18 August 1833 at Brownhelm, Lorain County, Ohio, by Emer Harris. His brother, Ebenezer, born 1807 at Waterville, New York, also joined the Mormon church. (Another brother, Lorin Page, born 12 April 1813 at Waterville, New York. He may not have been baptized but was with John and Ebenezer in Missouri.) John was ordained an elder on 12 September 1833, served two missions in Canada (1836, 1837), baptized nearly 600, was ordained a seventy (1836) at Kirtland, and, on 19 December 1838, was ordained an apostle. A second apostolic ordination occurred on 19 December 1838 at Far West, Caldwell County.

John married Lorain Stevens on 26 December 1833 and fathered two children; his wife and both children died in Missouri as refugees in Far West. His brother Ebenezer was imprisoned and lost property during 1838-39. John relocated near Warsaw, Illinois, and married Mary Judd in January 1839. She is the Sister Page whom Lucy met at Nauvoo. Born at Bastard, Leeds County, Canada, on 26 November 1818, Mary was the oldest of Arza Judd’s and Lucinda Adams Judd’s eight children. She and her family were probably among the converts of John Page, for they emigrated with him from Canada in May 1838 in a wagon train of thirty, arriving at De Witt, Missouri, which was attacked a few days later by a mob. The company took refuge [p.850]with the other exiles in Far West. Mary and John had three sons: John S., Justin, and Jerome.

John was called on, but did not serve, missions to England and Palestine (with Orson Hyde in 1840), although he preached for several months in eastern cities. He was initiated into Masonry on 21 April 1842 and endowed in the Nauvoo temple on 10 December 1845. He supported James Jesse Strang’s claim to head the church, was disfellowshipped on 9 February 1846, and was excommunicated on 26 June 1846. He next affiliated with the Hedrikites, ordaining Granville Hedrick an apostle and “president of the high priesthood” on 17-18 May 1838, and helping the Hedrickites gain possession of the temple lot in Independence. His brother Ebenezer affiliated with the RLDS church. John died 14 October 1867 at Sycamore, Dekalb County, Illinois.

Mary married William Eaton, affiliated with the RLDS church, and was living at Independence in May 1903. Joseph Fielding Smith wrote to her there, attempting to identify the authors of some anonymous hymns. (John had published A Collection of Sacred Hymns for the Use of Latter Day Saints in Pittsburgh in 1841 to which Mary had contributed a number of hymns. She also wrote hymns for what she refers to as “the old edition of the Harp.”) She wrote back crisply, answering his question but declining “to be present even in name in assisting such a work” because of her opposition to polygamy. She also offered testimony in the Temple Lot Case in 1893. William Eaton was born about 1818, was baptized LDS in 1845 by Freeman Nickerson, joined the Hedrickite church, and died of malaria in 1880 in Independence. Mary’s parents and probably some of her siblings followed Brigham Young to Utah. Mary died 6 March 1907. Black, Membership; Cannon and Cook, 279-80; Inez Smith Davis; Mary Page Eaton; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 308; Black, Membership.

Parish/Parrish, Warren, was born in 1803 in New York and was baptized in May 1833 by Brigham Young. A brother-in-law of David Patten, he married Martha H. Raymond on 3 December 1835 in Geauga County, Ohio. He participated in Zion’s Camp (1834), served missions to Tennessee and Kentucky with Wilford Woodruff (1835-36), was ordained a seventy (1835), acted as scribe to Joseph Smith (14 November 1835-37), was treasurer of the Kirtland Safety Society (1836), and then renounced his membership (1837). Parkin refers to an “illicit affair” that Warren Parrish had with a Mrs. Zerah Cole in Kirtland (243). In 1850 he was a clergyman living at Mendon, Monroe County, New York; in 1870 he was insane, living at Emporia, Lyon County, Kansas, where he died in 1887. Cannon and Cook, 280; Jessee 2:577; Black, Membership.

Parks, General. Involved in the Mormon War of 1838-39 in Richmond, Ray County, Missouri.

Partridge, Edward, was born 27 August 1793 at Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, to William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell Partridge. He married Lydia Clisbee on 22 August 1819 at Painesville, Lake, Ohio. They had seven children, all but the youngest born at Painesville, Geauga County: Eliza Maria (20 April 1820), Harriet Pamela (1 January 1822), Emily Dow (28 February 1824), Caroline Ely (8 January 1827), Clisbee (8 August 1829), Lydia (8 May 1830), and Edward Jr. (25 June 1833 at [p.851]Independence, Jackson County, Missouri). A hatter, Edward had been a Unitarian and a Campbellite when Joseph Smith Jr. baptized him at Fayette, Seneca County, New York, on 11 December 1830. He was ordained an elder 15 December 1830 and a high priest on 3 June 1831. He received a patriarchal blessing on 4 May 1835. In Missouri he managed the United Firm, dedicated the office of the Evening and Morning Star (29 May 1832), was tarred and feathered (20 July 1833), and was arrested for treason (1838). He was sealed to Lydia on 14 January 1846 at the Nauvoo temple. Ordained to the office that later became Presiding Bishop, he also served as a bishop in Nauvoo (5 October 1839). He died 27 May 1840 at Nauvoo. Cannon and Cook, 280; Black, Membership.

Patten, David W., was born 14 November 1799 at Theresa, Jefferson County, New York, to Benoni Patten and Edith/Abigail Cole Patten. He was baptized (1832), ordained an elder (17 June 1832), and had served three missions by 1833. He married Phoebe Ann Babcock (1828) at Dundee, Monroe County, Michigan. He went to Missouri at Joseph Smith’s request, served another mission to the Southern States, and was ordained an apostle on 15 February 1835. He exercised the gift of healing. Warren Parrish was his brother-in-law. He was fatally wounded at the battle of Crooked River in Ray County and died 25 October 1838. Cannon and Cook, 280-81; Black, Membership; Black, Who’s Who, 217-20.

Peterson, Richard Ziba. Details about his birth and parents are not known. Oliver Cowdery baptized him at Seneca Lake, New York, 18 April 1830. By June he was ordained an elder and called to preach to the Lamanites in October 1830 with Oliver Cowdery, Peter Whitmer Jr., and Parley P. Pratt. En route they preached with great success in Ohio. He was officially reprimanded but reconciled in July 1831. On 11 August 1831 he married Rebecca Hopper of Lone Jack, Jackson County, Missouri, and they became the parents of at least eight children. He was ordained an elder on 2 October 1832 but resigned in May 1833. In 1848 the Peterson family moved to California where Peterson was elected sheriff at Dry Diggins (now Placerville, Eldorado County), and died in early 1849 of unknown causes. Rebecca raised her children in Napa Valley where she died in 1896. Vogel 1:100; Garrett; Cannon and Cook, 281.

Phelps, William Wine, was born 17 February 1792 at Dover/Hanover, Morris County, New Jersey, to Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith Phelps. He purchased a Book of Mormon from Parley P. Pratt on 9 April 1830, sat up all night reading it, moved to Kirtland, where he was baptized (June 1831), was ordained an elder by Joseph Smith, and accompanied him to Missouri where, as printer for the Mormon church, he published the Book of Commandments and the Evening and the Morning Star. After a mob destroyed his house and press (July 1833), he returned to Kirtland where he helped print the first LDS hymnal and the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants, acted as a scribe for Joseph Smith, and wrote “The Spirit of God Like a Fire Is Burning” for the dedication of the Kirtland temple. As a member of the presidency of the church in Missouri 1834-38, he purchased the northern half of the Far West site while John Whitmer purchased the southern half. In April 1837, the high council investigated and rebuked [p.852]them. Phelps was excommunicated on 10 March 1838, was reconciled by July 1840, moved to Nauvoo where he assisted Joseph Smith with clerical duties, became a member of the Council of Fifty (March 1844), and was endowed (9 December 1843).

He married Sally Waterman on 28 April 1815 and fathered ten children. In Nauvoo he was sealed to Laura Stowel and Elizabeth Dunn, both on 2 February 1846. He left Nauvoo in 1846, was excommunicated on 9 December 1847 and rebaptized two days later. He reached Salt Lake City in 1849, served in the legislature (1841-57), as speaker of the house (1851), on the university board of regents, in the constitutional convention, and as a lawyer, surveyor-general, chief engineer, and ordinance worker in the Endowment House. He died 6 March 1872 at Salt Lake City. Cannon and Cook, 282; Black, Who’s Who, 223-26; Cook, Revelations, 87-88.

Pierce, Willard, kept a tavern on the route that Lucy traveled with her children between Norwich, Vermont, and Palmyra, New York, ca. 1816. Here Lucy said goodbye to her mother, Lydia Gates Mack. It is possible (though not certain) that Pierce’s tavern was at or near Royalton, the town in which Lucy’s brother Daniel resided, since Lydia went to stay with him. Two men named Pierce appear on the 1800 and 1810 Royalton censuses, in 1820, only one, and none in 1830.

Pitkin. On 2 April 1832, a member by this name escorted, presumably from Nauvoo, Newel K. Whitney, Jesse Gause, and Joseph Smith to Warren (just south of Warsaw, Hancock County, Illinois) where they met Sidney Rigdon and continued on to Missouri. An extended Pitkin family lived in Nauvoo Third Ward. Two men were of an appropriate age to escort the Smith party: (1) George W. Pitkin, whom George Q. Cannon (137) identifies as this individual, was born 17 May 1801 at Hartford, Windsor County, Vermont, to Paul Pitkin and Abigail Lathrop Pitkin. On 8 February 1829, he married Amanda Eglestone, born 11 February 1805 at Torrington, Litchfield, Connecticut, the daughter of Curtis Eglestone and Amarilla Fowler Eglestone. They were the parents of seven children. Joseph Smith Jr. baptized George in May 1831. Sisters Abigail and Laura also joined the LDS church and became plural wives of Heber C. Kimball. (2) Chauncey Warriner Pitkin, born 1812 at Holland, Erie County, New York, died 1868. There is not enough information to determine whether he was at Nauvoo. An Orrin Pitkin lived at Hiram, Ohio, in 1814, but his relation to George’s family is not known. Platt, “1843,” 46; Black, Who’s Who, 257; Black, Membership.

Pope, Nathaniel, was justice of the U.S. Circuit Court at Springfield, Illinois, in 1843 and rendered a verdict of not guilty when Joseph Smith was accused of being an accessory to the attempted assassination of Lilburn Boggs.

Porter. A tavern keeper by this name at Greenville, Indiana, close to the Kentucky state line, became the involuntary host of Joseph Smith and Newel K. Whitney when Newel broke his leg in a carriage accident. Lucy reports that Porter tried to poison them.

Powell, James, a non-Mormon married to a Mormon woman in Carroll County “was clubbed senseless” when a Missourian mob “tried to take possession of his property and [p.853]home.” They fractured his skull, and a doctor later removed fourteen fragments of bone from his skull and exposed brain. LeSueur, 180.

Pratt, Orson, was born 19 September 1811 at Hartford, Washington County, New York, to Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson Pratt. His brother Parley baptized him on 19 September 1831 at Canaan, Columbia County, New York. They traveled to Fayette, New York, where he met Joseph Smith (October 1830) who ordained him an elder (1 December 1830). Sidney Rigdon ordained him a high priest on 2 February 1832. He was ordained an apostle 26 April 1835, became a charter member of the Kirtland Safety Society (1837), presided over the LDS church in New York City, moved to Missouri in 1838-39, and to Nauvoo (1841). There he taught at the University of Nauvoo, was disciplined for his opposition to polygamy (20 August 1842), was rebaptized and reordained (20 January 1843), served on the city council, was endowed (23 December 1843), and became a member of the Council of Fifty (11 March 1844). He was the first man to enter the Salt Lake Valley in July 1847. He wrote many pamphlets, ably defended the church, edited the Millennial Star, served as speaker of the house of Utah’s Territorial Legislature, and prepared the 1876 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants and the 1878 edition of the Pearl of Great Price. He served many missions: to New York, Ohio, “the Eastern States” generally, on Zion’s Camp, to Upper Canada, to Great Britain, and to Washington, D.C. Among his companions were Lyman Wight, Parley P. Pratt, Lyman E. Johnson, Newel Knight, Hyrum Smith, William Snow, and William Pratt.

He married Sarah Marinda Bates on 4 July 1836 and fathered twelve children. He was later sealed to seven additional wives and fathered twenty-five more children. He died at Salt Lake City on 3 October 1881. Cook, Revelations, 49-51

Pratt, Parley P., was born 12 April 1807 at Burlington, Otsego County, New York, the older brother of Orson Pratt. He was converted by the Book of Mormon, baptized and ordained an elder September 1830 by Oliver Cowdery, and went on a mission to the Indians in Missouri with companions Oliver Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, and Ziba Peterson, planting a vigorous branch of the Mormon church in Ohio en route (1830-31). He served many missions: to the Shakers, throughout the eastern states, New York, on Zion’s Camp, Pennsylvania, New England, Toronto, Great Britain, New York City, the Pacific Islands, South America, and California.

He married Thankful Halsey on 9 September 1827 and they had one child: Parley Parker Jr. Parley Sr. married eleven additional wives and fathered twenty-seven more children.

He was ordained a high priest on 3 June 1831, had administrative positions in Missouri, was “appointed to receive endowment” at Kirtland on 23 June 1834 and at Nauvoo on 2 December 1843, became a member of the Council of Fifty on 11 March 1844, served on the Clay County high council (1834), was ordained an apostle (21 February 1835), was arrested at the fall of Far West and incarcerated but escaped, edited the Millennial Star and The Prophet, and wrote the highly influential missionary tract Voice of Warning (1837) and his autobiography. In Utah he was on the constitutional commit-[p.854]tee (1849) and led an exploration expedition to southern Utah. He was murdered by the husband of his last plural wife on 13 May 1857 at Van Buren, Crawford County, Arkansas. Cook, Revelations, 45-47.

Price, Sterling, led a delegation of Missourians from Chariton County to Far West to complain about Mormon misbehavior in September 1838, was pacified by Doniphan, and coauthored a pamphlet defending the Mormons, specifically denying that they were abolitionists. He was a colonel in the Missouri militia who guarded Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, and the other prisoners from Far West during their transport from Jackson County to Richmond and oversaw the guards during the grand jury trial before Judge Austin A. King in November 1838. Boggs named him in December 1838 as head of a company to “protect” the Saints of Caldwell County. He headed the Second Volunteers during the Mexican War, 1846-47, relieving Doniphan’s First Missouri Mounted Volunteers in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Named a major general in the Missouri State Guard after the attack on Fort Sumpter, he negotiated an agreement with U.S. general Stephen Watts Kearney to keep order in the state if Kearney would confine federal troops to St. Louis. A pro-secessionist, he accepted a command as a Confederate general in February 1862 and later served as governor of Missouri. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 734; Launius, Alexander, 51, 134, 200, 252-53, 255; LeSueur, 82, 84, 233.

Putnam, Israel, was born in 1718 at Old Salem (now Danvers), Massachusetts, fought in the French and Indian Wars as a second lieutenant, but rose to lieutenant colonel. He was captured by the Indians but escaped death thanks to the daring rescue that Solomon Mack mentions. In 1762 he led an unsuccessful expedition of Connecticut troops against the French in the West Indies. He opposed the British government, became a leader in the Sons of Liberty, chaired the Committee of Correspondence at Brooklyn, Connecticut, rushed to Cambridge to join the American forces at the Battle of Lexington, and fought in the battle of Bunker Hill. He became a major general in the Continental Army and died in 1790. Rossiter, 806.

Reed/Reid, John S., was Joseph Smith’s attorney on 1 July 1830 when Joseph was brought before Justice Joseph Chamberlain in South Bainbridge, New York, and again at Colesville on charges of tricking Josiah Stoal out of money and also misbehaving with Stoal’s daughters. (Both Josiah and his daughters testified on Joseph’s behalf, denying any wrongdoing on his part.) Joseph Knight hired Reid and James Davidson, both of whom are described as Knight’s neighbors and farmers who were familiar with law, though not lawyers. Reid later recalled these trials in Nauvoo on 17 May 1844 in a speech published in the Times and Seasons. The speech was the last of seven made at a delegates’ convention to nominate Joseph Smith for the U.S. presidency. Reid, a non-Mormon, represented New York as a delegate. HC 1:89, 93-96, 389; Marquardt and Walters, 190.

