New Approaches to the Book of Mormon
Brent Lee Metcalfe, editor
The Major Parallel Texts
Below are listed the major parallel texts discussed above [in chapter 6]. The shorter parallels recognized incidentally and those subsequently summarized are not listed here. The English biblical text is the King James Version. Exact or almost near exact parallels are in boldface type; less exact parallels are italicized.
Parallels to Section 1
Part A: Parallels between Hebrews 7:1-2 and Genesis 14:18-20
|Hebrews 7:1-2||Genesis 14:18-20|
|(a)||(1) For this Melchisedec,||And Melchizedek|
|(b)||king of Salem,||king of Salem|
|(c)||brought forth bread and wine|
|(d)||priest of the most High God,||and he was the priest of the most High God|
|(e)||who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings [p.214]||(cf. 14:17-20)|
|(f)||and blessed him||(19) And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth; (20) And blessed be the most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand.|
|(g)||(2a) to whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all. [Cf. v. 4: “Abraham gave a tenth of the spoils.”]||And he gave him tithes of all.|
Part B: Parallels between Hebrews 7:1-2 and Genesis 14:18-20
in Original Languages
(Greek New Testament)
|(a)||(1) houtos gar ho Melchisedek||(18) kai Melchisedek||18) umalki-cedeq|
|(b)||basileus Salem||basileus Salem||melek çalem|
|(c)||exenenken artous kai oinon||hoci’ leHem wayayin|
|(d)||hiereus tou theou tou hypsistou||en de hiereus tou theou tou hypsistou||wehu’ kohen le’el celyon
apo tes kopes ton
|(cf 14:17-20)||(cf 14:17-20)|
|(f)||kai eulogesas auton||(19) kai eulogesen ton Abram kai eipen, eulogemenos Abram to theo to hypsisto, hos [p.215] ektisen ton ouranon kai ten gen, (20) kai eulogetos ho theos ho hypsistos hos paredoken tous echtrous sou hypocheirious soi||(19) waybarekehu wayyo’mar baruk ‘abram le’el celyon qone çamayim wa’arec (20) ubaruk ‘el celyon ‘açer miggen careka beyadeka|
|(g)||(2a) ho kai dekaten apo panton emerisen Abraam||kai edoken auto dekaten apo panton||wayyiten-lo macaSer mikkol|
Part C: Parallels between Hebrews 7:1-4 and Alma 13:17-19+15, 7-9
|Hebrews 7:1-4||Alma 13:17-19+15, 7-9|
|(a)||(1) for this Melchisedec,||(17) Now this Melchizedek|
|(b)||king of Salem,||was a king over the land of Salem,|
|(c)||and his people had waxed strong in iniquity and abominations. Yea, they had all gone astray; they were full of all manner of wickedness. (18) But Melchizedek, having exercised mighty faith and received the office|
|(d)||priest of the most high God||of the high priesthood according to the holy order of God,|
|(e)||did preach repentance unto his people|
|(f)||who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him;|
|(g)||(2) To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all;||[(15) And it was this same Melchizedek to whom Abraham paid tithes; yea, even our father [p.216]Abraham paid tithes of one–tenth part of all he possessed]|
|(h)||And behold, they did repent.|
|(i)||first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is King of peace;||And Melchizedek did establish peace in the land in his days; therefore he was called the Prince of Peace, for he was the king of Salem.|
|(j)||Without father, without mother, without descent,||And he did reign under his father.|
|(k)||[(7) This high priesthood after the order of his Son, which order was from the foundation of the world; or in other words,|
|having neither beginning of days nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God abideth a priest continually||being without beginning of days or end of years, being prepared from eternity to all eternity … (8) … high priesthood is|
|without beginning or end. (9) … the Only Begotten of the Father … is without beginning of days or end of years. …] (19) Now there were many before him, and also there were many afterwards,|
|(l)||(4) Now consider how great this man was …||but none were greater …|
Parallels to Section 2
Part A: Parallels between Hebrews 3:7-11 and Psalm 95:7-11
|Hebrews 3:7-11||Psalm 95:7-11|
|(7) Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith,|
|To day if ye will hear his voice,||(7b) To day if ye will hear his voice,|
|(8) Harden not your hearts as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness.(9)
When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years.
(10) Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They
do always err in their heart; and they have not known my ways,
(11) so I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my
|(8) Harden not your hearts, as in [p.217] the provocation, and as in the day of temptation in the wilderness.(9)
When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my work.
