Toward Understanding the New TestamentToward Understanding the New Testament
Obert C. Tanner, Lewis M. Rogers, Sterling M. McMurrin

cover flaps:
This volume is designed as an introduction to the beginnings of Christianity and its early literature. The authors identify crucial questions current in biblical studies and present the reader with the views and arguments of an impressive array of highly respected scholars.

In their preface, the authors note that “the path from the Galilean Jesus of the synoptic Gospels to the risen Savior God of Paul and the pre-existent Christ of the Fourth Gospel is both intriguing and difficult. We have attempted the perhaps impossible task of engaging the reader in some involvement with a broad spectrum of insights from leading scholars, while at the same time preserving the substance of the narrative tradition that has been the historical foundation of the Christian religion … We are skeptical of the possibility of any definitive account of the events of Jesus’ ministry or the substance and meaning of his teachings. But while recognizing the innumerable disputes among historians and Bible scholars, we have tried to identify what contemporary scholarship generally regards as the most reliable traditions about what happened in the beginning of the Christian movement.”

about the authors: Obert C. Tanner is the author of New Testament Studies, The New Testament Speaks, and Christ’s Ideals for Living. He holds a juris doctor degree from the University of Utah. He studied at Harvard and Stanford Universities and was on the faculty of Religious Studies at Stanford. Tanner is a recipient of the National Medal of Arts and is the founder of the international series, “The Tanner Lectures on Human Values.” He is an Honorary Fellow of the British Academy; an Honorary Fellow of Linacre College, Oxford University; an Honorary Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge University; and Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at the University of Utah.

Lewis M. Rogers pursued biblical studies at the Pacific School of Religion and holds a Ph.D. from the Graduate School of Religion, University of Southern California. The author of several studies in biblical history and criticism, he has lectured extensively and is co-editor of And More about God. He is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Utah.

Sterling M. McMurrin, formerly on the faculty of philosophy at the University of Southern California, where he holds a Ph.D., has been a Visiting Scholar at Columbia University and Union Theological Seminary and a Ford Fellow in Philosophy at Princeton University. He was United States Commissioner of Education during the administration of President John F. Kennedy. He is the author of Religion, Reason, and Truth and co-author of A History of Philosophy, and he is E. E. Ericksen Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the University of Utah.

title page:
Toward Understanding the New Testament
Obert C. Tanner, Lewis M. Rogers, Sterling M. McMurrin
Signature Books
Salt Lake City
1990

copyright page:
© 1990 by Signature Books, Inc.
Signature Books is a registered trademark of Signature Books, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.

Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means or stored in a database or retrieval system without prior written permission of the publisher.

∞ The paper in this book is acid free and meets the standards for permanence and durability established by the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources.

On the jacket: The name ‘Jesus’ written in Hebrew on an early ossuary.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Tanner, Obert C. (Obert Clark), 1904-
Toward understanding the New Testament / Obert C. Tanner,
Lewis M. Rogers, Sterling M. McMurrin.
p. cm. Bibliography: p. Includes index.
1. Bible. N.T. –Introductions. 2. Bible. N.T.–Criticism, interpretation, etc. I. Rogers, Lewis M., 1918- . II. McMurrin, Sterling M. III. Title.
BS2330.2.T36 1990 225.7–dc19 88-22730
ISBN 0-941214-76-1

dedication page:
To those resolute scholars past and present whose commitment to reason and knowledge has brought us closer to an understanding of the New Testament

Contents
Preface [see below]

Part I. Jesus in the Gospels
01 – The Early Years
02 – The Sources
03 – The Proclamation of the Kingdom
04 – The Sermons, Miracles, and Parables
05 – The Calling and Discipleship
06 – The Question of Jesus’s Identity
07 – Jesus and the Messianic Consciousness
08 – On the Way to Jerusalem
09 – Last Days in Jerusalem
10 – The Passion and the Resurrection
11 – Jesus in the Gospel of John

Part II. Paul, Paulism, and the Early Church
12 – Paul and His Letters
13 – The Theology of Paul
14 – The Tradition of Paul
15 – The Tradition of John
16 – The Jewish Christian Tradition
17 – The Formation of the New Testament Canon
18 – Postscript

Appendices
Important Versions of the Bible
Historical Events from the Exodus to the New Testament
An Early Christian Chronology
Major Non-Canonical Christian Writings, 95-430 CE

Selected Readings [see below]

Preface

[p.ix]In 1932 Professor Tanner published New Testament Studies, a text which was revised in 1935 as The New Testament Speaks. Several decades later, after numerous reprintings, Tanner considered publishing another revised, updated version. He invited his colleagues Rogers and McMurrin to join him in this venture. But rather than a conventional revision of The New Testament Speaks, we have produced a volume which is directed to a much larger audience and which introduces the reader to many of the problems that still trouble students of the New Testament.