Rees, Amos, was one of four attorneys the Mormons hired (with Alexander William Doniphan, David R. Atchison, and William T. Wood) after they were expelled from [p.855]Jackson County in 1833. Doniphan probably shared Rees’s law office when he first moved to Liberty in 1833. He was one of two messengers sent from Richmond to inform Governor Boggs of tensions in Daviess County. With Doniphan, he defended Joseph Smith and the other prisoners taken at Far West in the preliminary hearing held before Judge Austin A. King in Richmond in November 1838. Launius, Alexander, 12, 15, 66-71; LeSueur, 150.

Reynolds, J. H., was the sheriff of Jackson County. He investigated the attempted assassination of Lilburn Boggs on 6 May 1842 and finally arrested Porter Rockwell for the crime at St. Louis on 4 March 1843. Launius, Alexander, 79-80.

Reynolds, Thomas C., was born 12 March 1796 in Mason County, Kentucky, where he was admitted to the bar in 1817, then moved to Illinois where he served as clerk of the State House of Representatives, as Attorney General, as Speaker of the House, as Chief Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court, and as judge of a circuit court. He moved to Missouri about 1829, represented Howard County in the state General Assembly, was speaker of the house, and was nominated by Governor Boggs as judge of the Second Judicial District in 1837. A Democrat, he defeated John B. Clark in a contest for governor of the state (1840-44). As chief executive, he organized fifteen counties, opened a university, and issued the first Thanksgiving Day proclamation for the state. He committed suicide on 9 February 1844, reportedly because of depression over ill health. Biographical Dictionary, 841-42.

Rich, Charles Coulson, was born 21 August 1809 in Campbell County, Kentucky, taught school and was a cooper, read the Book of Mormon after meeting Hosea Stout, was baptized by George M. Hinckle on 1 April 1832, was ordained an elder on 16 May 1832 by Zebedee Coltrin and Solomon Wixom, went to Kirtland to meet Joseph Smith, and participated in Zion’s Camp. He married Sarah DeArmon Pea in 1838 and five other women by whom he fathered fifty-one children. He bought 170 acres in Caldwell County and, while carrying a flag of truce during the siege of Far West, was fired on by Captain Samuel Bogart, who recognized him as a combatant at Crooked River. In he served on the high council, as a captain in the Nauvoo Legion, on the board of regents for Nauvoo University, on the Council of Fifty, and in the Nauvoo Stake presidency. He became a Master Mason and a city counselor, and was endowed in the Nauvoo temple 18 December 1845. He served missions in Illinois and Michigan in 1843, presided over the branch in Mount Pisgah, Iowa, crossed the plains as captain of a company (1847), was ordained an apostle (1849), and helped colonize San Bernardino, California; Cache County, Utah; and Bear Lake, Idaho. Cannon and Cook, 284, Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 328; Arrington, Charles, passim; LeSueur, 162; Black, Membership.

Richards, Willard, was born 24 June 1804 at Hopkinton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, to Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe Richards. A religious seeker in his youth, he taught school in Massachusetts and New York, lectured on scientific topics throughout New England, became a Thompsonian botanical doctor, was converted by [p.856]the Book of Mormon, and traveled to Kirtland to investigate the LDS church in October 1836. He was baptized by his cousin Brigham Young on 31 December 1836 and ordained an elder by Alva Beman on 6 March 1837. He served missions to the eastern states (1837) and to Great Britain (1837-41) where he married Jenetta Richards (24 September 1838), served as first counselor in the British Mission presidency to Joseph Fielding, and was ordained an apostle on 14 April 1840, “the first and only apostle ordained outside the United States.” In Nauvoo he served on the city council, was temple recorder, became a Mason (7 April 1842), was endowed (4 May 1842), served on the Council of Fifty, became Joseph Smith’s private secretary and confidential assistant, tried to defend him and Hyrum during the murders at Carthage Jail, and became Brigham Young’s second counselor in 1847. He served in that position until his death in Salt Lake City on 11 March 1854. In addition to Jenetta, he married eight additional wives and fathered eleven children. Black, Who’s Who, 241-43; Cook, Revelations, 233-34.

Rider, Symonds. See Symonds Ryder.

Rigdon, Phebe Brooks. See Sidney Rigdon.

Rigdon, Sidney, was born 19 February 1793 at St. Clair, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, to William Rigdon and Nancy Galliger/Gallaher. (Nancy was baptized in Pittsburgh by her son and Luke Johnson in 1836 and died in Nauvoo). Sidney had three siblings: Carvil, Loami, and Lucy. He married Phebe Brooks of Bridgetown, Cumberland County, New Jersey, on 12 June 1820. They were the parents of eleven children: Athalia, Nancy, Sarah, Eliza, Sidney Algernon, John W., Lucy, Phoebe, Hortencia, Ephraim, and Samuel Carver.

Sidney became a Baptist preacher in 1819, had a church in Pittsburgh (1822-24), moved to Mentor, Ohio, where he led a Baptist congregation, then joined Alexander Campbell in founding the Disciples of Christ. Phebe and Sidney were baptized 8/14 November 1830 by the four Mormon missionaries to the Lamanites: Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt, Ziba Peterson, and Peter Whitmer Jr. He was beaten and concussed in a mob attack against him and Joseph Jr. on the night of 24-25 March 1832 at the John Johnson home in Hiram, Ohio, was ordained a high priest on 3 June 1831, received his patriarchal blessing on 13 September 1835 at Kirtland from Joseph Smith Sr., and served as a counselor in the First Presidency (1832-44). He traveled and worked closely with Joseph Smith, serving missions to Missouri, Ohio, New York, Zion’s Camp, Canada, Washington, D.C., Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. He moved to Far West on 4 April 1838, was incarcerated with Joseph Smith and others in Liberty Jail in the winter of 1838-39, was allowed bail and left by night with Phebe in February 1839. In Nauvoo he was a regent of the university and a member of the Council of Fifty but became alienated from Joseph Smith when the latter asked Sidney’s daughter Nancy to become his plural wife. Sidney was excommunicated 13 August 1843, reconciled temporarily, but broke permanently with the church during the succession crisis of 1844. He established his own church at Pittsburgh, lived an increasingly reclusive life, and died 14 July [p.857]1876 at Friendship, New York. Van Wagoner, Sidney, passim; Cannon and Cook, 294; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 665, 681; Vogel 1:48, 2:415; Black, Membership.

Riley, M., was a Baptist minister in Liberty, Clay County, who argued during the June 1834 trial over the expulsion from Jackson County that the Mormons should also be expelled from Clay County. Launius, Alexander, 22.

Robinson, apparently not a Mormon, was hospitable to Don Carlos Smith and George A. Smith on their missionary journey in the fall of 1838 when they were temporarily stranded at Columbus, Hickman County, Kentucky. They called him “colonel” because of his former service in the army.

Robinson, Gain C., was a doctor and druggist in Palmyra who consulted on Alvin’s case and was the father-in-law (Vogel says also uncle) of Alexander McIntyre, the family’s physician. His day book on 20 November 1823, the day after Alvin’s death, contains the notation that he received $3.00 for “Joseph Smith visit,” suggesting that he helped perform the autopsy. When the Smith farm was jeopardized by misrepresentations to the land agent, Dr. Robinson was able to collect sixty signatures to a statement of their good character in a couple of hours. For the account books of Gain C. Robinson and Cains C. Robinson, 1820-30, see Vogel 3:432-40. Marquardt and Walters, 13; Richard Anderson, “Reliability,” 19; Vogel 1:301.

Robinson, Ebenezer, was born 25 May 1816/1819, at Floyd/Rome, Oneida County, New York, to Nathan Robinson and Mary Brown Robinson. Joseph Smith Jr. baptized him at Kirtland in October 1835. He married Angeline Eliza Works on 18/13 December 1835 at Kirtland where he was Don Carlos Smith’s colleague in printing. Don Carlos (Appendix) mentions on 25 July 1839 that Angeline was ill. After her death, Ebenezer married Martha A. Cunningham. Daughter Grace was born 22 December 1849 at Green Castle, Franklin County, Pennsylvania.

Robinson received his patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. at Kirtland on 31 January 1836, was ordained a seventy on 20 December 1836 at Kirtland by Zebedee Coltrin, and served missions to Ohio and New York with Chillion Daniels (1836). In 1837 he moved to Far West where he served on the high council (December 1838) and as justice of the peace (1839). As an officer in David W. Patten’s company, he participated in the battle of Crooked River, was taken to Richmond as a prisoner, but was released on bail. In Nauvoo he was a member of Third Ward, joined the Freemasons, and edited and published the Times and Seasons. He did not join the Nauvoo Legion, feeling that it was inappropriate for a church to sponsor a militia unit, and was troubled by the doctrine of polygamy. He joined the RLDS church at Hamilton Township, Decatur County, Iowa, on 28 April 1863, then joined David Whitmer’s church in 1888. He died 11 March 1891 at Davis City, Decatur County, Iowa. Cannon and Cook, 285; Black, Membership.

Robinson, George W., was born 14 May 1814 at Pawlet, Rutland County, Vermont, to Ephraim Robinson and Mary Upham Robinson. He married Athalia Rigdon, the eldest daughter of Sidney and Phebe Rigdon, on 13 April 1837. He was ordained a sev-[p.858]enty on 20 December 1836 at Kirtland by Zebedee Coltrin, received a patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr., served as Joseph Smith’s clerk and as general church recorder (6 April 1836-October 1840), moved to Far West, Missouri, on 28 March 1838, helped Joseph Smith organize Adam-ondi-Ahman Stake (June 1838), and served on its high council and with the Danites. On 31 October 1838, he was arrested with Joseph Smith and others, tried before Austin A. King at Richmond in November 1838, was acquitted, and moved to Quincy, Illinois, in 1838-39. At Nauvoo he was a member of First Ward, the city’s postmaster (April 1840), and one of the original incorporators of the Nauvoo Agricultural and Manufacturing Association (1841). He became disaffected, was “denounced” by Joseph Smith on 29 August 1842 and left Nauvoo (1843). In 1846 he was living on a farm near Cuba, Allegany County, New York, then moved to nearby Friendship, where Sidney Rigdon died in his home on 14 July 1876; Robinson followed in 1878. Black, Membership; Cannon and Cook, 158-59; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 649; LeSueur, 64.

Rockwell, Orrin Porter, was born 25 January 1815 (also 25 June 1815, 28 June 1814, 28 January 1813) in New York or Belchertown, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, to Orrin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. He married, first, a woman named Alvira M. (surname and date unknown), then, second, Luana Hart Beebe on 2 February 1832 in Jackson County, Missouri. Luana was born 3 October 1814 at Madison, New York, to Isaac and Olive Beebe. She received her patriarchal blessing on 22 January 1843 and was endowed 2 January 1846 (three days before Porter) in the Nauvoo temple. Joseph Smith III comments that, at Galland’s Grove, Iowa, Wheeler Baldwin told him in the spring of 1862 that he (Baldwin) had married Rockwell’s “forsaken wife,” but does not name her. Porter’s third wife was Mary Ann Neff, born August 5, 1829/31, at Strasburgh, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, to John Neff II and Mary Barr Neff. She and Porter were married 3 May 1854 and sealed in the Endowment House 5 March 1857/1858. She died 28 September 1866. Another wife, Sarah Jane Mantle, is also listed with a marriage date of 16 February 1867 at the Endowment House, Salt Lake City, and seven children.

Porter was a teenager (fifteen to seventeen, depending on which birthdate is accurate) when he was baptized with his mother on 9 June 1830 at Fayette, Seneca County, New York. He and his mother traveled from Palmyra to Kirtland in Lucy Mack Smith’s company in 1831, and Lucy records that he set off in Buffalo to visit his maternal uncle, disregarding his mother’s pleas to stay on the boat and her own warning that the boat would not wait for him. He moved to Missouri in 1831. In July 1833 he and his father were running a ferry on the Big Blue River in Jackson County. He was ordained a deacon (1838) at Far West, and later (no date) a high priest. At Nauvoo he was a member of Fourth Ward, guarded Joseph Smith, was endowed 5 January 1846 in the Nauvoo temple, accompanied Joseph Smith and others to Washington, D.C., and was charged with assault and an attempt to kill Lilburn Boggs, governor of Missouri, in 1842, when the owner of a hardware store in Independence remembered that he had been in the store shortly before the gun used in the assault was stolen. Rockwell had come to Independence in February 1842 so that Luana, pregnant with their fourth child, could visit [p.859]her family. He was captured in St. Louis in March 1843, tried for attempted jailbreak but not the murder in December 1843, and defended by Doniphan, was ordered to serve “five minutes” jail time, after which Doniphan advised him to leave the state at once. He reached Nauvoo on Christmas Day 1843 where his arrival disrupted Joseph Smith’s Christmas party. Porter accompanied Brigham Young to Utah in 1847 where he was a rancher, an Indian fighter, a messenger, reportedly a Danite in Brigham Young’s private service, and a guerilla fighter during the Utah War of 1857-58 in the Echo Canyon campaign. In 1849 Porter Rockwell went to California, “opened the Round Tent Saloon at Murderer’s Bar and hauled in whiskey from Sacramento.” He also operated an inn at Buckeye Flat, and under the assumed name of James B. Brown kept a Halfway House on the road to Placerville. In 1850 he returned to Utah and died 9 June 1878 at Salt Lake City. Schindler, 192-98; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 526-28; Launius, Alexander, 81-82; JS III, 95; Cannon and Cook, 285.

Rockwell, Sarah Witt, Orrin Porter Rockwell’s mother, was born 17/9 September 1785, at Belchertown, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, to Ivory Witt and Abigail Montague Witt.

She married Orrin Rockwell in 1809. She had at least two sons and three daughters:

1. Caroline was born in 1812 at Belchertown, Massachusetts, was baptized by David Whitmer at Fayette, New York, married Horton Smith (1811-65) of Hambden, Geauga County, Ohio, in 1834, and had six children. She died at Hambden in 1887.

2. Electa was born in 1814 at Belchertown, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, married Samuel M. Ouseley in Clay County, Missouri, in 1837, moved with him to California in 1852, and settled in 1853 in Gilroy, Santa Clara County, where she died in 1900.

3. Orrin Porter Rockwell (q.v.) was born in 1815.

4. Emily married Christopher Stafford.

The family moved to Manchester, New York, after 1813. Sarah Witt Rockwell, Porter, Caroline, and Electa were baptized 9 June 1830 and moved to Kirtland in the company led by Lucy Mack Smith where father Orrin was baptized. The family was driven out of Jackson County in 1833 and out of Caldwell County in 1838. Orrin Rockwell died 22 September 1839. Sarah was endowed the same day as Porter—5 January 1846 in the Nauvoo temple. She died some time after January 1846. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 529-30; Quinn, Early, 404n261, 452n229; Vogel 1:97, 109, 2:199-200; Black, Membership.

Rogers, Robert, an American military leader mentioned by Solomon Mack, was born 7 November 1731 at Methuen, Massachusetts, to James and Mary Rogers, learned Indian woodcraft skills, and became captain of an independent company of rangers (scouts) in British pay in 1756. By 1758 he was major of nine ranger companies, led many raids, and became “the most romantic figure” of the French and Indian War because of his preference for “spectacular and hazardous exploits.” Between 1760 and 1775, he “proved himself incapable of coping with the problems of peace and civiliza-[p.860]tion,” ran up debts of £13,000, conducted ranger operations against the Cherokee in South Carolina, published some plays in England, traded illegally with Indians, was suspected of “treasonable dealings” with the French, returned to America in 1775 where George Washington imprisoned him on suspicion of espionage in 1776, escaped to Canada where he raised a company of Queen’s rangers, was defeated in New York, and was deprived of his command. His wife, Elizabeth Browne Rogers, petitioned the New Hampshire legislature for a divorce and was granted full custody of their only child; Rogers fled to England in 1780 and died there on 18 May 1795. Dictionary, 8:108.

Rowley, Gersham, (not Bowley) appears on the muster roll in Solomon Mack’s company, headed by Major Joseph Spencer. Richard L. Anderson identifies several typographical errors in names, suggesting that Solomon’s handwriting was difficult for the printer to read. New England, 163, 32.

Ruggles, (first name not known), was the minister of the Congregational church at Pontiac, Michigan, whom Lucy met while visiting Stephen Mack’s daughters.