(10) Forty years long was I grieved with this generation, and said, It is a people
that do err in their heart, and they have not known my ways:
11) Unto whom I sware in my wrath, that they should not enter into my rest rest)
Part B: Parallels between Hebrews 3:7-11 and Psalm 95:7-11
in the Original Languages
(Greek New Testament)
|Psalm 94 (-95):7-11
|(7) Dio, kathos legei to pneuma to hagion|
|Semeron ean tes phones autou akousete||(7b) semeron, ean tes phones autou akousete||(7b) hayyom ‘im beqolo tiçmacu
|(8) me sklerunete tas kardias hymon hos en to parapikrasmo kata ten hemeran tou peirasmouen te eremo,||(8) me sklemnete tas kardias hymon hos en to parapikrasmo kata ten hemeran toupeirasmou en te eremo||(8) ‘al-taqçu lebabkem kimriba keyom massa bammidbar|
|(9) hou epeirasan hoi pateres hymon en dokimasia kai eidon ta erga mou||(9) hou epeirasan hoi pateres hymon edokimasan kai eidosan ta erga mou||(9) ‘açer nissuni ‘abotekem beHanuni gam-ra’u pocoli/ay|
|(10) tessarakonta ete dio prosochthisa te genea taute kai eipon, Aei planontai te kardia, autoi de ouk egnosan tas hodous mou,||(10) tessara konta ete prosochthisa te genea ekeinekai eipa Aei planontai te kardia kai autoi ouk egnosan tas hodous mou,
||(10) ‘arbacim çana ‘aqut bedor wa’omar cam toce lebab hem wehem lo’-yadecu derakay|
|(11) hos omosa en te orge mou Ei eiseleusontai eis ten katapausin mou.||(11) hos omosa en te orge mou Ei eiseleusontai eis ten katapausin mou.||(11) ‘açer niçbacti [p.218] be’appi ‘im-yebo’un ‘el-menuHati
Part C: Parallels between Hebrews 3-4 and Alma 12-13
Regarding the Motifs of Psalm 95:7-11
The main parallels here are between (1) hardening hearts, (2) entering into God’s rest, (3) the present (“Today”) as the day for spiritual response, and (4) provocation. These are more or less randomly distributed between the two passages. Sections marked (a)-(d), however, constitute parallel elements with similar order and form (this is where the texts have their citations). The texts run with no particular side-by-side correlation except at the citations. The texts are presented in order.
(Chap. 3 unless marked 4)
(Chap. 12 unless marked 13)
|(10) And therefore, he that will harden his heart, the same receiveth the lesser portion of the word; and he that will not harden his heart, to him is given the greater portion.…(11) and he that will harden his heart, …(13) … if our hearts have been hardened, yea, if we have hardened our hearts against the word. …(24) … This life became a probationary state; a time to prepare to meet God. …|
|(a)||(7) Wherefore the (as) Holy Ghost saith,||(33) But God did call on men, in the name of his Son, (this being the plan of redemption which was laid) saying:|
|(b)||“Today if ye will hear his voice,(8) Harden not your hearts as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness.(9) When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years.||“If ye will repent and harden not your heartsthen will I have mercy [p.219] upon you, through mine only Begotten Son.(34) Therefore, whoever repenteth and hardeneth not his heart, he shall have claim on mercy through mine Only Begotten Son, unto a remission of their sins,|
|(10) Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways,|
|(c) (11) So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest“)||and these shall enter into my rest(35) And whosoever will harden his heart and will do iniquity, behold, I swear in my wrath that they shall not enter into my rest.”|
|(d)||(12) Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief.…(13) But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through deceitfulness of sin.(15) While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation.(16) For some when they had heard, did provoke. …(18) And to whom sware he that they should not enter his rest, but to them that believed not?
(19) So we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief.
(4:1) Let us therefore hear, lest, a promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it.
(4:3) For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he has said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest. …
(4:6) Seeing therefore it remaineth that some must enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached entered not in because of unbelief.
(4:7) Again, he limiteth a certain day, saying in David, To day after so long a time; as it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts.
(4:8) For if Jesus [=Joshua] had given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day.
(4:9) There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God.
(4:10) For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his.
(4:11) Let us labour therefore to enter … into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief. [p.221]
|(36) And now my, brethren, behold, I sayunto you, that if ye will harden your hearts ye shall not enter into the rest of the Lord; therefore your inquity provoketh him that he sendeth down his wrath upon you as in the first provocation, yea, according to his word in the last provocation as well as the first, …(37) And now, my brethren, seeing that weknow these things, and they are true, let usrepent, [p.220] and harden not our hearts,
that we provoke not the Lord our God … but let us enter into the rest of God, which is prepared according to his word.