Needless to say, anyone interested in a serious study of the New Testament owes an immeasurable debt to the great nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century students of the Bible, those who laid the foundations for the scholarly study of both the Old and New Testaments, and to the historians of the intertestamental period and the first centuries of the Common Era who have made the world of Jesus and the early Christians known as it was never known before. Our debt is not only for the vast knowledge that has accrued because of their work but also for the canons of historiography, the techniques of linguistic analysis, and the literary and historical modes of explanation and interpretation that have issued from the work of such scholars as Strauss, Baur, Ritschl, Pfleiderer, Schürer, Weiss, and Harnack.

But where once Harnack’s treatment of Paul and the origins of Christianity and Schweitzer’s eschatological exegesis seemed like the summit of scholarly study of Jesus, Paul, and the early church, these have proven to be temporary plateaus in a climb which has no end. Even Schürer’s monumental studies on Jewish culture at the time of Jesus, while of immense and permanent value, have been surpassed by new insights and increased knowledge through the work of both Jewish and Christian historians and archaeologists.

[p.x]Our own century has yielded a more bounteous harvest of scholarly work on the New Testament than could have been anticipated in 1900, and since the Second World War the extent of research and the output of valuable studies have increased at an incredible rate. The names are legion of those exegetes, linguists, historians, and archaeologists whose analytical skills have turned up new knowledge, new problems, and new historical perspectives, new explanatory theses, and new theological and philosophical interpretations—such names as Bultmann, Barth, Baeck, Sandmel, Davies, Finkelstein, Barrett, Bornkamm, Jonas, Herford, Daube, Jeremias, Werner, Dodd, Daniélou, Albright, and Yadin.

The large outpouring of scholarly work in recent decades indicates a great increase of interest not only in the historical context of Christian beginnings but also in the character of both Palestinian and Diaspora Judaism at the time of the destruction of the Second Temple to the completion of the Talmuds. This interest extends not only to the political, economic, and ideational backgrounds of the rise of the church and of the character of sectarian and Rabbinical Judaism but also to the entire spectrum of philosophical, moral, and religious ideas that pervaded the eastern Roman world at that time. The fortunate discoveries of the Nag Hammadi codices and the Qumran scrolls have not only provided increased knowledge but, together with the impressive work over recent decades by biblical archaeologists, have been a powerful stimulus to linguistic, literary, and historical research.

The result has been an important extension of our knowledge not only of Jewish and early Christian beliefs and practices but of the general character of the hellenistic culture of the period of Jesus and the primitive Christians. Light has been thrown on the possible relationship to Christian beginnings of Essenism, Pharisaism, Greek philosophic thought, Gnosticism, the Rabbinical religion, and even the eastern Mediterranean mystery religions.

In our research and writing, we have been influenced by the powerful thrust of eschatology which Schweitzer gave to the interpretation of the Gospels and Paul, as well as his treatment of the mysticism of Paul. And the impact of the form criticism in the treatment of the Gospels that issued especially from the work of [p.xi]Weiss will be evident, as well as the more recent demythologizing of the entire New Testament associated especially with Bultmann. But we are sensitive to the problems occasioned by changing scholarly fashions and the somewhat tentative character of even well-supported theses, and our writing has been tempered accordingly.

We agree with those historians who hold the now common view that the Gospels have seriously distorted the picture of Judaism at the time of Jesus, especially of the Pharisees and his relation to them, as well as the relation of the earliest Palestinian Christians to the Jewish religion generally. We have given much attention to this matter, describing the relations of Christians and Jews at a later time when the Gospels were written.