Ryder, Symonds/Simonds, was born 20 November 1792 at Hartford, Washington County, Vermont, to Joshua and Marilla Ryder. A Campbellite convert in 1828 and minister in Hiram, Ohio, he was impressed by Mormon missionary Ezra Booth. He visited Joseph Smith in Kirtland and heard a young girl prophesy an earthquake in China. When he read a newspaper account of the disaster, he was convinced of Mormonism’s divinity, accepted baptism in early June 1831 and was ordained an elder on 16 June by Joseph Smith Sr. Repelled by both a misspelling of his name on his ministerial certificate and by the impression that the law of consecration and stewardship would give Joseph Smith control of his property, he turned against the church and, by late summer, was preaching anti-Mormonism jointly with Ezra Booth. He helped a mob tar Joseph Smith in March 1832 at the John Johnson home at Hiram. He was in the local militia, an elder in the Campbellite church, and a trustee of a local college. He died 1 August 1870 at Hiram, Portage County, Ohio. Black, “Hiram,” 163-64; Black, Who’s Who, 256-58; Cannon and Cook, 286; Black, Membership.

Sagers, William Henry Harrison, was born 3 May 1815/1814 at LeRoy, Genessee County, New York, to John Sagers and Amy Sweet Sagers. He married Olive Amanda Wheaton on 22 January 1846 at Nauvoo. He was baptized 7 January 1833, endowed 1 January 1846 at the Nauvoo temple and sealed to Olive on 22 January 1846. According to Don Carlos Smith (see Appendix), Sagers accompanied him and George A. Smith on a mission from Adam-ondi-Ahman to the east in September 1838. Sagers also opened New Orleans to missionary work, was appointed to a mission in Jamaica, West Indies (31 August 1841), and served missions to Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. One of his companions was Orson Pratt. He served on the Adam-ondi-Ahman high council. He married two more wives: Sarah Lorene Bailey (22 January 1846, Nauvoo), and Marion Smith Browning (5 June 1858, Provo, Utah). Their six children were born at Tooele, Tooele County, Utah, where he was a painter and farmer: Martha Smith (26 April 1859), William Wallace (26 June 1860), Robert Bruce (30 March 1862), Adam [p.861]Smith (11 September 1863), Mary Smith (6 August 1865), and Marion Smith (15 November 1868). He died 19 June 1886 at Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho. Black, Membership.

Salisbury, Katharine Smith, the ninth child and second daughter of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith, was born 28 July 1813 at Lebanon, Grafton County, New Hampshire. Her name is spelled as Catharine (by Lucy), Katharine (on her tombstone), and with many variants. She was baptized at age sixteen on 9 June 1830, the same day as William and Don Carlos. She married a lawyer/blacksmith, Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury (also Saulsbury/Salsbury), on 8 January 1831, probably at Waterloo. (Richard Anderson, “I Have,” 42, gives this date as 8 June 1831 at Kirtland.) Salisbury was born 6 June 1809 at Lebanon, Madison/Macedonia County, New York, to Gideon Salisbury and Elizabeth Shield Salisbury.

Wilkins and Katharine had eight children, five sons and three daughters. (Cecil McGavin says that Katherine had four sons and four daughters but gives the names as five sons and three daughters: Frederick, Solomon, Samuel, Alvin, Don Carlos, Emma, Mary, and Lucy—thus omitting Elizabeth and Loren from the list below, and adding Samuel and Mary). The list below follows Lucy’s genealogy in chap. 9, ending with Emma C. The last two children were born after the completion of Lucy’s manuscript.

1. Elizabeth was born 9/12 April 1832 at Lebanon, Madison County, New York.

2. Lucy was born 3 October 1834 at Willoughby, Lake County, Ohio (or at Lebanon, Madison County, New York); married a Mr. Whalen; was baptized RLDS on 29 May 1892 by Fred Johnson and confirmed the next day by J. C. Crabb, W. Waterman, and F. Johnson. She died 18 October 1892, at Burlington, Des Moines, Iowa, and was buried at Webster, Hancock County, Illinois.

3. Solomon Jenkins Salisbury was born 18 September 1835 at Kirtland, Geauga County, Ohio, and settled with his parents at Plymouth, Hancock County, Illinois, when the family was driven from Missouri. He married Eliza Swisher, 19 February 1856, and Margaret Swisher, 17 September 1865, and settled in Pilot Grove Township, Vermillion County, Illinois, in 1860. On 10 October 1872 during a period of serious illness, “one night [in vision] a visitor informed him that in order to accomplish what he wanted to live for, he was to ‘Send for Joseph Smith and he will tell you what to do when he comes.’ Joseph Smith III came and administered to Solomon. He was baptized and confirmed” RLDS on 23 October 1872 at Pilot Grove and was ordained a priest on 24 May 1874/13 July 1873 and an elder in 1874. He participated in Pilot Grove Second Branch until his death of heart failure on 12 January 1927, at Burnside, Hancock County, Illinois.

4. Alvin was born 7 June 1838 en route to Missouri and baptized RLDS on 3 February 1878 by John H. Lake. He was the father of eight children. According to Joseph Smith III, Katharine had had a prophetic dream of Alvin’s death and counseled him often to guard his temper; he was stabbed to death by a man with whom he had a longstanding quarrel. Alvin, who was not armed, “was a very large man and of immense strength,” but his opponent had a knife.

5. Don Carlos was born 22/25 October 1841 at Plymouth/Fountain Green, Han-[p.862]cock County, Illinois. He married Sibian Weinman. Their son, Herbert S. Salisbury, became president of Graceland College in 1901 and assistant RLDS Church Historian in 1919.

6. Emma C. was born 25 March 1844 at Fountain Green.

7. Loren was born in 1849 at Fountain Green.

8. Frederick was born 27 January 1850 at Fountain Green.

Jenkins Salisbury was called on a mission 12 March 1833, went on Zion’s Camp, received his patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. on 9 December 1835 at Kirtland, and was ordained a seventy. Accused with Almon Babbitt of violating the Word of Wisdom in 1833 in Kirtland, Salisbury was charged by Oliver Cowdery on 16 May 1836 with bringing “unnecessary persecution” upon Joseph Jr. by his behavior, leaving his family without food, provisions, or information about where he was going or when he would return, using “strong drink,” and being “intimate with other women.” Salisbury admitted drinking and “tale-bearing … but denied the other charges.” He was excommunicated “until there was a thorough reformation.” Katharine and Jenkins accompanied the Smith family to Missouri, Katharine giving birth to Alvin en route, and were driven out in the winter of 1838-39. In June 1844 when Joseph and Hyrum were killed, Katharine and Jenkins were living at Plymouth, Hancock County, Illinois, where Salisbury was working as a blacksmith. He died 23 October 1853 of typhoid fever at Webster, Hancock County, Illinois. After missionaries from the RLDS church contacted the family in 1872, those who had been baptized Mormon were received into the church and those who had not were baptized. Katharine testified in 1892 in the Temple Lot Suit and also, the next year, bore her testimony at an RLDS general conference. Katharine died 1 February 1900 at Fountain Green, Illinois. Ancestral File; McGavin, 96-102; Platt, “Lost,” 12; JS III, passim; Nibley, 344-45; Black, Membership; Black, Early RLDS, 1:470, 2:442, 5:246-48; HC 2:185, 442; Vogel 1:517, 523; RLDS 5:141; Richard Anderson, “I Have,” 43.

Salisbury, Wilkins Jenkins. See Katharine Smith Salisbury.

Scovil/Scoville, Lucius Nelson, was born 18 March 1806 at Middlebury/Waterbury, New Haven County, Connecticut, to Joel Scovil and Lydia Manville Scovil. He was baptized 2 July 1836, received his patriarchal blessing 27 June 1837 at Kirtland from Joseph Smith Sr., was ordained a seventy, was endowed at the Nauvoo temple on 13 December 1845, and was sealed 31 January 1846. He was a member of Nauvoo Second Ward, senior warden of the Freemasons lodge in Nauvoo, and was called on a British Mission in 1846 and to the eastern states.

He married Lury/Lucy Snow on 15 June 1824/18 June 1828 and they had nine children. Born at Mantua, Portage County, Ohio, were Joel Franklin (28 April 1830), Lucy Loretta (17 January 1832), and Edwin Wallace (19 July 1835). Sariah was born 27 April 1837 at Kirtland. Born at Nauvoo were Eliza Rebecca (14 April 1842), Henrietta (3 August 1844), Hyram (11 June 1845), and twins Martha and Mary (14 January 1846). Lucius Scovil also married Jane Fales (no date) and Hannah Marsden (16 September 1856).

[p.863]He came to Salt Lake City in 1847 where he farmed, was living in Provo in 1860 where he was county clerk, and died 14 March or 14/2 February 1889 at Springville, Utah. Black, Membership.

Singly, Sister. This Mormon woman generously shared her fiancial resources with the extended Smith family, with whom she was traveling to Missouri, in May-July 1838. She may have been Margaret Leisure Singley, born to John Leisure on 22 September 1791 at Unity, Pennsylvania. Her husband, Nicholas Singley Sr., was born 26 October 1791 in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. They had at least one son, Nicholas Jr., born in November 1848. Margaret was baptized in 1833, “suffered through persecution” with Nicholas as they moved with the Saints to Kirtland, Missouri, and Nauvoo, and then moved to California in 1849. Margaret was baptized into the RLDS church in 1866, followed by Nicholas Jr. on 17 August 1869. Margaret died in October 1874, at Eureka, Humboldt County, California. Black, Membership; Black, RLDS.

Smith, Agnes Coolbrith. See Don Carlos Smith.

Smith, Alvin. See Joseph Smith Sr.

Smith, Asael Sr., the father of Joseph Smith Sr. was born 1/7 March 1744 at Topsfield, Massachusetts, to Samuel Smith (1714-85) and Priscilla Gould Smith, the fifth of their five children. Asael was baptized Congregationalist on 11 March 1744. Priscilla did not recover from Asael’s birth and died 25 September 1744. Samuel next married Priscilla’s cousin, also named Priscilla Gould, on 8 October 1745. (She was born 6 April 1714 and died 27 May 1797.) Asael assumed his father’s debts and the care of his stepmother when his father died 14 November 1785, virtually impoverishing himself for about five years, to honor his pledge to his father.

On 12 February 1767, Asael married Mary Duty at Topsfield. She was born 11 October 1743, the daughter of Moses Duty (1700-78) and Mary Palmer Duty (1717-ca. 1791), of Denham, also Congregationalists. (Mary appears as “Elizabeth” on some records.) Her siblings were Moses (9 April 1742); Elizabeth (ca. 16 October 1743); Eunice (20 June 1745; she “could take up a barrel of cider and drink out of the bung”); Mark (16 October 1747); William (9 January 1749; killed during the Battle of Bunker Hill); Elizabeth (26 October 1751); Sarah (25 July 1753); and Hannah (11 June 1755; married William Rowell of Salem, had six children).

Asael and Mary became the parents of eleven children:

1. Jesse was born at Topsfield on 20 April 1768 and married Hannah Peabody of Royalton, Vermont, on 20 January 1792. They were the parents of ten children. He appears in Lucy’s narrative as adamantly opposed to religion and personally abusive to Joseph and John.

2. Priscilla was born at Topsfield on 21 October 1769. She stayed behind in the fall of 1791 when the family moved to Vermont to care for her father’s elderly sister, Priscilla Smith Kimball, who was dying. Priscilla married John C. Waller/Wallen of Royalton on 24 August 1796. By 1836 she was living at Middlebury, Vermont. By 1846 she had moved to New York City. According to George A. Smith in 1857, Priscilla was still [p.864]living in New York City at age ninety. “She is sanguine in relation to the truth of ‘Mormonism,’ although she had never embraced it. And, to use the language of her son [Calvin C. Waller], she preaches it all the time.” Priscilla and John were the parents of nine children.

3. Joseph Sr. (q.v.) was born 12 July 1771 at Topsfield.

4. Asael Jr. was born 21 May 1773 at Windham, Rockingham County, New Hampshire. He married Betsy Shellinger/Schellinger, daughter of Abraham Schellinger of Royalton, on 21 March 1802 and fathered eight children including Jesse Johnson Smith, who died of cholera during Zion’s Camp. Their oldest son Elias, for many years a probate judge in Utah, figures prominently in the textual history of Lucy’s book. Asael Jr. was an officer in the Vermont militia, moved to Stockholm, St. Lawrence County, New York, before 1810, then to Potsdam. He was baptized 26 June 1835. Nephew Don Carlos Smith ordained him a high priest. He served on the high council at both Kirtland and in Iowa, and was ordained a patriarch (1844). According to George A. Smith, he had a strong testimony of the Book of Mormon and an excellent knowledge of the Bible. Lyman E. Johnson baptized him in 1835; he moved with the extended family, including his mother and brothers, in 1836. Asael Jr. died at Iowaville, Wappelo County, Iowa, on 22 July 1848.

5. Mary was born 4 June 1775 at Windham, New Hampshire (or Derryfield, Hillsborough County, Vermont), and married Israel/Isaac Pierce/Pearce on 22 December 1796 in Royalton. They were the parents of eight children and lived near Lebanon, New Hampshire.

6. Samuel was born 15 September 1777 at Derryfield, Hillsborough County, was living in Potsdam by August 1810, married Frances Wilcox in 1816, and died about 2 May 1830 in Canton, St. Lawrence County, New York.

7. Silas (q.v.) was born 1 October 1779.

8. John (q.v.) was born 16 July 1781.

9. Susan was born 18 May 1783 at Derryfield, Vermont. (Asael, then town clerk, records her name as Susannah.) Susan did not marry. She adopted her niece, Charlotte M. Sanford, as her heir and died 22 March 1849 at Potsdam.

10. Stephen, born 23 April 1785 in Derryfield, Vermont, died at age seventeen at Royalton, Vermont, 25 July 1802. His obituary says he was “designed for a public education.”

11. Sarah, born at Topsfield, Massachusetts, on 16 May 1789, married Joseph Sanford on 15 October 1809, and had at least one child, a daughter named Charlotte, who became the heir of her unmarried aunt Susan. Sarah died 27 May 1824 and was buried beside her brother Stephen at Royalton.

On 1 May 1772 Asael Sr. and Mary Duty moved from Topsfield to Windham, New Hampshire. On 15 April 1774, they moved from Windham to Dunbarton, New Hampshire. Asael enlisted in the Revolutionary army in the summer of 1776, despite his six children, and served during July and August under Captain John Nesmith on New York’s northern frontier to guard against an invasion from Canada. He was a cooper (barrel-maker) from at least age thirty-four to forty-seven and a farmer. He pur-[p.865]chased a 100-acre farm at Derryfield, New Hampshire, on 27 May 1778 and served as town clerk (1779-86). When they moved to Tunbridge, Vermont, he took title to eighty-three acres in 1791, adding more land in 1794 and 1795. He was one of the town’s three selectmen (1793-95), moderator of the town meeting, a member of public committees, a road surveyor, and a grand and petit juror. He is described as having an “awry” or “crooked” neck, apparently caused by a severe burn. Asael was moderator of the convention in 1797 that established a Universalist society in Tunbridge; two of the other fifteen signers were his sons Jesse and Joseph. Asael and Mary were living in Tunbridge, Vermont, in 1800 and 1810, and in Stockholm, St. Lawrence County, New York, in 1820 and 1830.

According to George A. Smith, Jesse tried to appropriate his father’s property. (See “Contextual Note,” chap. 46.) Rather than quarrel, most of the family moved to Stockholm and Potsdam, New York. Samuel arrived 31 August 1810; John 13 November 1810; Silas 24 October 1806. George A. Smith dates Silas’s arrival as 1809.

Asael died in 1830 at age eighty-six; he expressed his faith in the truthfulness of Mormonism before he died. In May 1836 ninety-two-year-old Mary Duty Smith, accompanied by the families of Asael Jr., Silas, and other converts, made the 500-mile journey to Kirtland, greeted all of her grandchildren (except George A., who was on a mission), received Joseph Jr.’s blessing, and announced her intention of being baptized. However, she died peacefully only a few days later on 27 May 1836. Richard Anderson, New England, 88-92, 94-102, 105-6, 110-11, 148, 188-89, 190-95, 207, 209-13; Vogel 1:236; Jessee 2:592.

Smith, Don Carlos, the tenth child and sixth (and youngest) son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith, was born 25 March 1816 at Norwich, Windsor County, Vermont, and baptized 9 June 1830 at age fourteen. He was ordained an elder the same month. He was ordained first president of the high priests quorum in 1836. A professional printer, he published Elders’ Journal at Kirtland.