(13:4) … others would reject the Spirit of God on account of the hardness of their hearts, and the blindness of their minds. …
(13:6) … called … and ordained … to teach his commandments unto the children of men, that they also might enter into his rest.
(13:12) … there were many … which were made pure and entered into the rest of the Lord their God.
(13:13) … humble yourselves before God … that ye may also enter into that rest.
(13:16) … that they might enter into the rest of the Lord
(13:21) … Now is the time to repent, for the day of salvation draweth nigh.
(13:27) … I wish … that ye would … cast off your sins and not procrastinate the day of your repentance.
(13:29) Having faith on the Lord … that ye may be lifted up at the last day and enter into his rest.
Parallels to Section 4
Here are listed in schematic form parallels between Ether 12 and Hebrews 11 as well as other general points of contact between Ether 12 and Hebrews. I have not discussed these parallels in and of themselves, but it is clear that Ether 12 depends on Hebrews. It shows further how much of an influence Hebrews was on Joseph Smith.
|(4) Wherefore, whoso believeth night with surety hope for a better world, yea, even a place at the right hand of God,||(7:22) “surety of a better testament”(cf. “better” in 11:16, 35, 40) cf. “place” in 11:8 (see below) “right hand of … God/the Majesty” (1:3, 13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2, which depend on Ps. 110:1)|
|which hope cometh of faith, maketh an anchor to the souls of men, which would make them sure and steadfast, always abounding in good works, being led to glorify God.||(6:19) “Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and steadfast“|
|(5) … Ether did prophesy great and marvelous things unto the people, which they did not believe because they saw them not.(6) … faith is things which is hoped for and not seen; wherefore, dispute not because ye see not||(cf. 11:3: “so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear”)(11:1) “Now faith is the substance ofthings hoped for, the evidence ofthings not seen” (cf. 11:3).(11:4) “By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice … by which|
|for ye receive no witness not until after the trial of your faith. “by/through/because of faith” (7, 8, 10, 11, 16, 17, 22; cf. 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 19, 20, 29, 30, 31)Examples of faith:Christ manifesting himself (7-8)”they of old“Alma and Amulek (13)
Nephi and Lehi (14)
Ammon et al. (15)
three Nephite disciples (17)
Brother of Jared (20, 30)
Moroni’s ancestors (22)
Jesus’s disciples (31)
|he obtained witness that he was righteous …” (cf. 1 Pet. 1:7). “by/through faith” (11:4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33)Examples of faith:Abel (11:4)Enoch (5)Noah (7)
Abraham and Sara (8-19)
Israelites in Jericho attack (30) [p.222]
|(8) … [Christ] prepared the way that thereby others might be partakers of the heavenly gift that they might hope for those things which they have not seen||(10:20) “By a new and living way which he hath consecrated for us …”(6:4) “those … have tasted of the heavenly gift and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost” (cf. 3:1 “partakers of the heavenly calling”) (cf. 11:1)|
|11) … by faith was the law of Moses given. But in the gift of his Son hath God prepared a more excellent way …||(10:20) “By a new and living way which he hath consecrated for us …” (cf. 1:4: “more excellent name”; 8:6: “more excellent ministry”; 11:4: “more excellent sacrifice”) (See below on Ether 12:32) But cf. 1 Cor. 12:31108 [On the “law of Moses,” see Heb. 7-10.]|
|(17) And it was by faith that the three disciples obtained a promise that they should not taste of death; and they obtained not the promise until after their faith.(20) … which word he had obtained by faith. …(21) … because of the promise which the brother of Jared had obtained by faith. …(22) … it is by faith that my fathers have obtained the promise that these things should come unto their brethren through the Gentiles…||(11:33) “Who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions”109|
|19) And there were many whose faith was so exceedingly strong, even before Christ came, who could not be kept from within the veil …(21) … the brother of Jared could not longer be kept without the veil.(32) … the mansions of thy Father, in the which man might have a||(6:19) “Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul both sure and steadfast, and which entereth into that within the veil.(9:3) And after the second veil, the [p.223] tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all.(10:20) By a new and living way … through the veil, that is to say, his flesh.”|
|more excellent hope, or he cannot receive an inheritance in the place which thou hast prepared.||“more excellent” (see above on Ether 12:11); (Heb. 7:19) “better hope” (11:8) “By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went. (Cf. John 14:2-3.)”|