We have analyzed in some detail the several types of New Testament literature representative of the Pauline and Johannine as well as the Jewish or Petrine forms of the early religion. Here we have described the differences as well as continuities and commonalities of these early faiths. And, of course, we have given attention to the gnostic and hellenistic influences on the New Testament books, especially the Fourth Gospel and, to a lesser degree, the theology of Paul.

The path from the Galilean Jesus of the synoptic Gospels to the risen Savior God of Paul and the pre-existent Christ of the Fourth Gospel is both intriguing and difficult. We have attempted the perhaps impossible task of engaging the reader in some involvement with a broad spectrum of insights from leading scholars, while at the same time preserving the substance of the narrative tradition that has been the historical foundation of the Christian religion.

We are skeptical of the possibility of any definitive account of the events of Jesus’s ministry or the substance and meaning of his teachings. But while recognizing the innumerable disputes among historians and Bible scholars, we have tried to identify what contemporary scholarship generally regards as the most reliable traditions about what happened in the beginning of the Christian movement.

We have assumed that the typical reader will already have some acquaintance with the New Testament. All biblical references are to the Revised Standard Version, which enjoys an unsurpassed reputation among scholars as an English version of the [p.xii]Bible and Apocrypha. We have used this version with the permission of the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America.

We represent different viewpoints relative to specific interpretations of New Testament data, but in general we are in fundamental agreement. Especially, we agree in our effort to avoid any influence from religious or theological predisposition in our treatment of the historical materials, and we have made a serious attempt to understand both Jesus and Paul as living persons to be treated as belonging to their own time and place and circumstance. We do not describe or interpret them in terms of events or prophecies that lie in their past, or religious attitudes and beliefs that belong to their future. Both the writers of the New Testament and many of its interpreters have been victims of such bias. While recognizing that total objectivity in historical study is not possible, we have made a strenuous effort to free our study of the New Testament from the distortions that sometimes result from religious or non-religious belief.

This attitude should not be taken as a failure to recognize the piety of the writers of the Gospels, the great intellect and spirituality of the Apostle Paul, or his remarkable impact on subsequent history. And certainly our naturalistic disposition in the reading of the Gospels does not in the least diminish our reverence for Jesus and our appreciation for his spiritual and moral message and influence, or our respect for the religious tradition that issued from his life and death.

We are greatly indebted to Stan Larson for his careful reading of both the text and the notes. Denice Bowman and Dionne Williams have exhibited exceptional talent in preparing the manuscript, and Jacqueline Jacobsen has given valuable assistance in many ways. Donald M. Henriksen has enhanced the volume with his fine design and typography, and Trudy McMurrin has brought editorial expertise to the final reading of the proofs.
University of Utah, 1990

OBERT C. TANNER
LEWIS M. ROGERS
STERLING M. MCMURRIN

Selected Readings

[p.433]Many of the readings suggested here relate to several of the subject categories listed. The titles are given only once, however, under the heading where their relevance is most evident.

A few of these books were written in the early part of this century and a very limited number in the nineteenth century. These have been included because they are classics in their fields which have had a large impact on subsequent scholarship—works such as those by David Strauss, Johannes Weiss, Albert Schweitzer, and George Foot Moore. Included also, of course, are ancient writers such as Josephus, Philo, and Eusebius.

Most of the readings have been published during the remarkably productive era of New Testament scholarship from the Second World War to the present. They represent the recent and contemporary work of major scholars in the exposition and analysis of numerous critical problems in the study of the New Testament. They are readily available in English, and wherever possible, the dates of publication given are for the most recent editions or printings.

A. Historical Background

Avi-Yonah, Michael, ed. The Herodian Period. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1975.

Bright, John. A History of Israel. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1972.

Bultmann, Rudolf. Primitive Christianity in Its Contemporary Setting. Trans. by R. H. Fuller. New York: Meridian Books, 1956.

Epstein, Isidore. Judaism: A Historical Presentation. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1959.

Grant, Michael. The Jews in the Roman World. New York: Dorset Press, 1984.

Jagersma, Henk. A History of Israel from Alexander the Great to Bar Kochba. Trans. by John Bowden. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986.

[p.434]Jeremias, Joachim. Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus. Trans. by F. H. Cave and C. H. Cave. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975.

Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. Books I-IV, V-VIII trans. by H. St. J. Thackeray. Books IX-XI, XII-XIV, XV-XVII trans. by Ralph Marcus. Books XVIII-XX trans. by H. Feldman. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1930; rpt. ed., 1976-81.