He married Agnes Coolbrith, a woman nine years his senior, on 30 July 1835 at Kirtland. She had been born 9 July 1808 at Scarborough, Cumberland County, Maine, to Joseph Coolbrith and Mary Hasty Foss Coolbrith, the third of their eight children. She encountered the gospel in Boston at age twenty-three when she was boarding with Augusta Cobb, later Brigham Young’s plural wife. Orson Hyde and Samuel Smith preached the gospel to them in the summer of 1832; she was baptized on 30 July. Also living in Augusta’s boarding house and baptized that summer was Mary Bailey, Samuel Harrison Smith’s future wife. Don Carlos and Agnes had three daughters: Agnes Charlotte, born 7 August 1836 at Kirtland; Sophronia, born 22 April 1837 at Norton, Ohio; died 3 October 1843; and Josephine Donna (“Ina”), born 10 March 1841 at Nauvoo.

Ina, who later concealed her Mormon roots, became California’s first poet laureate. Don Carlos and Agnes moved to Missouri with the Smith family in the summer of 1838. That fall Agnes was driven from her home and walked to Adam-ondi-Ahman three miles away, carrying her two-year-old on one hip and a six-to-eight-month-old baby on the other in snow over her shoe tops and wading the Grand River in water up to her waist. In Nauvoo, Don Carlos, with Ebenezer Robinson, printed the Times and [p.866]Seasons and served on the city council, as brigadier general of the Nauvoo Legion, and as president of the high priests quorum. He died in Nauvoo on 7 August 1841 and was sealed by proxy to Agnes on 28 January 1846. Agnes was sealed to Joseph Smith (before 24 March 1842), for time to George A. Smith, who was proxy for her sealing to Don Carlos (28 January 1846), and was married to William Pickett, a recent convert from St. Louis who had been an attorney in Mobile, Alabama. Agnes gave birth to twin sons at St. Louis on 11 December 1847. The family moved to California where it disintegrated under Pickett’s drinking and repeated desertions. Agnes died 26 December 1876 at Oakland, California. Ancestral File; Berrett, “Joseph,” 36-48; Compton, 145-70; Cannon and Cook, 288; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 658.

Smith, Emma Hale. See Joseph Smith Jr.

Smith, George A., was born 26 June 1817 at Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York, to John Smith and Clarissa Lyman Smith. He was converted by his uncle Joseph Sr., who visited the family in August 1830 with a Book of Mormon, was baptized 10 September 1832 at Potsdam by Joseph H. Wakefield, and was confirmed by Solomon Humphrey. In May 1833 the family moved to Kirtland where George A. worked on the temple and guarded the home of Sidney Rigdon from dissenters during the winter of 1833-34. He went on Zion’s Camp (1834), was ordained a seventy by Joseph Smith Jr. on 1 March 1835, and served missions in New York (1835), Ohio (1836), Virginia (1837), Kentucky and Tennessee (1838), Great Britain (1840-41), and Europe and Palestine (1872-73). In the spring of 1838, the family moved to Far West, where he became a high councilor at Adam-ondi-Ahman and was ordained an apostle (26 April 1839) by Heber C. Kimball.

He first married Bathsheba Wilson Bigler on 25 July 1841, the daughter of Mark Bigler and Susannah Ogden Bigler, born 3 May 21, 1822, near Shinnston, Harrison County, West Virginia. They had two children, George Albert Smith Jr., born 7 July 1842, and a daughter Bathsheba, born 14 August 1844. He also married Lucy Meserve, Nancy Clement, Zilpha Stark, Sarah Ann Libby, her sister Hannah Maria Libby, and Susan Elizabeth West. He went to Utah with Brigham Young’s pioneer company of 1847, then returned to bring his family to Utah in 1849. He founded Parowan and St. George in southern Utah, then presided over the Saints in Utah County (1852), became Church Historian and Recorder (1854), was admitted to practice law before the State Supreme Court (1855), served many years in the territorial legislature, was the president of several irrigation companies, served as postmaster, and held the position of colonel in the Nauvoo Legion cavalry. He became first counselor to Brigham Young on 7 October 1868 and died in Salt Lake City on 1 September 1875. Pusey, passim.

Smith, Hyrum, the second surviving son and third of the eleven children of Joseph and Lucy Mack Smith, was born 9 February 1880 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont. He joined the Presbyterian church in Palmyra at the same time as Lucy and Samuel and was suspended from membership on 10 March 1838 when he refused to deny that Joseph had translated the Book of Mormon from gold plates. Hyrum was elected a school trustee and was a Mason in good standing in Palmyra’s Mount Moriah Lodge [p.867]No. 112, whose other members included printer Pomeroy Tucker and physician Alexander McIntire. He was one of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon (1829), was baptized in April 1829, was ordained a priest on 9 June 1830, and was ordained a high priest by Joseph Jr. (June 1831).

He married Jerusha Barden on 2 November 1826, at Manchester, Ontario County, New York. She was born 15 February 1805 at Litchfield, Connecticut, to Seth and Sarah Barden and had at least two sisters living near Palmyra. Jerusha and Hyrum had six children:

1. Lovina was born 16 September 1827 at Manchester, Ontario County, New York, and became the object of Joseph H. Jackson’s attentions (whether romantic, as Lucy believed, or manipulative, as Jackson himself claimed) the summer she was sixteen. However, on 23 June 1844, Lovina married Lorin Walker at Nauvoo with her father returning from safety in Iowa for the ceremony only days before his assassination. Lorin was Joseph Smith’s “personal attendant,” engaged “to look after his clothes, horses, military equipments, and, at request, to attend him in his rides and journeys.” Lorin was one of the ten children of John Walker and Lydia Holmes Walker, born 25 July 1822/23 at Peacham, Caledonia County, Vermont. His younger sister Lucy, born in 1826, became one of Joseph Smith’s plural wives at age fifteen or sixteen while she was a hired girl in Joseph and Emma’s household. Lovina and Loren were endowed on 30 December 1845 and sealed on 28 January 1846 before coming to Utah where they raised thirteen children: Hyrum Smith, Isabella Rosalia, Jerusha Clesta, Edwina Mariah, Emma Irene, William Arthur, Sarah Helen, Lucy Lovina, John Lorin, Joseph Frederick, Don Carlos, Charles Henry, and David Franklin. Lorin also had another wife, Mary Middlemus/Middleton. Lovina died at Farmington, Davis County, Utah, on 8 October 1876. Lorin died 26 September 1907 at Rockland, Power County, Idaho.

2. Mary was born 27 June 1829 and died 29 May 1832.

3. John was born 22 September 1832 at Kirtland, married Hellen Maria Fisher on 25 November/December 1853 at Salt Lake City, and fathered nine children: Elizabeth Maria (8 October 1854), Hyrum Fisher (10 January 1856), Lucy (11 July 1858), Don Carlos (7 June 1861), Joseph (10 September 1865), twins Alvin Fisher and Evaline (13 October 1867), John David (1 May 1870), and Hellen Jerusha (26 October 1872). He had one plural wife: Nancy Melissa Lemmon, married 18 February 1857 (one child: John Lemmon, born 16 March 1858). He was baptized by John Taylor in 1841, sealed to his parents on 24 January 1846 at the Nauvoo temple and endowed two days later, received his patriarchal blessing on 18 February 1855 from Brigham Young, who ordained him church patriarch the same day, and served until his death on 5/6 November 1911.

4. Hyrum Jr. was born 27 April 1834 and died 21 September 1841.

5. Jerusha was born 18 January 1836, married William Pierce, and died 27 June 1912.

6. Sarah was born 2 October 1837 at Kirtland. On 20 March 1854, she married Charles Emerson Griffin, born 10 May 1836 at Essex, Chittenden County, Vermont, to Albert Bailey Griffin and Abigail Varney Griffin. They had eleven children born be-[p.868]tween 1855 and 1876 at Salt Lake City, Coalville, Summit County, Utah, and Ogden, Weber County, Utah. Charles also married two more wives (one of whom left him) and fathered eight more children. On 6 November 1876, like her mother, Sarah died in giving birth. Charles died 18 July 1900 and is buried at Escalante, Garfield County, Utah.

Jerusha Barden Smith was baptized on 9 June 1830 by David Whitmer, received her patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. on 19 December 1834 at Kirtland, died 13 October 1837 at Kirtland, and was sealed to Hyrum by proxy 15 January 1846 in the Nauvoo temple. Two months after Jerusha’s death, on 24 December 1837 Hyrum married Mary Fielding, born 21 July 1801 at Honidon, Bedfordshire, England, to John Fielding and Rachel Abbotson Fielding, was baptized 21 May 1836, came to the United States with her brother, Joseph Fielding, and her sister, Mercy Rachel Fielding (see Robert B. Thompson), was sealed to Hyrum on 29 May 1843, endowed 10 December 1845 at the Nauvoo temple, and had her sealing reconfirmed on 15 January 1846. They had two children:

1. Joseph F. (Fielding) Smith was born 13 November 1838, worked in the Church Historian’s Office under George A. Smith’s direction, became sixth president of the LDS church, had six wives (including his cousin, Levira Annette Clark Smith, daughter of Samuel Harrison Smith, who divorced him) and forty-eight children, three of them adopted. He died at Salt Lake City in November 1918.

2. Martha Ann was born 14 May 1841 at Nauvoo. She married William Jasper Harris on 21 April 1857 at the Endowment House in Salt Lake City, had eleven children, and died 19 October 1923.

Hyrum married Mercy Fielding Thompson as one of his plural wives in August 1843 after the death of her first husband, Robert B. Thompson. That same month he also married Catharine Phillips. No children are recorded for either. Hyrum became assistant counselor to the First Presidency on 3 September 1837 and, on 7 November 1837, second counselor, replacing Oliver Cowdery. He led ten families from Kirtland to Far West, Missouri, in the spring of 1838, was arrested during the fall of Far West, and was imprisoned with Joseph in Liberty Jail in Clay County (winter of 1838-39). This experience left his health so “very much impaired” that he could not work. In Nauvoo he was ordained patriarch to the church by Joseph Smith Sr. in September 1840 and assistant president on 24 January 1841. He was assassinated with Joseph Jr. on 27 June 1844 at age forty-four while imprisoned at Carthage Jail in Hancock County, Illinois. Mary died at Salt Lake City on 21 September 1852. Ancestral File; Richard Anderson, Investigating, 145, Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 711, 713; McGavin, 86; Black, Membership; Compton, 458; JS III, 22.

Smith, Jerusha Barden. See Hyrum Smith.

Smith, Jesse, brother of Joseph Sr. See Asael Smith Sr., and chap. 36.

Smith, Jesse Johnson, born 6 October 1808, was the son of Asael Smith Jr. and Betsy Schellinger Smith. Lucy misidentifies his father as Jesse Smith. He joined his cousins—George A. Smith, Hyrum Smith, and Joseph Smith—on Zion’s Camp and died of cholera in Missouri on 1 July 1834. His name appears as Jesse J. on the list compiled by [p.869]Thomas Bullock and as Jesse B. on lists compiled by Solon Foster and Andrew Jenson. No Jesse Smith appears on B. H. Roberts’s list in HC. Profile, 93-95; chap. 42 and notes.

Smith, John, the brother of Joseph Sr. and father of George A. Smith, was born 16 July 1781, the eighth of the eleven children born to Asael Smith Sr. and Mary Duty Smith. He married Clarissa Lyman on 11 September 1815. Clarissa was born 27 June 1790 at Lebanon, Grafton County, New Hampshire, to Richard Lyman and Philomelia Loomis Lyman. John’s parents moved to St. Lawrence County, New York, before 1810. John and Clarissa had seven children. The first four—daughters born in 1813, 1815, and twins born in 1816—all died within a day of birth. Their next three children were George Albert (“George A.”) Smith (26 June 1817), Caroline Clara Smith (6 June 1820), and John Lyman Smith (17 November 1823).

John was baptized 9 January 1832 and ordained an elder. They reached Kirtland on 25 May 1833, where John was ordained a high priest on 21 June 1883, became a member of the high council (1834), and was named “assistant counselor” in the First Presidency (1837). He served a mission to Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire with Joseph Sr. (1836), then moved his family to Far West (1838) and Adam-ondi-Ahman where he became stake president (1838). John and Clarissa reached Illinois in February 1839 and settled at Green Plains, six miles from Warsaw, where he farmed and split rails. In June 1839 he moved to Nauvoo. In October 1839 he moved to Lee County, Iowa, where he presided over the church. In October 1843 he moved again, to Macedonia, Hancock County, Illinois, where he presided over the branch of the church. In November 1844 the “wolf-hunts” of the mobbers compelled another move to Nauvoo for safety. Here he also served as stake president and on the Council of Fifty (1844), was endowed 28 September 1843 and again on 26 February 1844, was sealed to Clarissa on 14 January 1846, and was ordained a patriarch on 10 January 1844.

He was sealed to five additional women, including Mary Aikens/Atkin, the widow of his brother Silas, but had no other children. He reached the Salt Lake Valley in September 1847 with the “big company,” presided over Salt Lake Stake in Brigham Young’s absence (1847-48), then was ordained patriarch to the church (1 January 1849-54). He gave 5,560 patriarchal blessings before his death at Salt Lake City on 23 May 1854. Clarissa died on 14 February 1856. Jessee 2:593; Jarvis, 24; Cook, Revelations, 208; Richard Anderson, New England, 143-44, 217; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 345; Ancestral File; Black, Membership.

Smith, Joseph, Jr., the fifth child and third surviving son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith, was born 23 December 1805 at Sharon, Windsor County, Vermont. He translated the Book of Mormon, founded the Mormon church (called Church of Christ) on 6 April 1830, and moved the church from the New York area to Kirtland (1831-38), with joint headquarters in the land of “Zion” (Missouri), 1831-38. After the Mormons were expelled from Missouri while he, Hyrum, and others were imprisoned at Liberty Jail in Clay County, he founded Nauvoo on the banks of the Mississippi as a [p.870]city-state (1839-44). He and his brother Hyrum were killed by a mob while imprisoned at Carthage, Hancock County, Illinois, 27 June 1844.

He married Emma Hale Smith on 18 January 1827 at South Bainbridge, Chenango County, New York. She was born 10 July 1804, at Harmony, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, the third daughter and seventh child of the nine children of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis Hale. She met Joseph Smith in 1827 when he boarded at her parents’ tavern while working for Josiah Stoal of Chenango County, New York. She prepared the first LDS hymn book (1836), charitably nursed the sick, clothed missionaries and workers on the Kirtland and Nauvoo temples, and was first president of the Female Relief Society, 17 March 1842-44. They had eleven children, two of them adopted.

1. Alvin was born and died 15 June 1828 at Harmony, Pennsylvania.

2-3. Twins Louisa and Thaddeus were born and died 30 April 1831, at Kirtland.

4-5. Adopted twins Joseph Murdock Smith and Julia Murdock Smith were born 30 April 1831 at Warrensville to John Murdock and Julia Clapp Murdock and given to Joseph and Emma Smith when the mother died six hours after their births. Joseph died 29 March 1832 at Hiram, Ohio, of complications, probably pneumonia, from measles when he was exposed to the cold night air during a mobbing of Joseph Jr. At Emma’s request, Julia was not told the circumstances of her birth and remembers being taunted as an illegitimate daughter of Joseph Smith. She married thirty-six-year-old Elisha Dixon when she was eighteen (1849). He unsuccessfully tried to manage the Mansion House; then in 1852 when he developed health problems, they moved to Galveston, Texas, where he was fatally injured in a steamship boiler explosion in 1853. Julia returned to Nauvoo and, in 1855, married John Jackson Middleton, a Roman Catholic, who had studied for the priesthood but was not ordained because of excessive drinking. He also failed at law and farming before obtaining a position as a clerk in St. Louis. Julia converted to Catholicism but eventually left Middleton, returning to live with Emma and her second husband, Lewis C. Bidamon, in the Mansion House in Nauvoo. In 1858 Julia’s brother, John Riggs Murdock, wrote to her from Utah. Her father, John Murdock, told her the truth about her honorable parentage, but illness and poverty prevented a visit. Julia, who had no children, died of cancer on 12 September 1880 in the home of friends at Nauvoo.

6. Joseph III was born 6 November 1832 at Kirtland and grew up at Nauvoo where he farmed and married the first of three monogamous wives: Emmeline Griswold (1838-69), Bertha Madison (1843-96), and Ada Clark (1871-1915)—by whom he fathered seventeen children. He accepted the presidency of the RLDS church on 6 April 1860 and, a moderate and intelligent leader, built the membership to about 70,000 by the time of his death. He edited the Saints’ Herald at Plano, Illinois, the first RLDS headquarters, then Lamoni, Iowa (1881), where he helped found Graceland College, and undertook four missions to Utah where he renewed acquaintance with his relatives and collected information that he hoped to use in defending his father’s reputation against polygamy. He died 10 December 1914 at the third (and present) RLDS (renamed Community of Christ, April 2000) headquarters, Independence, Missouri.

[p.871]7. Frederick Granger Williams was born 20 June 1835 at Kirtland, married Annie Maria Jones in September 1857 and fathered a daughter; however, the couple became estranged. Frederick fell ill and died 13 April 1862 at Nauvoo.

8. Alexander Hale was born 2 June 1838 at Far West, worked devotedly with Joseph III to build the RLDS church, and served as presiding patriarch, apostle, and as counselor in the First Presidency. He and his wife, Elizabeth Kendall, had nine children.

He died at Nauvoo on 12 August 1909.

9. Don Carlos was born 13 June 1840 at Nauvoo and died in 1841.

10. An unnamed son was born and died at Nauvoo. According to the Smith Bible record, this child was born 6 February 1842 and, though unnamed, is designated “The 7th Son.” Other sources give this child’s birthdate as 26 December 1842.

11. David Hyrum was born 17 November 1844 at Nauvoo after his father’s death. Sensitive and artistic, he worked hard to build the RLDS church, including service in the First Presidency. He married Clara Hartshorn and fathered a son, but became mentally unbalanced after a mission to Utah. Joseph III was required to institutionalize him in 1877 where he remained until his death on 29 August 1904.

Joseph Smith Jr. was also sealed in plural marriage to a number of women before his death. The exact number may never be known; Todd Compton’s recent appraisal (6-9) lists thirty-three “certain” and eight “possible” wives.

After Joseph’s assassination (June 1844), Emma remained at Nauvoo, continued to operate the Mansion House as a hotel, married Lewis C. Bidamon on 23 December 1847, joined the Methodist church in 1848, and became a member of the RLDS church when Joseph III became president in 1860. She died 30 April 1879 at Nauvoo. Newell and Avery, passim; Newton, passim; JS III, passim; Vogel 1:583; Jessee 1:514-15.

Smith, Joseph Sr., was born 12 July 1771 at Topsfield, Essex County, Massachusetts, the third of the eleven children born to Asael Smith and Mary Duty Smith. On 24 January 1796, he married Lucy Mack at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont. She was born 8 July 1795 (not 1776 as she states). They had eleven children:

1. Unnamed child, born about 1797 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont. Speaking many years later, Joseph Sr. recalled this child as a son; Lucy, even later, as a daughter.

2. Alvin was born 11 February 1798 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont. He died unmarried 19 November 1823 at Palmyra, Wayne County, New York. He had been exceptionally supportive of Joseph Jr.’s prophetic mission.

3. Hyrum (q.v.) was born 9 February 1800 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont.

4. Sophronia was born 17/16 May 1803 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont. See Sophronia Smith Stoddard McCleary.

5. Joseph Jr. (q.v.) was born 23 December 1805 at Sharon, Windsor County, Vermont.

6. Samuel Harrison (q.v.) was born 13 March 1808 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont.

[p.872]7. Ephraim was born 13 March 1810 at Tunbridge, Orange County, Vermont, and died 24 March 1810 at Royalton, Windsor County, Vermont.

8. William Bunnell (q.v.) was born 13 March 1811 at Royalton, Windsor County, Vermont.

9. Katharine was born 28 July 1813 at Lebanon, Grafton County, New Hampshire. See Katharine Smith Salisbury. Her name has many variant spellings. Except in direct quotations, I follow Vogel who chose the spelling that appears on her tombstone.

10. Don Carlos (q.v.) was born 25 March 1816 at Norwich, Windsor County, Vermont.

11. Lucy was born 18 July 1821 at Palmyra, Ontario County, New York. See Lucy Smith Millikin.

Joseph Sr., a merchant and farmer, moved his family to Palmyra, New York, in 1816 after three successive seasons of cold. He was one of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon (1829). The family moved to Kirtland (1831) where he was ordained patriarch to the church (1833), made a member of the Kirtland high council (1834), and named assistant counselor to the First Presidency (1837). The family moved to Missouri in 1838. Joseph Sr.’s health was permanently affected by the shock of hearing Joseph’s and Hyrum’s death sentences and by the forced exodus from Missouri (February 1839). He died in Nauvoo 14 September 1840. Lucy dictated her history in 1844-45, then lingered on, first in the care of her daughter Lucy at Colchester, Illinois, and then in the care of her daughter-in-law Emma Hale Smith Bidamon at Nauvoo. She died on the Smith farm just outside Nauvoo on 14 May 1856. Newell and Avery, passim; D. Hill, passim; Black, Membership.

Smith, Joseph III. See Joseph Smith Jr.

Smith, Julia. See Joseph Smith Jr.

Smith, Mary Bailey. See Samuel H. Smith.

Smith, Mary Fielding. See Hyrum Smith.

Smith, Samuel Harrison, fourth son and fifth surviving child of Joseph and Lucy Mack Smith, was born 13 March 1808 at Tunbridge, Vermont. He joined the Presbyterian church at Palmyra at the same time as Lucy and Hyrum, was removed from membership for accepting the Book of Mormon, and was baptized at Harmony on the same day that Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery baptized each other in the Susquehanna River (chap. 28). (According to HC 1:44, he was baptized 25 May 1829.) One of the Eight Witnesses of the Book of Mormon (1829), he was ordained an elder on 9 June 1830, served missions in June-July and December 1830, moved to Kirtland in December 1830, served another mission to Missouri with Reynolds Cahoon in June-September 1831, served a fourth mission in southern Ohio during the fall and winter of 1832, a fifth with Orson Hyde from January to December 1832, traveling through Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Maine, and a sixth in April 1841 in Scott and adjoining counties in Illinois.

On 17 February 1834, Samuel was called to the Kirtland high council where he [p.873]served as its president in 1837. He married Mary Bailey on 13 August 1834 in Kirtland. She was born at Bedford, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, on 20 December 1808. They had four children:

1. Susannah was born 27 October 1835, married a man named Hunt, and died in 1905 or 1906 at Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

2. Mary Bailey was born 27 March 1837. After her father’s death, she lived with her grandmother Lucy and helped take care of her. She married twice, a man named Edward Kelteau in late 1854 or early 1855 (some sources also give a marriage to a man named Gatewood), then a man named Norman. She died at St. Louis.

3. Samuel Bailey Harrison was born 1 August 1838 and went to Utah; his first wife divorced him when he married a plural wife; his cousin, Joseph Smith III, with whom he always had cordial relations, tells of meeting him for the last time in Salt Lake City, “bareheaded” and “barefooted” and not in his right senses.

4. Lucy Bailey was born in January 1841.

Mary Bailey Smith died 25 January 1841 after baby Lucy’s birth. At Nauvoo on 29 April 1841 (according to the Ancestral File; Lucy mistakenly gives the marriage year as 1842; George A. Smith agrees that the marriage was in 1841 but gives the date as 30 May, while daughter Mary Bailey Smith Norman gives the date as 3 May 1841), Samuel married Levira Clark, daughter of Gardner and Delecta Clark, born at Livonia, Livingston County, New York, on 30 July 1815. They had three daughters, all born in Nauvoo:

1. Levira Annette Clark, born 29 April 1842, married Joseph F. Smith as his first wife, divorced him when he took plural wives, and died at St. Louis in the home of her half-sister, Mary Bailey Smith Norman.

2. Lovisa Clark was born 28 August 1843 and died before the year’s end.

3. Lucy J. Clark was born and died 20 August 1844.

In 1838 Samuel accompanied Joseph to Missouri where he participated in the Battle of Crooked River and experienced the mobbings in Far West and Adam-ondi-Ahman. He escaped to Quincy in late 1838 and settled at Nauvoo in 1839 where he served as a bishop and a city alderman. His profession was as a laborer or farmer. He died 13 July 1844 in Nauvoo of unspecified strain caused by an effort to escape from a mob after the deaths of Joseph and Hyrum. Richard Anderson, Investigating, 138-41, Cannon and Cook, 289; JS III, 223; Nibley, 337-41; Norman.

Smith, Sarah, no relation to Joseph Smith, was the sister of Elizabeth Ann Smith Whitney’s father, originally from Connecticut. She never married, and Elizabeth Ann came to Ohio to live with her. Elizabeth was “devotedly attached” to her; and after Elizabeth married Newel K. Whitney in 1822, with Sarah’s “full approval,” they continued to share the same household. When Joseph Smith and Newel Knight left for Missouri on 1 April 1832, they arranged for Emma to live at the Whitney home but did not tell Elizabeth of the arrangement. She was ill when Emma arrived, and Sarah turned Emma away at the door. Deeply mortified, Emma said nothing and found shelter with Frederick G. Williams, Reynolds Cahoon, and Lucy and Joseph Sr. until Joseph returned in June when they went back to the John Johnson house. Sarah, whom Eliza-[p.874]beth describes as “ever kind and ever true,” stayed in Kirtland when the family moved to Nauvoo in 1838. Jenson 1:222; Newell and Avery 43-45; HC 1:265-72; Compton, 345.

Smith, Silas, was born 1 October 1779 at Derryfield (now Manchester), Hillsborough County, Vermont, the seventh of Asael Smith Sr. and Mary Duty Smith’s eleven children. He married Ruth Stevens of Royalton, daughter of Abel Stevens, on 29 January 1806/1805. They moved to Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York, in 1806, and to Stockholm, same county, between 1810 and 1816. After Ruth’s death, Silas married Mary Atkin/Aikens on 4 March 1828. They had three children born at Stockholm: Silas Sanford (26 October 1830), John Aikens (6 July 1832), and Jesse Nathaniel (2 December 1834). Silas’s second wife, Mary, was born 13 August 1797 at Bernard, Windsor County, Vermont, to Nathaniel Aikens and Mary Tupper Aikens and was baptized in 1837. She received her patriarchal blessing and endowment on 23 December 1845 at Nauvoo. Silas served in the War of 1812, was baptized by Hyrum Smith in 1835, and escorted his ninety-two-year-old widowed mother to Kirtland in 1836. He was ordained an elder on 3 March 1836 and high priest on 10 February 1838, both at Kirtland. He died 13 September 1839 at Pittsfield, Pike/Lee County, Illinois. Mary was then sealed to Silas’s brother, John. She died 27 April 1877. Vogel 1:235; Black, Membership.

Smith, William Bunnell, eighth child and fifth surviving son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith, was born 13 March 1811, at Royalton, Windsor County, Vermont. On 9 June 1830, he was baptized by David Whitmer, ordained a teacher on 5 October 1831 at Hiram, Ohio, by Joseph Smith Jr., as a priest on 25 October 1831, as an elder on 19 December 1832, as a high priest by David Whitmer on 21 June 1833, and as an apostle on 15 February 1835 by Oliver Cowdery. Joseph Sr.’s deathbed blessing praises William for his zeal and determination as a missionary even before the church’s organization. He also went on missions to Erie County, Pennsylvania, in December 1832 and to the eastern states with the Twelve in the spring and summer of 1835.

He participated in Zion’s Camp in 1834 and was ordained one of the original Twelve on 15 February 1835 by Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin Harris at Kirtland. Joseph Jr. received a revelation chastising him for his lack of humility in November 1835. William had a disagreement with Joseph over a debating school that led to a physical altercation on 16 December 1835 and was tried for unchristianlike conduct on 2 January 1836 but confessed the next day.

In the spring of 1838, William moved to Missouri and was exiled with the rest of the Saints after the siege of Far West in the winter of 1838-39. He settled at Plymouth, Hancock County, where he opened a tavern. He was “suspended from fellowship” by a conference in Quincy on 4 May 1839, was restored to his office “through the intercession of Joseph and Hyrum” later that month, and was called to accompany the Twelve to England on their mission in 1840 but did not go. He served a third mission in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in the spring of 1841, and a fourth in the East from the spring of 1843 until 22 April 1844 when he returned bringing a large group of New Jersey con-[p.875]verts; he served in the House of Representatives in 1842-43. He had another quarrel with Joseph over a lot in Nauvoo (Joseph gave it to him on condition that he live on it; William agreed to do so but immediately arranged to sell it, so Joseph refused to transfer the title). William left for the East with his wife and daughters and was still gone when his brothers were killed.

Fearing for his own life, he did not return to Nauvoo until 4 May 1845. His wife died 22 May; on 24 May he was ordained and set apart as patriarch to the church. He was not sustained as both apostle and patriarch at the 6 October 1845 general conference. Two weeks later he was excommunicated. The date is variously given as either 12 or 19 October 1845. He affiliated briefly with the Strangites (1846-47), was excommunicated for adultery, made two unsuccessful attempts to organize another church, was rebaptized a Mormon in early 1860, but soon withdrew. In 1878 he was received into the Reorganized church on his former baptism in the office of high priest, and, as he became older, wrote rambling, begging letters to his nephew, Joseph Smith III, from his home at Elkader, Clayton County, Iowa. In 1892 he testified against the LDS church in the Temple Lot Suit. In 1890 he moved to Osterdock, Clayton County, Iowa, where he died 13 November 1893, bearing a firm deathbed testimony to the Book of Mormon.

William had ten wives, five of them more or less monogamously. On 14/13 February 1833 at Kirtland, William married his first wife, Caroline Amanda/Amelia Grant, daughter of Joshua Grant and Athalia/Thalia Howard Grant and sister of Jedediah M. Grant. Caroline was born 22 January 1814 at Windsor, Broome/Sullivan County, New York, and received her patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. at Kirtland on 9 December 1834. William and Caroline had two children, Caroline L. and Mary Jane (both survived to adulthood). Caroline died 22 May 1845 in Nauvoo. Exactly a month later on 22 June 1845, William married Mary Jane Rollins; she left him two months later. Also during that year, he was sealed polygamously to Mary Ann Sheffield. She was not divorced from her husband in England when Brigham Young performed this sealing, and she later testified in 1893 that she considered herself divorced from William when he “went away East”; Mary Ann was living with him and Mary Jane Rollins, his second wife. Mary Jane left William because of this relationship—either because she disapproved of polygamy or because she did not know that a sealing had occurred and thought William was committing adultery. William was also sealed to Mary Jones, Priscilla Mogridge, Sarah Libbey, and Hannah Libbey. None of these women apparently had children, and the extent to which a marital relationship existed is not clear. On 18/19 May 1847, William married Caroline’s younger sister, Roxie Ann Grant, and had two more children: Thalia and Hyrum Wallace; they separated thereafter. Before 1858 he married Eliza Elise Sanborn, by whom he had four children: William Jr., Enoch (possibly these two names are one child named William Enoch), Edson Don Carlos, and Louise May. She died in 1889. On 21 December 1889/1891, he married Rosanna/Rosa Jewitt Surprise. Bates, passim; Cannon and Cook, 290; RLDS 5:141, 225; McGavin, 94-95; JS III; Nibley, 342-44; Vogel 1:475-76; RLDS; Black, Who’s Who, 301-3; Black, Membership.

Snow, Eliza R., was born 21 January 1804 at Becket, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, [p.876]the second of six children born to Oliver Snow (q.v.) and Rosetta Leonora Pettibone Snow. The family was Baptist, then converted to the Campbellite movement. Welleducated, Eliza began writing poetry as a schoolgirl, was baptized 5 April 1835 at Mantua, Portage County, Ohio, married Joseph Smith as a plural wife on 29 June 1842, was sealed to Brigham Young for time in 1844, and was endowed on 16 December 1845. She came to Utah in 1847 where she became Utah’s leading woman as an ordinance worker in the Endowment House, as second president of the Relief Society, as cofounder of the Primary and the Retrenchment Association (later the Young Ladies Mutual Improvement Association), and as founder of the Deseret Hospital. Childless, she died 5 December 1887 at Salt Lake City. Beecher, 10, 232, 256-59; Black, Membership.