__________. The Jewish War. Trans. by G. A. Williamson; rev. ed. by E. Mary Smallwood. New York: Penguin Books, 1981.

Neusner, Jacob. Judaism in the Beginning of Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.

Noth, Martin. The History of Israel. 2d ed. Trans. from the German by P. R. Ackroyd. New York: Harper & Row, 1960.

Pfeiffer, Robert H. History of New Testament Times; With an Introduction to the Apocrypha. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949.

Russell, D. S. The Jews from Alexander to Herod. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Safrai, S., and M. Stern. The Jewish People in the First Century. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1974-76.

Sandmel, Samuel. Herod: Profile of a Tyrant. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1967.

Schalit, Abraham, ed. The Hellenistic Age: Political History of Jewish Palestine from 332 BCE to 67 CE. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1972.

Schürer, Emil. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, Vol. 1. Rev. and ed. by G. Vermes and Fergus Miller. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1973.

Smallwood, E. Mary. The Jews under Roman Rule; From Pompey to Diocletian. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1976.

Zeitlin, Solomon. The Rise and Fall of the Judaean State. Vol. 1: 372-37 BCE; vol. 2: 37 BCE-66 CE; vol. 3: 66 CE-120 CE. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1962-78.

B. General Introduction to the New Testament

Bruce, F. F. New Testament History. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1972.

Davies, W. D. Invitation to the New Testament. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969.

Fuller, Reginald H. A Critical Introduction to the New Testament. London: Duckworth, 1966.

[p.435]Grant, Robert M. A Historical Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.

Harvey, A. E. The New English Bible Companion to the New Testament. Cambridge: Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Kee, Howard C., F. Young, and K. Forelich. Understanding the New Testament. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983.

Koester, Helmut. History and Literature of Early Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982.

Kümmel, Werner G. Introduction to the New Testament. Rev. ed. Trans. by H. C. Koe. New York: Abingdon Press, 1973.

Marxen, Willi. Introduction to the New Testament. Trans. by G. Buswell. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1968.

Perrin, Norman, and Dennis C. Duling. The New Testament: An Introduction. 2d ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982.

C. The Jewish Religion in the Time of Jesus

Baeck, Leo. The Pharisees and Other Essays. New York: Schocken Books, 1947; rpt, 1966.

Danby, Herbert. The Mishnah. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Edersheim, Alfred. The Temple: Its Ministry and Services. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1982. (Rpt. of an early classic.)

Finkelstein, Louis. The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1962.

__________, ed. The Jews: Their History. New York: Schocken Books, 1977.

Herford, R. Travers. The Pharisees. Boston: Beacon Press, 1962.

__________. Talmud and Apocrypha. New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1971.

Moore, George Foot. Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era: The Age of the Tannaim, vol. 2. New York: Schocken Books, 1975. (Recent ed. of a classic book.)

Neusner, J. The Rabbinic Tradition about the Pharisees before 70. 3 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971.

Schürer, Emil. The Literature of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus. Ed. by Nahum N. Glatzer. New York: Schocken Books, 1972. (Recent ed. of an early classic.)

Stone, Michael E., ed. Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. Assen: Van Gorcum; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.

[p.436]D. Jesus and the Jews

Brandon, S. G. F. Jesus and the Zealots: A Study of the Political Factor in Primitive Christianity. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1967; New York: Charles Scribner, 1968.

Charlesworth, James H. Jesus within Judaism: New Light from Exciting Archaeological Discoveries. New York: Doubleday, 1988.

Klausner, Joseph. Jesus of Nazareth. Translated by Herbert Danby. New York: Menorah, 1979.

Vermes, Geza. Jesus the Jew. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981.

__________. Jesus and the World of Judaism. London: SCM Press, 1986.

E. Jesus and His Teachings

Bornkamm, Günther. Jesus of Nazareth. Trans. by Irene McLuskey and Fraser McLuskey with James M. Robinson. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1960; New York: Harper & Row, 1975.

Brown, Raymond E. The Birth of the Messiah. New York: Image Books, 1979.

Davies, W. D. The Sermon on the Mount. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966.

Dodd, Charles H. The Founder of Christianity. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

__________. The Parables of the Kingdom. Rev. ed. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1961.

Enslin, Morton S. The Prophet from Nazareth. New York: Schocken Books, 1968.