Snow, Oliver, was born at Becket, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, on 18/28 September 1775. On 6 May 1800, he married Rosetta Leonora Pettibone, born 22 October 1778 in Simsbury, Hartford County, Connecticut. They moved to Ohio about 1806. Their seven children were:

1. Leonora Abigail was born 23 August 1801 at Becket, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and was endowed 10 January 1846 at the Nauvoo temple. She married, first, Enoch Virgil Leavitt, then Isaac Morley as a plural wife. She died 11 February 1872.

2. Eliza Roxcy was born in 1804.

3. Percy Amanda, a daughter, was born in 1808.

4. Melissa was born in 1810.

5. Lorenzo was born 3 April 1814 at Mantua, Portage County, Ohio. He married Mary Adaline Goddard on 17 January 1845, followed by eight additional marriages. He fathered thirty-nine children, was ordained an apostle in 1849, and served as president of the LDS church (1898-1901).

6. Lucius Augustus was born 1819.

7. Samuel Pearce/Pierce was born 1821.

Oliver served “several terms” as a justice of the peace, in several other township offices, and as county commissioner (1809-15). The family moved, first to Kirtland, then in the spring of 1838 to Far West, then to Illinois. Beecher, 232, 256-59, 262; Black, Membership.

Spencer, Augustine, the son of Daniel Spencer and Chloe Wilson Spencer, closely allied himself with the Foster brothers and the Higbees in their opposition to Joseph Smith. He owned land in Nauvoo near the temple by 1843. On 26 April 1844, he was arrested for assaulting his brother Orson. On 3 May Joseph Smith received a letter from Parley P. Pratt, then serving a mission in Massachusetts, calling Augustine a “snake in the grass” who had written a letter then circulating in Massachusetts affirming “that Joseph Smith is in the habit of drinking, swearing, carousing, dancing all night, &c., and that he keeps six or seven young females as wives, &c., and many other such like insinuations.” Spencer swore charges of treason against Joseph Smith on 24 June 1844, was among those present at Hamilton’s Hotel on the day of the murders, and, according to Willard Richards, was with the mob at Carthage. HC 6:344, 354-55, 560, 7:146; Flanders, 158, 188.

[p.877]Spencer, Joseph, was born 3 October 1714, at East Haddam, Connecticut, to Isaac Spencer and Mary Selden Spencer. He married Martha Brainerd on 2 August 1738 and, after her death, married Hannah Brown Southmayd in 1756; he fathered thirteen children. He served as probate judge (1753 until his death), deputy to the Assembly (1750-66), and assistant to the Assembly (after 1766); he became a deacon of the Millington Congregational church (1767) and served in the French and Indian War (as a lieutenant in 1747, a major in 1757, lieutenant colonel in 1759 and colonel in 1766). In May 1775 he became brigadier general of the Connecticut forces in the Revolutionary War but left without leave when, on 20 June 1775, he was superseded by Israel Putnam as major general. His friends negotiated his return; after the siege of Boston and service in New York, he was appointed a major general in August 1776. He resigned in a dispute over his military decisions. As a civilian, he served variously on the Connecticut Council of Safety, the Continental Congress, and the Assembly until his death on 13 January 1789. Solomon Mack enlisted in his company on 5 June 1758 and was discharged 18 November 1758. Dictionary, 4:450; Richard Anderson, New England, 163.

Spencer, Orson, was born 14 March 1802 at West Stockbridge, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, to Daniel Spencer and Chloe Wilson Spencer; had some college education; was baptized in 1841 and endowed on 11 December 1845; was chancellor of the university at Nauvoo; served as mayor of Nauvoo; served a mission to Connecticut (1843); to Great Britain (1848), to Prussia (1852), and to the United States (1854); and brought his own company to Utah in 1849. He died 15 October 1855 at St. Louis, Missouri, where he was stake president. He was married to six women and fathered thirteen children. His first wife, Catherine Curtis Spencer, whom he married on 13 April 1830, was the mother of eight, the first three born at Deep River, Middlesex County, Connecticut: Catharine Curtis (6 October 1831), Ellen Curtis (21 November 1832), and Aurelia Reed (4 October 1834). The next three were born at Middlefield, Hampshire County, Massachusetts: a second Catherine Curtis (2 October 1836), Howard Orson (16 June 1838), and George Boardman (21 February 1840). Born at Nauvoo were Lucy Curtis (9 October 1842) and Chloe Curtis (26 July 1844). Orson’s second wife, Martha Knight, had four children: Martha Emma (30 January 1848), Albert James (24 June 1850); William Collinson (10 December 1851); and June Knight (28 June 1854). No children are recorded for the third wife, Ann Dibble, the fourth (unnamed) wife married on 13 October 1849, or the unnamed sixth wife (married 1853 at Salt Lake City), although the unnamed fifth wife had a daughter, Luna (6 December 1856). Black, Membership.

Stanley/Stanly, Horace. A friend of Stephen Mack with whom Lucy corresponded. He may also have been a relation by marriage since Lucy’s niece, Ruth, a daughter of Stephen, was married to a man named Stanly.

Stevens, father and son. They were merchants in Royalton who, according to Lucy, defrauded Joseph Smith Sr. out of the proceeds of his ginseng shipment to China about 1804-05.

[p.878]Stoal, Josiah. See Josiah Stowell.

Stoddard, Calvin W./Sophronia Smith Stoddard. See Sophronia Smith Stoddard McCleary.

Stone, a surgeon who operated on Joseph Jr.’s leg about 1813 during the typhus epidemic. He was assisted by Nathan Smith and Cyrus Perkins, then on the faculty of Dartmouth Medical College, but his name does not appear as a student at the college. Wirthlin (333) hypothesizes that Stone was one of Nathan Smith’s students from Dartmouth Medical College, since the incisions were a treatment he recommended for the early stages of osteomyelitis. Bushman, Joseph, 33; see chap. 16 notes.

Stout, Hosea, was born 18 September 1810 at Danville/Pleasant Hill, Mercer/Boyle County, Kentucky, to Joseph Stout and Anna Smith Stout. His brother Allen was also a committed Mormon who raised a large polygamous family. A veteran of the Black Hawk War, he was raised by Shakers and became a Quaker, and then a Methodist before encountering Mormonism as preached by Charles C. Rich. He married six times (Samantha/Surmantha Peck, Louisa Taylor, Lucretia Fisher, names of others not recorded) and fathered nineteen children. He participated in the battle of Crooked River and escaped from Far West before the city was taken. He was endowed 15 December 1845 at Nauvoo where he served as clerk of the high council and as chief of police, a function he also carried out at Winter Quarters and in Salt Lake City. He was, successively, a captain, major, and colonel in the Nauvoo Legion. Hosea died 2 March 1889 in Salt Lake City. Cannon and Cook, 291; LeSueur, 241; Black, Membership.

Stowell, Josiah, was born in 1770 at Winchester, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, owned a farm and a saw mill near Bainbridge, New York, and employed Joseph Smith Sr. and Jr. both as day laborers and in a determined search for treasure in Pennsylvania where Joseph Jr. met and courted Emma Hale. He testified freely in court that Joseph Smith Jr. had not attempted to obtain money from him under false pretenses and that he was a true seer. Stowell and his wife, Mariam Bridgeman Stowell, were the parents of eight. He did not move to Kirtland; but as late as December 1843, Martha L. Campbell wrote Joseph Smith, transmitting Stowell’s greetings, his request for the faith and prayers of the Saints that his health would improve, his intention to come to Nauvoo in the spring of 1844, and his declaration of faith: “he says he never staggard at the foundation of the work for he knew to much concerning it.” He died at Smithboro, Tioga County, New York. Jessee 1:517; Black, Membership.

Taffe, an innkeeper at Gilsum, Vermont, four miles from South Hadley. Richard Anderson, New England, 14.

Tanner, John, was born 15 August 1778 at Hopkinton, Washington County, Rhode Island, to Joshua Tanner and Thankful Tefft Tanner. A leading Baptist, John was converted by Jared and Simeon Carter and baptized 17 September 1833, ordained a high priest, endowed 23 December 1845 at the Nauvoo temple, and sealed to his wife on 18 January 1846. Hyrum Smith’s affidavit tells how he was fired at twice in Missouri, [p.879]the gun misfiring both times, in October 1838, then was hit on the head with a rifle and brought unconscious to the stockade where he was left in the sun, his scalp ripped to the skull, for several hours.

John married Tabitha Bentley in January 1800, and they had a son, Elisha B., born 23 March 1801. In January 1802/1801, he married Lydia Stewart at Greenwich, Washington County, New York, and they became the parents of twelve children. Born at Greenwich were William Stewart (27 October 1802), Matilda (14 September 1804), Willard (29 October 1806), Sidney (1 April 1809), John Joshua (19 December 1811), Romelia (1 April 1814), Nathan (14 May 1815), and twins Edward and Edwin (3 October 1817). Born at Bolton, Warren County, New York, were Maria Louisa (18 November 1818), Martin Henry (21 March 1822), and Albert Mills (4 April 1825). John married his third wife, Elizabeth Beswick, on 3/13 November 1825 at Bolton where their first four children were born: Myron (7 June 1826), Seth Benjamin (6 March 1828/9), Freeman Everton (3 January 1830), and Joseph Smith (11 June 1833). Born at Kirtland were Philomelia (10 March 1835) and David Dan (8 February 1838). Their last two children were born in Lee County, Iowa: Sarah (19 July 1840) and Francis (10 March 1843).

John and his large family came to Utah on 17 October 1848 with the Amasa M. Lyman Company and settled at Payson, Utah County. John died 13 April 1850 at South Cottonwood, Salt Lake County, Utah. Black, Membership.

Taylor, a member of New Portage, New York, with whom Joseph Smith Sr. sought refuge while waiting to go to Kirtland in 1831.

Taylor, John, was born 1 November 1808 at Milnthorpe, Westmoreland County, England, to James and Agnes Taylor. He was a Methodist minister in Toronto, Ontario, when he was converted and baptized by Parley P. Pratt (9 May 1836) and ordained an elder. He was ordained a high priest (1837) at Kirtland, then ordained an apostle on 19 December 1838 at Far West. He moved to Montrose, Iowa, then served a mission with the other Twelve (1840-41, 1846-47) and another to France (1850-52). He edited the Times and Seasons (1842-46), Nauvoo Neighbor (1843-45), and The Mormon (1855-57). At Nauvoo he also served on the city council, with the Nauvoo Legion, as regent of the university, and became a Mason (22 April 1842) and a member of the Council of Fifty. He was wounded by four bullets at Carthage Jail on 27 June 1844. He married Leonora Cannon (1833), Mary Ann Oakley, Elizabeth Kaighin, Jane Ballantyne, Mary Rainsbottom, Lydia Dibble, Sophia Whitaker, Harriet Whitaker, and Margaret Young, and fathered thirty-one children.

He reached Utah in the fall of 1847 where he served as an associate judge, legislator (1857-76), speaker of the house (five terms), probate judge in Utah County (1868-70), territorial superintendent of schools (1877), director/president of ZCMI, and third president of the church (1880-87). He died in hiding from federal officials in Utah on 25 July 1887 at Kaysville, Davis County, Utah. Cook, Revelations, 234-35.

Thayer/Thayre, Ezra B., was born 14 October 1791 at Randolph, Windsor County, Vermont, to Ezra Thayer and Charlotte French Thayer. He married Polly Wales [p.880](1810) and had at least one child, a son named Andrew. The Smith family was employed on some of his bridges, dams, and mills in the Palmyra area. Converted by Hyrum Smith’s preaching and the Book of Mormon, he was baptized by Parley P. Pratt in October 1830. He was ordained both an elder and a high priest in June 1831, participated in Zion’s Camp, received at least three other mission calls, was disfellowshipped briefly (1835), and moved to Missouri (1838), then to Nauvoo where he became a member of the Council of Fifty (1844). He disaffiliated after the murders of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, was living in Michigan in 1860, and was baptized RLDS by W. W. Blair. Cook, Revelations, 47-48.

Thomas. Don Carlos Smith mentions a member with this surname in Missouri in February 1839. Although the name is far from unusual, a David Thomas owned land at De Witt, Carroll County, Missouri, and, with Henry Root, encouraged Mormons to settle there in 1838. He died in 1845. Jessee 2:599.

Thompson, Mercy Rachel Fielding. See Robert B. Thompson and Hyrum Smith.

Thompson, Robert Blashel, was born 1 October 1811 at Great Driffield, Yorkshire, England, became a Methodist preacher, moved to Canada, and was converted by the preaching of Parley P. Pratt. After his baptism in May 1836, he visited Kirtland (1837), served his first mission (Toronto), then moved to Far West where he fought at the Battle of Crooked River. At Nauvoo he worked for Joseph Smith as a scribe. He was also general clerk, colonel in the Nauvoo legion, city treasurer, university regent, and associate editor of the Times and Seasons.

He married British convert Mercy Rachel Fielding, sister of Joseph Fielding and Mary Fielding on 4 June 1837. She was born 15 June 1807 at Honedon, Bedfordshire, England, to John Fielding and Rachel Abbotson Fielding. She and her siblings, Joseph and Mary, immigrated to Canada in 1832 where they were converted by Parley P. Pratt. Mercy was baptized on 21 May 1836. Robert and Mercy had one child, Mary Jane. After Robert’s death on 27 August 1841, she was sealed to Hyrum as his plural wife on 11 August 1843 and to Robert by proxy on 23 January 1846. Mercy died 15 September 1893 at Salt Lake City. Cook, Revelations, 278; Black, Membership; Black, Who’s Who, 321-23.

Tibbets/Tippets, Alvin/Alva, was born in 1809 at Lewis, New York, and baptized in 1832. He was in Missouri where he was associated with the Danites, came to Nauvoo in 1840 and organized a branch at Burnettsville, White County, Indiana, in 1842; however, that same year, he also appeared as a Nauvoo resident in its census and on its tax records. He died in 1847 at Winter Quarters, Nebraska. Cannon and Cook, 292; Platt, “Early,” 8; Quinn, Origins, 484.

Tillery, Samuel, a jailor and deputy sheriff at Liberty Jail. When Daviess County refused to pay him for transporting the prisoners to Boone County since they escaped en route, Doniphan wrote a letter saying the deputies had done their duty and deserved payment. Launius, Alexander, 71.

[p.881]Turnham, Joel T., judge of the circuit court in Clay County. Launius characterizes his impartiality as “legendary.” During the June 1834 trial over the expulsion from Jackson County, he rebuked a witness who called for the further expulsion of the Mormons from Clay County, called Jackson County’s action a “disgrace,” and described the Mormons as “better citizens than many of the old inhabitants.” In November 1838 when Doniphan applied to him to release Joseph and Hyrum Smith and the others incarcerated with them in Liberty Jail, Turnham refused. Launius, Alexander, 22, 70.

Tuttle, Lovisa Mack. See Solomon Mack.

Utley. Don Carlos Smith mentions staying with a Brother Utley in Benton County, Tennessee, during his mission with George A. Smith in October 1838. David Patten and Wilford Woodruff had been mobbed in this neighborhood “some years ago.” This individual was likely Seth Utley, married to Bathsheba Wood Utley; the Messenger and Advocate (February 1936): 263, gives notice of a conference to be held at the home of “Elder S. Utley Chalklevel, Benton Co Ten.,” confirmed in personal writings of Warren Parrish, David Patten, and Wilford Woodruff. An electronic search of Wilford Woodruff diaries on CD-ROM reveals a half dozen references to “Seth Utley” of Tennessee. Black, Membership; Parish, 404-5; Wilson, 54; New Mormon Studies.

Walker, Lovina Smith. See Hyrum Smith.

Warner. A man by this name from Macedon, New York, arranged for Joseph Smith Jr. to dig a well for a widow named Wells in Macedon in 1829. Vogel (1:329) suggests that this individual was Nahum Warner, a man in his thirties and the only Warner in the 1830 Macedon census.

Wasson, Elizabeth Hale. See Isaac Hale.

Webster. This individual was a fellow soldier of Solomon Mack’s under Captain Henry during the 1757 campaign near Stillwater, New York.

Wells. In 1829 Joseph Smith Jr. began digging a well for a widow by this name from Macedon, New York. Vogel (1:330) suggests that this is Mary Wells, a woman in her thirties and the only female by that name listed in the 1830 Macedon census.

Wells, Daniel Hanmer, was born 27 October 1814 at Trenton, Oneida County, New York, to Daniel Wells and Catherine Chapin Wells. Daniel taught school in Ohio and Illinois, moved to Commerce, Illinois, in 1834, was baptized 19 August 1846, was endowed on 21 February 1851 at the Salt Lake Endowment House, became Brigham Young’s second counselor (1857-77), and also served as superintendent of Public Works, head of the Nauvoo Legion during its Utah engagements with the Indians, president of the European Mission (1884-87), first president of the Manti temple, president of the Endowment House, chancellor of the University of Deseret, territorial legislator, territorial attorney-general, mayor of Salt Lake City (1866-76), and director of the Utah Central Railroad. An entrepreneur in Utah, he developed coal mines in Summit County, operated lumber mills in Cottonwood Canyon, managed the Salt Lake nail [p.882]factory, established Salt Lake City’s gas works, and was interested in many other business and industrial institutions.

Daniel married Eliza Rebecca Robison/Robinson in 1835/12 March 1837 at Commerce, Hancock County, Illinois, and they had one child, Albert Emory, born 28 March 1839 at Nauvoo. He next married Louisa Free on 15 February 1849 at Salt Lake City; they had seven children: Daniel Hanmer Jr. (24 November 1849), Frances Louisa (13 March 1852), Rulon Seymour (7 July 1854), Emeline Young (13 April 1857), Eliza Free (3 October 1859), Clara Ellen (23 October 1862), and Melvin Dickenson (31 July 1867). On 20 September 1849, he married Martha Givens Harris, and fathered six children: Martha Deseret, Emily, Heber Manning, Joseph Smith, Edna, and Briant Harris. In 1852 he married a fourth wife (name not given) and fathered six children: Catherine, Lucy Ann, Wilford, Arthur D., Mary Minerva, and Louis Robison. An unnamed fifth wife, married in 1852, bore four children: Annette, George A., Stephen, and Charles H. An unnamed sixth wife had eight children: Abbie C., Junius Free (1 June 1854), Gershom Britain Finley (November 1864), Victor Pennington, Luna Pamela, Brigham, Ephraim, and Preston. His seventh wife, Emmeline Blanche Woodward Whitney, married in 1854, had three daughters: Emmie (10 September 1853), Annie, and Louie. He died 24 March 1891 at Salt Lake City. Black, Membership.

West, of Benton County, Tennessee. Don Carlos Smith appreciatively mentions how this brother gave him and George A. Smith $28 for traveling expenses on their mission. This individual was probably Samuel West, born 30 March 1804 in Dixon County, Tennessee, to John West and Sarah Walker West. He married Margaret Cooper (1829) and six of their ten children had been born, all in Benton County, at the time of Don Carlos’s visit: Sarah Esther (8 November 1829), John Anderson (19 December 1830), Isles Marion (23 April 1832), Susan Elizabeth (4 December 1833), Emma Serphine (3 January 1836), Margaret Fletcher (22 May 1838), Lydia Clementine (21 April 1840 at Wadesborough, Calloway County, Kentucky), William Moroni (9 February 1842 at Wadesborough), Nancy Malinda (22 March 1844 at Nauvoo), and Samuel Wilford (22 April 1847 at Kanesville, Pottawattamie County, Iowa). Samuel also married Christina Johnson on 20 February 1858 and Mary Hansen on 15 May 1858. He was baptized 30 November 1834 at Benton County, Tennessee, by Warren Parrish, ordained a teacher 25 August 1843 by Isaac Higbee and Libius Calhoun; ordained a priest at Pottawattamie County, Iowa, ordained a seventy 10 December 1848 at Kanesville, Pottawattamie County, Iowa, and ordained a high priest on 13 April 1853 at Parowan, Iron County, Utah, by Wilford Woodruff and Orson Pratt. He farmed at Beaver and died 22 February 1870 in Washington County, Utah. Black, Membership.

White. Lucy, leaving an unfilled blank for the name, comments that Joseph Jr. succeeded in purchasing a large tract of land at Commerce, Illinois. (She does not mention that the Mormons also bought land from Isaac Galland.) The seller was Hugh White who had bought land in the area with his father, James, and two brothers, Alexander and William, in about 1823. In addition to farming, the Whites were also keelboat operators between St. Louis and Galena. The log cabin that Hugh White built became [p.883]the home of Joseph and Emma, Joseph Sr., and Lucy (1839-42), still extant and known as the “Homestead.” Sidney Rigdon occupied a two-story stone house constructed by James White, no longer standing. Alexander died in 1836, James in 1837. Flanders 23-42; Miller and Miller, 235-41, esp. 27-29, 237-41 for legal and financial arrangements.

Whitermore. See Solomon Mack.

Whiting. Solomon Mack’s narrative mentions a colonel by this name in a 1757 campaign.

Whitmer, Christian. See Peter Whitmer Sr.

Whitmer, David, was born 7 January 1805 at Harrisburg, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, to Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Elsa Musselman Whitmer, was elected sergeant in the local militia on 12 March 1825, was one of the Three Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, and was ordained an elder ca. April-June 1830. He married Julia Ann Jolly on 9 January 1831, moved to Jackson County, was driven into Clay County (1834), was appointed president of the church in Missouri and the Clay County high council (July 1834), became disillusioned with Joseph Smith’s leadership, and was excommunicated on 13 April 1838 at Far West at the same time as Oliver Cowdery. His extended family either resigned or was also excommunicated at this time. He became a permanent, prosperous, and well-respected resident of Richmond, Ray County, Missouri, affiliated briefly with William McLellin (1847), organized the Church of Christ in the 1870s, and maintained his testimony of the Book of Mormon until his death on 25 January 1888. Black, Who’s Who, 328-31; Richard Anderson, Investigating, 67, 70-72, 127, 167; Cannon and Cook, 294; Cook, Revelations, 24-27.

Whitmer, Jacob. See Peter Whitmer Sr.

Whitmer, John. See Peter Whitmer Sr.

Whitmer, Peter, Jr. See Peter Whitmer Sr.

Whitmer, Peter, Sr., was born 14 April 1773 in Pennsylvania, and married Mary Elsa Musselman Whitmer (born in 1856). Natives of Germany, they moved to Waterloo, New York, about 1809, where they and their children belonged to Zion’s Church, a German Reformed group. Peter was road overseer (1826-27) and a school trustee. They were among the earliest 1830 converts. The traditional location for the organization of the church is their home at Fayette, Seneca County, New York, on 6 April 1830. Peter Sr. was baptized 18 April 1830 at Seneca Lake by Oliver Cowdery. They moved to Kirtland (1831), then to Jackson County, Missouri (1832), Clay County, and Caldwell County. The entire family disaffiliated in 1838 after the excommunications of David Whitmer and Oliver Cowdery. Peter died 12 August 1854 at Richmond, Ray County. Mary died two years later, also at Richmond.

Peter and Mary had a family of eight children. Their five sons and one of their sons-in-law were witnesses to the Book of Mormon. Mary, as consolation for the extra [p.884]labor caused by the presence of Joseph Smith and Oliver, was also shown the plates by an angel.

1. Christian was born 18 January 1798 at Dauphin, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. On 22 February 1825, he married Ann/Anne Schott (1801-66), served as an ensign in the local militia, and as one of six township constables (1828-29). One of Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, he and Ann were baptized by Oliver Cowdery on 11 April 1830, and Christian was ordained an elder. They moved with the family to Missouri where Christian was appointed to preside over the elders in Jackson County on 15 September 1832, was ordained a high priest by Simeon Carter (21 August 1833), served on the Far West high council (1834), and died in 1835, leaving no children. Anne married Francis Hulett in Missouri, divorced him, and returned to Fayette, New York.

2. Jacob was born 27 January 1800, married Elizabeth Ann Schatt/Schott (born 1803) on 29 September 1825, fathered nine children of whom three survived (David P., Mary Ann, and John C.), was one of the Eight Witnesses (1829), and was baptized on 11 April 1830 by Oliver Cowdery. He was driven successively from Jackson, Clay, and Caldwell counties, served on the Far West high council, and left the church (1838) when John and David were excommunicated. An invalid from 1840-43, he was a shoemaker and farmer near Richmond, Ray County, Missouri. He died 21 April 1856, affirming his testimony of the Book of Mormon. Elizabeth was living with a daughter and son-in-law (J. P. Bisbee) in 1860 in Richmond, Missouri.

3. John, also one of the Eight Witnesses, was born 27 August 1802, baptized in June 1830, ordained an elder on 19 June, and appointed Church Historian (1831). He moved to Missouri (1831) where he served on the high council and as counselor to his brother David in the presidency, and received his patriarchal blessing on 22 September 1835 at Kirtland from Joseph Smith Sr. When members in Far West charged him with profiting economically from land transactions, he refused to appear for trial and was excommunicated on 10 March 1838. He married Sarah Jackson on 10 February 1833, and they became the parents of five children: Nancy Jane, John Oliver, Sarah Elizabeth, Jacob David Jackson, and Alexander Peter Jefferson. John was driven from Far West by the Danites but returned and became a successful farmer, continuing to affirm his faith in the Book of Mormon until his death on 11 June 1878 at Far West.

4. David (q.v.) was born 7 January 1805.

5. Catherine was born 22 April 1807. See Hiram Page.

6. Peter Jr. was born 27 September 1809 at Fayette, Seneca County, New York, one of the Eight Witnesses (1829), baptized by Oliver Cowdery and ordained an elder by 9 June, called with Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt, and Ziba Peterson on a mission to the Indians in Missouri, made numerous converts at Kirtland en route (1830-31), and was ordained a high priest at Kirtland on 25 October 1831. He married Vashti Higley on 14 October 1832 in Jackson County with Oliver Cowdery officiating. They had three daughters: Emma, Kate, and Vashti P. He served on the Far West high council and died near Liberty, Clay County, of tuberculosis on 22 September 1836.

7. Nancy was born 24 December 1812.

[p.885]8. Elizabeth Ann was born 22 January 1815. See Oliver Cowdery. Richard Anderson, Investigating, 125-27, 129, 131-32; Cannon and Cook, 294-95; Black, Membership; Vogel 1:99; LeSueur, 201.

Whitney, Elizabeth Ann Smith. See Newel K. Whitney.

Whitney, Newel Kimball, the second Presiding Bishop of the church, was born 5 February 1795, at Marlborough, Windham County, Vermont, the second of Samuel Whitney and Susanna Kimball Whitney’s nine children. He participated in a naval engagement near the west shore of Lake Champlain in 1814, lost his property in the war, became an Indian trader, was nearly killed by a drunken Indian but was saved when a young Indian woman named Moudalina held the attacker until Whitney could escape (he named a daughter for her), moved to Painesville, Ohio, and clerked for Algernon Sidney Gilbert about 1817. Several years later, he was a junior partner.

He married Elizabeth Ann Smith of Connecticut on 20 October 1822. She had been born 26 December 1800 at Derby, New Haven County, Connecticut, to Gibson Smith and Polly Bradley Smith. They had eleven children: Horace Kimball (born 25 July 1823 at Kirtland, married Helen Mar Kimball, daughter of Heber and Vilate Kimball and a plural wife of Joseph Smith, on 3 February 1846; died 22 November 1884 at Salt Lake City); Sarah Ann (born 22 March 1825; Newel officiated in marrying Sarah Ann to Joseph Smith on 27 July 1842; Joseph Smith also performed a sham ceremony on 29 April 1843 marrying her to Joseph C. Kingsbury (q.v.); she was married for time to Heber C. Kimball after Joseph Smith’s death and died 4 September 1873 at Salt Lake City), Franklin Kimball (1827), Mary Elizabeth (twin daughters and a single daughter born in 1828 were all given this name; none survived), Orson Kimball (born 1830; married Johannah Hickey Robertson; baptized 1841, endowed in the Nauvoo temple 1 January 1846, ordained a Seventy; died 1884 in Utah); John Kimball (1832), Joshua Kimball (1835), Ann Maria (1836), Don Carlos (1841), Mary Jane (born at Nauvoo), and Newel Melchizedek (born at Winter Quarters).

Newel and Elizabeth were Campbellites when they heard Parley P. Pratt preach Mormonism and were baptized in November 1830. About 1 February 1831, Joseph and Emma Smith arrived at Kirtland. On 4 December 1831, Whitney was called as bishop of Kirtland, counterpart to Edward Partridge (q.v.) who was bishop of “Zion” in Missouri. Newel accompanied Joseph Smith to Missouri (1 April 1832-6 May 1832) and was detained four weeks in Indiana when he broke his leg. He served missions to New York City, Albany, and Boston (1832), received his patriarchal blessing on 14 September 1835, worked on the Kirtland temple, and participated in its dedication (March 1836). He started to move his family to Missouri (November 1838) but learned of the extermination order and stopped at St. Louis.

He moved to Nauvoo where he was appointed a ward bishop on 6 October 1839, served on the city council, was endowed 4 May 1842, was a member of the Council of Fifty, and was sealed to seven plural wives. He was sealed first to Emmeline B. Woodward on 24 February 1845 and fathered two daughters: Isabel Modalena and Melvina Caroline Blanch. On 26 January 1846, he was married to six women: Olive Maria [p.886]Bishop, Anna Houston (one son, Jethro Houston), Elizabeth Moore, Elizabeth Almira Pond, Abigail Augusta Pond, and Henrietta Keys.

At Kirtland, Elizabeth made the first wine used for the sacrament, received the gift of tongues during a patriarchal blessing meeting, and last exercised this gift at her eighty-first birthday party in the home of Emmeline B. Wells, formerly a sister wife, now married to Daniel H. Wells. Elizabeth was first counselor in the Relief Society to Emma Smith (1842-44); Joseph Smith also set her apart “to administer to the sick and comfort the sorrowful.” She and Newel were sealed on 7 January 1846 in the Nauvoo temple.

The family moved to Winter Quarters in 1846 and reached Utah in 1848. Elizabeth Ann suffered all her life from rheumatism caught by sleeping on the ground during the trek west. In Utah, Newel served as justice of the peace and bishop of Eighteenth Ward until his death on 23 September 1850. Elizabeth died 15 February 1882 at Salt Lake City. Cook, Revelations, 102-3; Jenson 1:222; Profile, 106; Compton, 342-63.

Wight, Lyman, was born 9 May 1796 at Fairfield Township, Herkimer County, New York, to Levi Wight and Sarah Corbon Wight. A veteran of the War of 1812, he moved to Ohio about 1826, became a Campbellite, and was baptized Mormon by Oliver Cowdery on 14 November 1830. He was the first man ordained a high priest (3 June 1831). He moved to Independence in 1831, served numerous missions, participated in Zion’s Camp, was endowed at Kirtland (June 1834), and received his patriarchal blessing (29 December 1835). He was forced out of Jackson County; Harriet, pregnant with their fourth child, rafted fourteen miles down the Big Blue River in October, and gave birth in a tent made of two poles and a quilt on 27 December 1833. They moved to Clay County in 1834 where Harriet gave birth to their fifth child in 1836 while Lyman was on a mission, then moved to Ray County (1837), where he was elected colonel of Ray County militia, and then to Daviess County in June 1838 where he commanded a Mormon militia unit of approximately 300 at Adam-ondi-Ahman and served as stake president John Smith’s second counselor. He was arrested at Far West on 29 October 1838 with Joseph Smith and others and refused amnesty in exchange for testifying against Joseph Smith. Harriet gave birth to their sixth child at Adam-ondi-Ahman while a yelling mob surrounded her home. Lyman was imprisoned in Liberty Jail with Joseph and Hyrum Smith but was allowed to escape (1839).

At Nauvoo he was ordained an apostle (8 April 1841), collected affidavits on the Missouri injuries, helped collect money for the temple, became a Mason (25 April 1842), served in the Nauvoo Legion and on the high council, supervised the pineries project in Wisconsin, was endowed 14 May 1844, and was assigned to organize a colony in Texas. He left for Texas in May 1845, founded Zodiac in Gillespie County, Texas (1846), married three plural wives and fathered six children, wrote a pamphlet rejecting the leadership of the Twelve (1848), and was disfellowshipped on 3 December 1848. In Texas he was elected a county judge and died 31 March 1858 at Dexter, Medina County, Texas. Cannon and Cook, 273, 295, Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 652; LeSueur, 155; Black, Who’s Who, 342-43; Cook, Revelations, 82-83.