Goguel, Maurice. The Life of Jesus. Trans. by Olive Wyon. New York: Macmillan, 1949.

Jeremias, Joachim. The Parables of Jesus. 6th ed. Trans. by S. H. Hooks. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1963.

__________. The Sermon on the Mount. Trans. by N. Perrin. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1963.

Kelber, Werner H. The Kingdom in Mark: A New Place and a New Time. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1974.

Manson, T. W. The Sayings of Jesus. London: SCM Press, 1961.

Perrin, Norman. The Kingdom of God in the Teachings of Jesus. London: SCM Press, 1963.

Saunders, Ernest W. Jesus in the Gospels. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967.

[p.437]Schweitzer, Albert. The Quest of the Historical Jesus. Trans. by W. Montgomery, with a new introduction by James M. Robinson. New York: Macmillan, 1964. (Recent ed. of an old classic.)

Smith, Morton. Jesus the Magician. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1981.

Strauss, David F. The Life of Jesus Critically Examined. First German ed., 1835. Trans. from the 4th ed. by George Eliot. Ed. by Peter C. Hodgson. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1972.

Tödt, H. E. The Son of Man in the Synoptic Tradition. Trans. by Dorothea M. Barton. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1965.

Weiss, Johannes. Jesus’ Proclamation of the Kingdom of God. Trans. and ed. by Richard H. Hiers and David L. Holland. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971. (Recent ed. of an old classic.)

F. The Synoptic Gospels

Bornkamm, Günther, Gerhard Barth, and H. J. Held. Tradition and Interpretation in Matthew. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1963.

Caird, G. B. The Gospel of Saint Luke. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1963; rpt. ed., 1975.

Conzelmann, H. The Theology of St. Luke. Trans. by H. Buswell. New York: Harper & Row, 1960.

Fenton, John C. The Gospel of St. Matthew. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1963; rpt. ed., 1976.

Grant, Michael. Jesus: An Historian’s Review of the Gospels. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1977.

Kee, Howard C. Jesus in History: An Approach to the Study of the Gospels. 2d ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.

Kelber, Werner H. Mark’s Story of Jesus. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979.

Nineham, D. E. St. Mark. Westminster Pelican Commentaries. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978.

Stendahl, Krister. The School of St. Matthew. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1968.

Taylor, Vincent. The Gospel According to St. Mark. London: Macmillan, 1952.

Throckmorton, Burton H., Jr., ed. Gospel Parallels: A Synopsis of the First Three Gospels. 4th ed. rev. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1979.

G. The Gospel of John

Barrett, Charles K. The Gospel of John and Judaism. Trans. by D. M. Smith. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975.

[p.438 __________. The Gospel According to St. John. 2d ed. New York: Westminster John Knox, 1978.

Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. Trans. by G. R. Beasley-Murray et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971.

Charlesworth, James H., ed. John and Qumran. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1972.

Colwell, E. C., and E. Titus. The Gospel of the Spirit: A Study in the Fourth Gospel. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1953.

Dodd, C. H. The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953.

Martyn, J. L. History and Theology in the Fourth Gospel. 2d ed. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1979.

Smith, D. M. The Composition and Order of the Fourth Gospel. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.

Titus, Eric L. The Message of the Fourth Gospel. New York: Abingdon Press, 1957.

H. The Trial, Crucifixion, and Resurrection

Fuller, R. H. The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives. New York: Macmillan, 1971.

Kelber, Werner, ed. The Passion in Mark. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976.

Marxen, Willi. The Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1970.

Perrin, N. The Resurrection According to Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977.

Winter, Paul. On the Trial of Jesus. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1961.

Zeitlin, Solomon. Who Crucified Jesus? 2d ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1947.

I. Hellenism, Judaism, and Christianity

Atiya, Aziz S. A History of Eastern Christianity. London: Methuen, 1968; rpt. ed., Millwood, NY: Kraus Reprints, 1980.

Baeck, Leo. The Essence of Judaism. New York: Schocken Books, 1948.

__________. Judaism and Christianity. Trans. by Walter Kaufmann. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.

Bréhier, Emile. The Hellenistic and Roman Age. Trans. by Wade Baskin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Buber, Martin. Two Types of Faith. Trans. by Norman P. Goldhawk. New York: Harper & Row, 1961.