Wilber. Lucy refers to a member by this name in New York. Possible (but by no means [p.887]the only) candidates are: (1) Benjamin S. Wilber/Wilbur was born in 1811 and was ordained an elder on 28 December 1836 at Kirtland and a seventy in 1837. He moved to Daviess County, Missouri, in 1838 as one of the presidents of the First Council of Seventy with Kirtland Camp. His baby son died en route on 11 July 1838. (2) Melvin L. Wilbur was born 10 August 1802/1801 at Bridgewater, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, to Lemuel Wilbur and Jane Leach Wilbur. He married Eunice Dennis on 15 February 1824 and fathered eight children, then married five plural wives. By 1836 the family had reached Kirtland from Rhode Island. In Missouri he moved to “wells vill” on 1 March 1838, then to Richmond, in Ray County, then to Far West in April. He was driven out of Far West on 10 November when he had ague and his wife was “Scared in to fits.” He represented Rhode Island as a delegate in nominating Joseph Smith for the U.S. presidency on 17 May 1844. He died 15 November 1885/1888 at Salt Lake City. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 375-76; Cook and Backman, 106; Backman, Heavens, 358, 360; HC 6:390.

Williams, Frederick G., was born 28 October 1787 at Suffield, Hartford County, Connecticut, to William (or Warren) Williams and Ruth Granger Williams. He became a Thompsonian doctor, was a veteran of the War of 1812, and piloted on the Great Lakes. He married Rebecca Swain and they settled in Kirtland, where he farmed, practiced medicine, was a Campbellite, and served as justice of the peace. He was baptized and ordained an elder in November 1830 when Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt, Ziba Peterson, and Peter Whitmer Jr. came through on their missionary journey to Missouri; he accompanied them for the next ten months. He was called as a scribe to Joseph Smith in July 1832, called as Joseph Smith’s counselor in December 1832 or January 1833, edited the Northern Times, participated in Zion’s Camp (1834), had spiritual manifestations at the dedication of the Kirtland temple, but became disaffected, was disfellowshipped in September 1837, and was rebaptized in August 1838. He suffered from ill health, exacerbated by the Missouri trials, and died of a lung hemorrhage on 25/10 October 1842 at Quincy, Adams County, Illinois. Black, Who’s Who, 36-48.

Williams, Levi. A Baptist preacher and farmer at Green Plains, Illinois, Williams was also a militia colonel over troops from Hancock, McDonough, and Schuyler counties, who took an aggressive role in harassing Mormons and in the assassinations of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. In December 1843 he arrested Mormons Daniel Avery and his son Philander, apparently without a warrant; instead of taking them to Warsaw, he transported them to Missouri where they were imprisoned for alleged horse stealing. Philander managed to escape but Daniel was released only upon a writ of habeas corpus. Williams attempted to confiscate the arms of Mormons living near Lima. He was indicted with others for the murders of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, released on bail, and acquitted at the trial. He headed a planned “wolf-hunt” in Hancock County in September 1844, in which Mormons would be the prey. Governor Ford raised a force of volunteers and dispersed them. Williams died quietly in Green Plains about 1858. HC 6:119, 471; 7:421; CHC 2:309-10, 331, 497.

[p.888]Wilson, Harmon, a constable at Carthage, Illinois, was, according to Lucy, a Missourian “in principle” in his opposition to Joseph Smith.

Wilson, Moses, was a brigadier general in Missouri during the 1838 Mormon war. At the illegal court-martial under Samuel Lucas, he urged turning the prisoners over to the civil authorities. After Doniphan refused to carry out Lucas’s order to execute Joseph and Hyrum, Wilson was assigned on 2 November to transport Joseph Smith and the other prisoners to Richmond in Ray County to Judge Austin A. King’s preliminary hearing. Mrs. Wilson was greatly impressed with Joseph Smith. The Wilsons later moved to Texas. Launius, Alexander, 65; JD 17:92.

Wood/Woods, Sashiel/Sachiel/Sashel, was one of three ministers who led militia companies against the Mormons during the Missouri War of 1838. (The others were Samuel Bogard/Bogart and Cornelius Gillium.) Woods preached for the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, a less orthodox group that sponsored emotional camp-meetings. He claimed that George M. Hinckle threatened him when he brought a committee to De Witt, Carroll County, to investigate resident complaints in July 1838; Woods failed to appear at the trial. Elected a major in a volunteer militia group at the siege of De Witt, he ordered the Mormons out by 7 August 1838. After the Mormon evacuation of Adam-ondi-Ahman and surrender at Far West, the next land payment for Diahman fell due on 12 November 1838. Woods, John Cravens, and Thomas Callaway purchased the town for $1.25 an acre. Woods and Cravens also purchased more than twelve tracts of land in Daviess County, possibly Mormon farms, in December 1838. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 503; LeSueur, 22, 103, 237-38.

Woodbridge, Colonel Ruggles, of South Hadley, Massachusetts, was born 5 March 1739 and died 8 March 1819. His title comes from commanding a regiment in the Revolutionary War. An unmarried philanthropist, he operated a select boys’ school. In 1791 he donated a bell to the town, and it was hung in a steeple and belfry, which were completed by 18 June 1792 for South Hadley church. The bell, however, was flawed, and recast in 1793. Since Lucy visited Lovina “when it was first hung,” her visit occurred sometime between the summer of 1792 and the following year. Richard Anderson, New England, 68-69, 182-83.

Woodruff, Wilford, was born 1 March 1807 at Farmington, Hartford County, Connecticut, to Aphek Woodruff and Beulah Thompson Woodruff. A religious seeker as a youth, he learned about Mormonism through Zera Pulsipher’s preaching and was baptized by him on 31 December 1833 in New York. He moved to Kirtland in April 1834, participated in Zion’s Camp (1834), received his patriarchal blessing (15 April 1837) from Joseph Smith Sr., and was ordained an apostle at Far West on 26 April 1839. He served missions to the Southern States (1834-36), to the Fox Islands (1837), to Great Britain (1840-41, 1844-46), and the eastern states (1844). At Nauvoo he served on the city council, was sealed to Phoebe on 11 November 1843, and was endowed 2 December 1843.

He kept a remarkable journal for sixty-three years, was active in promoting agri-[p.889]culture in Utah, was assistant church historian, and served as church president from 1889 until his death on 2 September 1898 at San Francisco. He issued the Manifesto withdrawing public authorization for new plural marriages (September 1890), presided over the dedication of the Salt Lake temple (1893), and saw Utah become a state (1896).

He married Phoebe Whitmore Carter on 13 April 1837, and they became the parents of nine: Sarah Emma, Wilford Jr., Phoebe Amelia, Susan Cornelia, Joseph, Ezra, Sarah Carter, Beulah Augusta, and Aphek. He fathered twenty-four more children by his plural wives: Mary Ann Jackson (1846), Mary Caroline Barton (1846), Mary Meek Giles (1852), Clarissa Hardy (1852), Sarah E. Brown (1853), Emma Smith (1853), and Sarah Delight Stocking (1857). Mary Jackson divorced him in 1848 and Clarissa Hardy in 1853. Cannon and Cook, 297; Black, Who’s Who, 353-55; Van Wagoner and Walker, 396; Cook, Revelations, 236-37.

Woolley, Edwin Dilworth, was born 28 June 1807 at West Chester, Chester County, Pennsylvania, the oldest of John Woolley’s and Rachel Dilworth Woolley’s six children. He was baptized on 24 December 1837. Two of his brothers also joined the church: (1) John Mill Woolley, was born 20 November/December 1822; received a patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr. in 1838; was baptized 7 October 1840 by Almon W. Babbitt; married three wives; fathered eleven children; and died 18 August 1864 at Salt Lake City; and (2) Samuel Amos, born 11 September 1825 at Newlin, Columbia/Chester County, Pennsylvania; baptized 7 October 1840; married four wives; fathered twenty-one children; bishop of Ninth Ward; died 23 March 1900 at Salt Lake City. In Nauvoo, Edwin D. was endowed on 22 December 1845. They reached Utah in 1848. In Salt Lake City, he served as bishop of Thirteenth Ward (1853-81), was a merchandiser, county recorder, a territorial legislator, and Brigham Young’s business manager. He served on the high council and helped found the Deseret Telegraph Company.

He married Mary Wickersham on 24 March 1831 in Ohio. She was born 10 November 1808 at Newlin, Columbia County, Pennsylvania, to Ames Wickersham and Amy Ward Wickersham. Mary died at Salt Lake City in 1859. They had eight children: John Wickersham (born 30 December 1831 in Newlin, Columbia/Chester County, Pennsylvania; married three women and fathered at least six children; died 13/28 December 1928 at Centerville, Davis County, Utah), Franklin Benjamin (born 11 June 1834 at East Rochester, Columbia/Columbiana County, Ohio; married Olive Carl/Carter Foss on 11 February 1857 and Artimesia Snow in April 1868; fathered eight children; and died 21 March 1869 in the Mojave Desert near San Bernardino, California), Rachel Emma (born 7 August 1836 at East Rochester, Columbia County, Ohio; married Joseph Marcellus Simmons; died 30 November 1926), Samuel Wickersham (born 2 April 1840 at Nauvoo; married three wives; fathered nineteen children; died 28 January 1908 at Grantsville, Tooele County, Utah), Henrietta (born at 6 January 1843 at Nauvoo; married Joseph Marcellus Simmons; died 15 January 1910), Edwin Dilworth Jr. (born 30 April 1845 at Nauvoo; married two wives and fathered eighteen children; was sheriff of Washington County and president of Kanab Stake; he died 20 July 1920 [p.890]at Kanab, Kane County), Mary Louisa (born 5 July 1848 at Keith County, Nebraska; married Joshua Reuben Clark; died 10 February 1938), Marcellus Simmons (born 27 August 1854 at Salt Lake City). He also married Louisa Chapin Gordon on 6 February 1846 at Nauvoo (one son, Edwin Gordon, was born 30 July 1845 at Nauvoo; married Mary Lavinia Bentley on 8 October 1869; fathered eleven children; and died 13 June 1930 at Salt Lake City); Ellen Wilding on the same day (children: Sarah, Joseph Wilding, Hyrum Smith, Edwin Thomas, and Mary Ellen); Mary Ann Alpin on 10 November 1850 (children: Henry Alberto, Amelia, Orson, Ruth, Olive, Fannie, George, and Carlos), and two unnamed wives (one son, Oceolo). He fathered a total of twenty-six children. Edwin died 14 October 1881 at Salt Lake City. Jessee 2:606; Black, Membership.

Worcester, this individual, whom Solomon Mack identifies as an ensign, received nine wounds, and was scalped and tomahawked, but survived. Richard L. Anderson identifies him as Peter Wooster, who participated in the 1758 Ticonderoga campaign; Solomon Mack is listed in an adjoining company. Richard Anderson, New England, 163.

Yocum/Yokum, William S., was born in 1805 and married a woman named Susan. At Haun’s Mill in Caldwell County on 30 October 1838, he was shot in the arm, in the head (the bullet entered near his eye and came out the back of his head), and in his leg, which was amputated on 25 July 1841. At Nauvoo he was a member of Second Ward and was endowed on 22 December 1845 at the Nauvoo temple. HC 4:390; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 627; Black, Membership.

Young, Brigham, was born 1 June 1801 at Whitingham, Vermont, the ninth of John Young’s and Abigail Howe Young’s eleven children. The family had recently moved from Massachusetts and, during Brigham’s childhood, relocated to New York where Abigail died when Brigham was fourteen. He became a carpenter, painter, and glazier, married Miriam Works on 5 October 1824, and had two children: Elizabeth (1825) and Vilate (1828). Brigham was baptized in April 1832 after reading the Book of Mormon. Miriam died in September, and Brigham began a series of missions. In the summer of 1833, he moved to Kirtland, where he married Mary Ann Angell of Seneca, Ontario County, New York, on 18 February 1834. They had six children. Young participated in Zion’s Camp (1834), was ordained an apostle in February 1835, helped construct the Kirtland temple, moved to Missouri in the summer of 1838, directed the Mormon evacuation from the state in the winter of 1838-39, served a mission in Great Britain with the other apostles (April 1840-January 1842), was a member of the Council of Fifty, helped build the Nauvoo temple, was endowed in 1842, was later sealed to Mary Ann, and married the first of fifty-three plural wives in June 1842.

As president of the Twelve after the assassination of Joseph Smith, he directed the completion of the Nauvoo temple and bestowal of the endowment on thousands of Saints, then led the vanguard company to the Salt Lake Valley on 5 April 1847. In Utah he oversaw the construction of three more temples, oversaw the founding of almost 400 towns and cities, fathered a total of fifty-seven children, gave more than 500 sermons, and died 19 August 1877 of peritonitis. Cannon and Cook, 297; Jessee 5:607; Arrington, American, 418-19; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 559; Jessee 2:607.

[p.891]Young Family. John Young and Abigail Howe Young had eleven children, the first eight born at Hopkinton, Massachusetts:

1. Nancy was born 6 August 1786, married Daniel Kent in 1803, had eight children, and died 22 September 1860 at Salt Lake City.

2. Fanny was born 8 November 1787, cared for Brigham as a baby because of her mother’s lingering illness, married Robert Carr in 1803, moved back home (he was reportedly “unfaithful and profligate”) when Abigail died in 1815, lived for a time with Heber and Vilate Kimball (she gave their daughter, Helen Mar, one of Joseph Smith’s plural wives, her name), married Roswell Murray (Vilate’s widowed father) on 2 February 1832, was baptized in April 1832, was widowed in 1840, was sealed to Joseph Smith by her brother Brigham in November 1843 (probably Joseph’s last plural wife), and died 11 June 1859 at Salt Lake City.

3. Rhoda. See John P. Greene.

4. John Jr. was born 22 May 1791, married Theodosia Kimball in 1813, fathered five children, and died 27 April 1870 at Salt Lake City.

5. Nabby was born 23 April 1793 and died 1807 at Smyrna, New York.

6. Susannah was born 7 June 1795, married James Little in 1814, had four children, and died 5 May 1852 at Salt Lake City.

7. Joseph was born 7 April 1797, was baptized in April 1832, married Jane A. Bicknell 18 February 1834 plus plural wives Lydia C. H. Fleming, Lucinda Allen, Mary Ann Huntley, and Sarah Jane Snow, and fathered a total of nineteen children, eleven of them by his first wife. Like Brigham, he was a painter and glazier. He was a president of the First Quorum of Seventy (1835-81), participated in Zion’s Camp (1834), moved to Missouri with Kirtland Camp (1838), was present at the Haun’s Mill massacre (1838), moved to Nauvoo in 1840 and to Utah in 1850, served a mission to England (1870), and died at Salt Lake City on 16 July 1881.

8. Phinehas/Phineas Howe was born 16 February 1799, married Clarissa Hamilton on 18 January 1818, and fathered five children. A printer, lawyer, and saddler, he became a minister in the Methodist Reformed Church but was converted to Mormonism by the Book of Mormon, was baptized (April 1832), and moved to Kirtland, where Clarissa died (1834). He served missions in England (1856-57), Canada, Virginia (1835), New York (1834), Ohio (1842-43), Michigan (1836), and other states (1835, 1843-44). On 25 August 1837, he moved to Far West, Caldwell County, Missouri, led a company to Black Hawk, Iowa (1839), and moved to Nauvoo (1840) where he was ordained a high priest. He reached Utah in Brigham Young’s pioneer company on 24 July 1847 and served as bishop of the Salt Lake Second Ward (1864-71). He married three additional wives (Lucy Pearce Cowdery, Phebe Clark, and Elinor Maria James) and fathered fourteen children. He died 10 October 1879 in Salt Lake City.

9. Brigham (q.v.) was born 1 June 1801.

10. Louisa was born 25 September 1804 at Sherburne, New York, married Joel Sanford on 6 October 1824, and died in 1833 at Independence, Missouri.

11. Lorenzo Dow was born 19 October 1807 at Sherburne, New York, married Persis Goodall on 6 June 1825, fathered ten children, and married four plural wives: [p.892]Harriet P. Wheeler (9 March 1843, two children), Hannah I. Hewitt (29 April 1856, two children), Eleanor Jones (29 April 1856, five children), and Joanna (Ann) Larson (18 April 1863, three children). He died in 1895 at Salt Lake City. Cannon and Cook, 297; Jessee 2:607, 5:607; Arrington, American, 418-19; Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 559; Vogel 1:439; Compton, 609-21.

Young, Joseph. See Young Family.

Young, Phineas Howe. See Young Family.