[p.439]Bultmann, Rudolf. Primitive Christianity in Its Contemporary Setting. Trans. by R. H. Fuller. New York: Meridian Books, The World Publishing Company, 1956.

Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1975.

Clemen, Carl. Primitive Christianity and Its Non-Jewish Sources. Trans. by R. G. Nisbet. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1912.

Cochrane, Charles Norris. Christianity and Classical Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1957.

Daniélou, Jean. A History of Early Christian Doctrine Before the Council of Nicaea. 3 vols. Trans. by John A. Baker. Vol. 2, Gospel Message and Hellenistic Culture. London: Darton, Longman, and Todd; Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1973.

Daube, David. The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism. London: Athlone Press, University of London, 1956.

Eliade, Mircea. A History of Religious Ideas. Vol. 2, From Gautama Buddha to the Triumph of Christianity. Trans. by W. R. Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Glatzer, Nahum N., ed. The Essential Philo. New York: Schocken Books, 1971.

Grant, Frederick C., ed. Hellenistic Religions. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1953.

Hatch, Edwin. The Influence of Greek Ideas on Christianity. New York: Harper & Bros., 1957. (Rpt. of an old classic.)

Hengel, Martin. Judaism and Hellenism. Trans. by John Bowden. 2 vols. London: SCM Press, 1974; 1-vol. ed., 1981.

Jaeger, Werner. Early Christianity and Greek Paideia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Koester, Helmut. History, Culture, and Religion of the Hellenistic Age. Trans. by Helmut Koester. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982.

Long, A. A., and D. N. Sedley. The Hellenistic Philosophers. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Nock, Arthur Darby. Early Gentile Christianity and Its Hellenistic Background. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

Peters, F. E. The Harvest of Hellenism. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970.

Rivkin, Ellis. The Shaping of Jewish History. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1971.

Sandmel, Samuel. The First Christian Century in Judaism and Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

[p.440]__________. Judaism and Christian Beginnings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978, 1980.

__________. Philo of Alexandria: An Introduction. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Tarn, W. W. Hellenistic Civilization. Rev. ed. New York: New American Library, 1952, 1961.

Tcherikover, Victor. Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews. Trans. by S. Applebaum. New York: Atheneurn, 1970.

Wolfson, Harry A. Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. 3d ed., rev. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.

J. Paul and His Theology

Bornkamm, Günther. Paul. Trans. by D. M. G. Stalker. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.

Davies, W. D. Jewish and Pauline Studies. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.

__________. Paul and Rabbinic Judaism. London: SPCK, 1979.

Grant, Michael. Saint Paul. New York: Crossroad, 1982.

Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.

Sanders, E. P. Paul and Palestinian Judaism. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983.

Sandmel, Samuel. The Genius of Paul: A Study in History. New York: Schocken Books, 1970.

Schoeps, H. J. Paul: The Theology of the Apostle in the Light of Jewish Religious History. Trans. by Harold Knight. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1961.

Schweitzer, Albert. The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle. Trans. by William Montgomery. New York: Seabury Press, 1968. (Recent ed. of an old classic.)

Ziesler, John A. Pauline Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

K. The Early Church and Its Theology

Bauer, Walter. Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity. Trans. by a team of scholars and ed. by R. A. Kraft and G. Krodel. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971.

Bultmann, Rudolf. Theology of the New Testament. Trans. by Kendrick Grobel. 2 vols. London: SCM Press, vol. 1, 1952; vol. 2, 1955.

[p.441]Cullmann, Oscar. Christ and Time. Rev. ed. Trans. by Floyd V. Filson. London: SCM Press, 1967.

__________. Solution in History. Trans. by Sidney G. Sowers. London: SCM Press, 1967.

Eusebius, Pamphilus. Ecclesiastical History. Trans. by Christian Frederick Cruse. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1976. (Recent pub. of an old classic.)

Frend, W. H. C. The Rise of Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.

Goguel, Maurice. Jesus and the Origins of Christianity. Trans. by Olive Wyon. New York: Macmillan, 1933; ppb. ed., New York: Harper, 1960.

__________. The Primitive Church. Trans. by H. C. Shape. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1964.

Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian Doctrines. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1968.

__________. Early Christian Creeds. 3d ed. New York: Longman, 1985.

Koester, Helmut. History and Literature of Early Christianity. Trans. by Helmut Koester. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982.

Lietzmann, Hans. A History of the Early Church. Vol. 1. Trans. by Bertram L. Woolf. Cleveland: Meridian Books, World Publishing Co., 1937.

MacMullen, Ramsay. Christianizing the Roman Empire. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1984.

Meeks, Wayne A. The First Urban Christians. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.

Moule, C. F. D. The Origin of Christology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Vol. 1, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition, 100-600. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Schillebeeckx, Edward. Jesus: An Experiment in Christology. Trans. by Hubert Hoskins. New York: Vintage, 1981.

Tennant, F. R. The Sources of the Doctrines of the Fall and Original Sin. New York: Schocken Books, 1968.

Weiss, Johannes. Earliest Christianity: A History of the Period A.D. 30-150. 2 vols. Trans. by F. C. Grant and others. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1959. (Rpt. of an early classic.)

Wolfson, Harry Austryn. The Philosophy of the Church Fathers. Vol. 1, Faith, Trinity, Incarnation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956.

[p.442]L. Apocrypha, Apocalypse, and Eschatology

Charles, R. H. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1913, 1965-68. (Rpt. of a standard work.)

__________. A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, and in Christianity. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1899. (An old classic.)

Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2 vols. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983, 1985.

__________. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

James, M. R. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1953.

Klausner, Joseph. The Messianic Idea in Israel. Trans. from the Third Hebrew Edition by W. F. Stinespring. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1956.

Otto, R. The Kingdom of God and the Son of Man. Rev. ed. Trans. by F. V. Filson and B. Lee-Woolf. London: Butterworth, 1943.

Rowley, H. H. The Relevance of Apocalyptic. Rev. ed. New York: Association Press, 1964.

Schneemelcher, E., ed. New Testament Apocrypha. Vol. 1, The Gospels. Trans. and ed. by R. M. Wilson. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1963.

Schweitzer, Albert. The Mystery of the Kingdom of God. Trans. by W. Lowrie. New York: Schocken Books, 1964.

Silver, Abba Hillel. A History of Messianic Speculation in Israel. Boston: Beacon Press, 1927, 1959.

Stone, Michael E., ed. Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. Philadelphia: Fortress Press; Assen: Van Gorcum, 1984.

Wilder, A. Eschatology and Ethics in the Teaching of Jesus. Rev. ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1950.

M. The Dead Sea Scriptures

Burrows, Millar. Burrows on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Includes The Dead Sea Scrolls and More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1978.

Cross, Frank M., Jr. The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Biblical Studies. 2d ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1980.

Gaster, Theodor H. The Dead Sea Scriptures. 2d ed. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1976.

Rabin, Chaim. Qumran Studies. New York: Schocken Books, 1975.

[p.443]Vermes, Geza. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective. Cleveland: William Collins & World Publishing Co., 1978.

Yadin, Yigael. The Temple Scroll: The Hidden Law of the Dead Sea Sect. New York: Random House, 1985.

N. Gnosticism and Christianity

Grant, Robert M. Gnosticism and Early Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1959, 1966.

Hedrick, Charles W., and Robert Hodgson, Jr., eds. Nag Hammadi, Gnosticism, and Early Christianity. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1986.

Jonas, Hans. The Gnostic Religion. 2d ed., rev. Boston: Beacon Press, 1958, 1967.

Pagels, Elaine. The Gnostic Gospels. New York: Vintage Random House, 1981.

Robinson, James M., gen. ed. The Nag Hammadi Library. In English. Trans. by Members of the Coptic Gnostic Library Project of the Institute for Antiquity and Christianity, Claremont, CA. 3d ed., rev. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988.

Rudolph, Kurt. Gnosis. Trans. by Robert M. Wilson. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983.

O. Mystery Religions
Angus, Samuel. The Mystery Religions. New York: Dover Publications, 1975.

Campbell, Joseph, ed. The Mysteries. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978.

Cumont, Franz. Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism. Authorized trans. New York: Dover Publications, 1956.

Ferguson, John. The Religions of the Roman Empire. London: Thames and Hudson, 1982.

Meyer, Marvin W., ed. The Ancient Mysteries: A Source Book. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987.

Reitzenstein, Richard. Hellenistic Mystery Religions: Their Basic Ideas and Significance. Trans. by J. E. Steely. Pittsburgh: Pickwick Press, 1978.

P. Materials for the Study of the New Testament

Austin, M. M. The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest: A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

[p.444]Barrett, Charles K., ed. The New Testament Background: Selected Documents. New York: Macmillan, 1957.

Beare, Francis W. The Earliest Records of Jesus. New York: Abingdon Press, 1962.

Bruce, F. F. Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1977.

Bultmann, Rudolf. History of the Synoptic Tradition. Trans. by John Marsh. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.

Cartlidge, David R., and David L. Dungan, eds. Documents for the Study of the Gospels. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980.

Edwards, R. A. A Theology of “Q”: Eschatology, Prophecy, and Wisdom. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976.

Hengel, Martin. Acts and the History of Earliest Christianity. Trans. by John Bowden. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980.

Keck, L. E., and J. L. Martyn, eds. Studies in Luke-Acts. Rpt. ed. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980.

Metzger, Bruce M. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964. 2d ed., 1968.

Stevenson, J., ed. A New Eusebius: Documents Illustrating the History of the Church to AD 337. Rev. by W. H. C. Frend. London: SPCK, 1987.

Q. Critical Studies

Bultmann, Rudolf. Jesus Christ and Mythology. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1958.

__________, and Five Critics. Kerygma and Myth. Ed. by Hans W. Bartsch. New York: Harper & Row, 1961.

Dibelius, Martin. From Tradition to Gospel. Trans. from the 2d rev. ed. by Bertrom L. Wolff. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935.

Fuller, R. H. Interpreting the Miracles. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1963.

Gast, Frederick. “Synoptic Problem.” In The Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. by J. A. Fitzmyer and R. E. Brown. Vol. 2. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

Harnack, Adolf. What Is Christianity? Trans. by T. B. Saunders. New York: Harper & Row, 1957.

Jaspers, Karl, and Rudolf Bultmann. Myth and Christianity. New York: Noonday Press, 1966.

Kselman, John S. “Modern New Testament Criticism.” In The Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. by J. A. Fitzmyer and R. E. Brown. Vol. 2. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

[p.445]McKnight, Edgar V. What Is Form Criticism? Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1969.

Ogden, Schubert M. Christ Without Myth: A Study Based on the Theology of Rudolf Bultmann. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1979; rpt. ed., 1985.

Perrin, Norman. What Is Redaction Criticism? Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1969.

R. Formation of the Canon

Ackroyd, P. R., and C. F. Evans, eds. The Cambridge History of the Bible. Vol. 1, From the Beginnings to Jerome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970, 1980.

Farmer, William R., and Denis M. Farkasfalvy. The Formation of the New Testament Canon. Ramsay, NJ: Paulist Press, 1983.

Grant, Robert M. The Formation of the New Testament. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.

Moule, C. F. D. The Birth of the New Testament. 3d ed., rev. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1982.

Turro, James C., and Raymond E. Brown. “Canonicity.” In The Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. by J. A. Fitzmyer and R. E. Brown. Vol. 2. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

von Campenhausen, Hans. The Formation of the Christian Bible. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977.

S. Commentaries

The Encyclopedia of Religion. 16 vols. Mircea Eliade, editor-in-chief. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

The Interpreter’s Bible. 12 vols. Ed. by George A. Buttrick. New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1951.

The Interpreter’s One-Volume Commentary on the Bible. Ed. by Charles M. Laymon. Nashville and New York: Abingdon Press, 1971.

The Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. by J. A. Fitzmyer and R. E. Brown. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

Léon Dufour, Xavier. Dictionary of the New Testament. Trans. by Terrence Prendergast. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983.

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. by F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. London: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Peak’s Commentary on the Bible. 1 vol. Ed. by M. Black and H. H. Rowley. London and New York: Nelson & Sons, 1962.

[p.446]T. Bible Atlases

Aharoni, Yohanan, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. 2d ed. New York: Macmillan, 1977.

Karmon, Y. Israel: A Regional Geography. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1971.

May, Herbert G., ed. Oxford Bible Atlas. Revised for the 3d ed. by John Day. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Pritchard, James B., gen. ed. The Harper Atlas of the Bible. San Francisco and New York: Harper & Row, 1987.